The ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreement Framework: Challenges and Prospect for the Philippines
The ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreement Framework: Challenges and Prospect for the PhilippinesSecond Tourism Human Resources Congress“Building Tourism Human Capital for GlobalCompetitiveness”2 October 2012
ASEAN Profile (2010) Land Area: 4,435,670 sqkm Population: 598 million Population as World Population: 8% GDP: USD 1,850,855 million (current market price) GDP Per Capita: USD 3,092
Employment in Travel andTourism in ASEAN The T&T sector plays an important role in the overall ASEAN economy. It is estimated to account for 4.6 percent of ASEAN GDP and 10.9 percent when taking into account all indirect contributions. It directly employs 9.3 million people, or 3.2 percent of total employment, and indirectly supports some 25 million jobs (Source: The ASEAN Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2012)
Share of InternationalVisitor Arrivals to ASEAN2011
Background on AEC and establishment of MRAASEAN ECONOMICCOMMUNITY AND MRA
ASEAN COMMUNITY• At the 12th ASEAN Summit in January 2007, the Leaders affirmed their strong commitment to accelerate the establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015 as envisioned in the ASEAN Vision 2020 and the ASEAN Concord II, and signed the Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015.• In particular, the Leaders agreed to hasten the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 and to transform ASEAN into a region with free movement of goods, services, investment, skilled labour, and freer flow of capital.
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)• The AEC will establish ASEAN as a single market and production base making ASEAN more dynamic and competitive with new mechanisms and measures to strengthen the implementation of its existing economic initiatives• accelerating regional integration in the priority sectors• facilitating movement of business persons, skilled labour and talents• strengthening the institutional mechanisms of ASEAN
Free Flow of Services• In facilitating the free flow of services by 2015, ASEAN is also working towards recognition of professional qualifications with a view to facilitate their movement within the region. • Complete mutual recognition arrangements (MRAs) currently under negotiation, i.e. architectural services, accountancy services, surveying qualifications, medical practitioners by 2008, and dental practitioners by 2009 • Remove substantially all restrictions on trade in services for 4 priority services sectors, air transport, e-ASEAN, healthcare and tourism, by 2010 • Develop core competencies and qualifications for job/occupational and trainers skills required in the priority services sectors (by 2009);
Free Flow of Skilled Labour Facilitate the issuance of visas and employment passes for ASEAN professionals and skilled labour who are engaged in cross- border trade and investment related activities Develop core competencies and qualifications for job/occupational and trainers skills required in the priority services sectors (by 2009); and in other services sectors (from 2010 to 2015) Strengthen the research capabilities of each ASEAN Member Country in terms of promoting skills, job placements, and developing labour market information networks among ASEAN Member Countries.
ASEAN Framework Agreement onServices, Article V on MutualRecognition Each Member State may recognise the education or experience obtained, requirements met, or licenses or certifications granted in another Member State, for the purpose of licensing or certification of service suppliers. Such recognition may be based upon an agreement or arrangement with the Member State concerned or may be accorded autonomously.
STATUS OF LIBERALISATION OF TOURISM SERVICES (2012) Travel Agencies Hotel Food Serving Beverage Serving Tourist Guides Other Tourism Country & Tour Operators (CPC 641) (CPC 642) (CPC 643) (CPC 7472) Services (CPC 7471)Philippines M1&2: None M1&2: None M1&2: None M1&2: None No commitment No commitment M3: None, except 100% foreign 100% foreign Foreign equity cap as in horizontal equity allowed for equity allowed for at 60% paid-up capital of paid-up capital of US$2.5 million US$2.5 million
Modes of Supply Cross-border supply is defined to cover services flows from the territory of one Member into the territory of another Member (e.g. banking or architectural services transmitted via telecommunications or mail); Consumption abroad refers to situations where a service consumer (e.g. tourist or patient) moves into another Members territory to obtain a service; Commercial presence implies that a service supplier of one Member establishes a territorial presence, including through ownership or lease of premises, in another Members territory to provide a service (e.g. domestic subsidiaries of foreign insurance companies or hotel chains); and Presence of natural persons consists of persons of one Member entering the territory of another Member to supply a service (e.g. accountants, doctors or teachers). The Annex on Movement of Natural Persons specifies, however, that Members remain free to operate measures regarding citizenship, residence or access to the employment market on a permanent basis.
Successor of Roadmap for Integration of TourismSector 2004-2010ASEAN TOURISMSTRATEGIC PLAN 2011-2015
ASEAN Tourism Agreement(2002) • Formulating non-restrictive arrangements to enable ASEAN Member States to make use of professional tourism experts and skilled workers available within the region • Upgrading tourism education curricula and skills and formulating competency standards and certification procedures, thus eventually leading to mutual recognition of skills and qualifications in the ASEAN region
VisionBy 2015, ASEAN will provide an increasing number of visitors to the region with authentic and diverse products, enhanced connectivity, a safe and secure environment, increased quality of services, while at the same time ensuring an increased quality of lifeand opportunities for residents through responsible and sustainable tourism development by working effectively with a wide range of stakeholders. Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Development All strategic directions and actions in the ATSP are guided by responsible and sustainable tourism principles recognizing the significant role that tourism plays in poverty reduction, climate change, gender and minority issues, capacity building, cultural preservation and natural conservation. Directions 1. Develop Strategic 2. Strategically Experiential 3. Enhance and Increase the Quality Regional Products & Accelerate Travel of Services and Creative Marketing & Facilitation and Human Resources in Investment ASEAN Connectivity the Region Strategies 1.1 Develop and implement 2.1 Develop a set of ASEAN 3.1 Advocate for a tourism marketing tourism standards with a a single visa for the ASEAN strategy for the ASEAN certification process region Strategic Actions region 1.2 Develop 3.2 Work with other ASEAN Experiential and creative 2.2 Implement the MRA on bodies to expand regional/sub regional ASEAN Tourism connectivity through air, circuits & packages Professionals and its water, rail and ground together with investment requirements transportation strategies 1.3 Enhance the external 2.3 Provide opportunities relation policies and for increase knowledge and procedures of ASEAN skill development tourism
Strategic Direction 22. Strategically Increase the Quality ofServices and Human Resources in the Region 2.2 Implement the MRA on ASEAN Tourism Professionals and its requirements
MRA ON TOURISMPROFESSIONALS ANDITS DEVELOPMENT
Objectives To facilitate mobility of Tourism Professionals; and To exchange information on best practices in competency-based education and training for Tourism Professionals and to provide opportunities for cooperation and capacity building across ASEAN Member States.
Benefits of MRA on Tourism Professionals Facilitate mobility of tourism professionals based on the tourism competency qualification/ certificate Enhance conformity of the competency based training/education Skills recognition Improve the quality of tourism human resources (graduates are ready to work in the industry) Enhance the quality of tourism services
Recognition and Eligibility The qualification of a Foreign Tourism Professional may be recognised by other ASEAN Member States, and if such qualification is recognised, he/she may be eligible to work in a host country provided that he/she possesses a valid tourism competency certificate in a specific tourism job title as specified in the ACCSTP, issued by the TPCB in an ASEAN Member State. The eligibility to work in a host country will be subjected to prevailing domestic laws and regulations of the host country.
Mechanism of MRA on Tourism Professionals ATPMC NTPB A NTPB B Country A ATPRS Country B Job Seeker Job Registration OpportunitiesAssessment Certification Verification TPCB Matching Matrix [CATC] NTPB Job Interview Work Permit
Infrastructure Required for MRAon Tourism Professionals Common Competency Standards for Tourism Professionals Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum (CATC) Framework of Curriculum Description of Curriculum Regional Qualification Framework and Skills Recognition System (RQFSRS) Toolboxes Regional Organizations Regional Monitoring Body (ASEAN Tourism Professional Monitoring Committee) Regional Secretariat National Organizations Tourism Professional Certification Board (TPCB) National Tourism Professionals Board (NTPB) ASEAN Tourism Professionals Registration System (a web-based facility)
Hotel Services Front Office 1. Executive Chef 1. Front Office Manager 2. Demi Chef 2. Front Office Supervisor 3. Commis Chef 3. Receptionist 4. Chef de Partie 4. Telephone Operator 5. Commis Pastry 5. Bell Boy 6. Baker House Keeping 7. Butcher 1. Executive Housekeeper Food and Beverage Service 2. Laundry Manager 1. F&B Director 3. Floor Supervisor 2. F&B Outlet Manager 4. Laundry Attendant 3. Head Waiter 5. Room Attendant 4. Bartender 6. Public Area Cleaner 5. Waiter Food Production
Travel Services ◦ Travel Agencies 1. General Manger 2. Assistant General Manager 3. Senior Travel Consultant 4. Travel Consultant ◦ Tour Operation 1. Product Manager 2. Sales and Marketing Manager 3. Credit Manager 4. Ticketing Manager 5. Tour Manager
CATC & RQFSRS – Design Principles Structured but flexible ◦ With clearly defined levels of qualifications: 5 levels across 6 labour divisions ◦ Curriculum and Qualifications are mapped with job functions and levels. Managers & Senior Managers Supervisors Other higher Education Advanced Diploma Qualifications Diploma Advanced Diploma Line Staff Certificate IV Diploma Certificate III Certificate IV Certificate IV Certificate III Certificate III Certificate II Certificate II Certificate II Certificate II 27
CATC & RQFSRS – Design Principles 5 levels of Qualifications & Level IndicatorsFramework Level IndicatorLevelLevel 5 - Sophisticated, broad and specialised competence with seniorAdvanced management skillsDiplomaLevel 4 - Specialised competence with managerial skillsDiplomaLevel 3 - Greater technical competence with supervisory skillsCertificate IVLevel 2 - Broad range of skills in more varied context and team leaderCertificate III responsibilitiesLevel 1 - Basic, routine skills in a defined contextCertificate II 28
CATC & RQFSRS – DesignPrinciples Advanced DiplomaQualifications Framework Diploma Increased competencies Cert IV Cert III Cert II Time (approx) 3 mths 6mths 1 yr 1.5 yr 2 yr Competencies increased by adding more functional competencies and core and generic competencies Focus on competencies, not program duration 29
Level Example of Food & Beverage Qualifications CATC & RQFSRS – Design Advanced Diploma 5 C & G Competencies (13 + 6 + 2 + 1 units) Principles (cont) + F Competencies (10 + 4 + 4 +6 +5 units) Common core is made up of core and generic Diploma competencies as the 4 C & G Competencies (13 + 6 + 2 +1 units) foundation of each labour + F Competencies (10 + 4 + 4 +6 units) division at the entry level, progress with more competencies when moving Certificate IV through higher qualifications C & G Competencies (13 + 6 + 2 units) 3 + Example of the Food & F Competencies Beverage qualifications (10 + 4 + 4 units) No of units ADDED as Certificate III C & G Competencies progressing through levels of (13 + 6 units) qualifications 2 + F Competencies (10 + 4 units) C & G = Core & Generic Competencies Certificate II (Incorporating Certificate I) F competencies =„functional‟ C & G Competencies (13 units) competencies + 1 F Competencies (10 units) 30
In order to fully implement the MRA on Tourism Professionals, Capacity Development program will need to be implemented based on the timelines. The activities the Capacity Development program shall cover: 1.Review of ACCSTP Framework and Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum 2.Development of Training Tool Box, including training system, training model, training material and learning material as well as assessment material.
3. Development of Train of Trainer (TOT) Program for Master Trainer, Trainers, Master Assessors and Assessors.4. Design and prepare (build) the ASEAN Tourism Professional Registration System (ATPRS) including the ASEAN Qualifications Equivalent Matrix.5. Establishment of ATPMC (ASEAN Tourism Professional Monitoring Committee) and representatives of each member states in ATPMC.6. Assistance to the Least Develop Country (LDC) in implementing MRA on Tourism Professionals.7. Establishment of Regional Secretariat to facilitate the implementation of MRA on Tourism Professionals
Ongoing Projects (2012) Toolbox Development for Priority Tourism Labour Division (46 toolboxes) Training for ASEAN Master Trainer and ASEAN Master Assessor for Housekeeping Division Gap Analysis for the Implementation of MRA on ASEAN Tourism Professionals in ASEAN Member States Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Regional Secretariat for ASEAN Tourism Professionals Toolbox Development for Front Office, Food and Beverage Services, and Food Production
Crucial Factors for ASEANMember States Existence of TPCB Existence of NTPB National laws and regulations that would hinder implementation of MRA Alignment of National Qualification Framework with ASEAN Collaboration among government, industry and training institutions English language Availability of training institutions
Eddy Krismeidi SoemawilagaInfrastructure DivisionASEAN Secretariateddy@asean.orgTHANK YOU