Aligning education and training on requirements of the Tourism industry would require the understanding of a Qualifications that would become a basis for defining competencies describing a particular function or job role. A qualification can be defined as: Package of or group of competencies that describes a particular function or job role existing in an industry sector. It consists of units of competency to cover the work activities required to undertake a particular job role. (PNQF 2004)
On the other hand, the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) is characterized as follows: It is a national policy, describes the levels of educational qualifications and sets the standards for qualification outcomes. A quality assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers of a certain country
It is: Competency-based. Labor market-driven. Assessment based qualification recognition.
During the State of the Nation Address of the President in 2011, he directed DOLE, CHED, TESDA, and DepEd to work together to address the issue of job-skills mismatch. One of the responses to the Presidential directive is the development of the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF). The Philippine Qualifications Framework was developed by an Inter-Agency Working Group from DepEd, TESDA, CHED, DOLE-BLE and PRC. The PQF was approved by the NEDA Social Development Committee-Cabinet Level during its meeting last May 18, 2012.
The PQF has a number of key objectives. They are: To establish national standards and levels for outcomes of education and training, skills and competencies To support the development and maintenance of pathways and equivalencies which provide access to qualifications and assist people to move easily and readily between the different E & T sectors and between these sectors and the labor market To align the PQF with international qualifications framework to support the national and international mobility of workers thru increased recognition of the value and comparability of Philippine qualifications
The formulation of the Philippine Qualifications Framework will have attendant benefits to various sectors: the person, employers, education and training providers and Authorities. Specifically, expected benefits include the following: I. For the PERSON Encourages lifelong learning allowing the person to start at the level that suits him and then build-up his qualifications as his needs and interests develop and change over time Certificates and licenses recognized by government
II. For the EMPLOYERS Assures that standards and qualifications are consistent to job requirements/demand Provides common understanding on standards, qualifications and levels
III. For the E & T PROVIDERS Ensures transparency in training provision, conformance to standards and preciseness of accountability for learning outcomes Provides common understanding of policies and guidelines on credit transfers, articulation, portability, bridges pathways and RPL
IV. For the AUTHORITIES Provides the standards, taxonomy and typology of qualifications as bases for granting approvals to providers and stakeholders Harmonizes qualifications in E & T across Philippines
The development of the Philippine Qualifications Framework has to be done in consideration of a number of inputs in order to generate the desired outputs. It shall utilized extensive consultations and advocacy with stakeholders towards the successful implementation of the PQF in the country.
The Department of Education, TESDA and CHED agreed to adopt the eight (8) Level Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) which was endorsed by the Social Development Committee of the National Economic Development Authority. The PQF recognizes the alternative learning system and the principles of lifelong learning, prior learning and equivalency. Though compartmentalization exists in the Philippine education system, quality is assured through a standards and accreditation system for basic and higher education institutions and through a unified registration and accreditation system for technical vocational institutions. The Assessment and Certification system likewise ensures the quality of students of the Philippine education system. The PQF showed that graduates of K to 12, may opt to proceed to the technical education and skills development track and higher education track. Please note that the PQF indicated the embedment and the alignment of the technical education and skills development (TESD) in the general secondary of the basic education from Exploratory Grades 7 and 8, and specialization in Grade 9 to 12. These are in the TLE programs that provide an enriched general education that will prepare our graduates for higher education, world of work and lifelong learning. The minds of the students as early as Exploratory Grade 7, will be opened to various employability possibilities identified in the five (5) common competencies required in 24 TR-aligned TLE programs. These are: 1) Use tools and equipment; 2) Maintain tools and equipment; 3) Perform mensuration and calculation; 4) Apply occupational health and safety procedures, and 5) Prepare and interpret technical drawing and plans The figure shows the Philippine Qualifications Framework that was presented and endorsed by the NEDA SDC-Technical Board during its meeting last February 21, 2012. Aside from defining the qualification levels, the detailed framework depicts the knowledge-based competencies, common competencies and specialization competencies to be acquired by the students. Also included are the support mechanisms towards wage/entrepreneurial or self-employment.
The second figure is a simplified presentation of the PQF as a result of the consultations with stakeholders. This was presented and approved by the SDC Cabinet Level last May 18, 2012. It outlines the 8-level qualifications covered by the PQF starting from NC I up to Doctoral and Post Doctoral programs.
What follows is the matrix showing the 8-Levels Philippine Qualifications Framework. The levels are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and values, application, degree of independence and qualification levels. It can be observed that as the level grows higher, additional competencies needs to be acquired by the person.
The K to 12 Curriculum has as its overarching goal the holistic development of every Filipino learner with 21 st century skills who is adequately prepared for work, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education. The overarching goal of the K to 12 curriculum, indicated that the teaching of Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) plays a very important role in the realization of the overall goal of the curriculum. Whether or not the K to 12 graduate is skilled and ready for work, entrepreneurship and middle skills development depends to a great extent on how effectively you taught TLE. The teaching of the TLE in general secondary schools is guided by this Conceptual Framework. It shows that the TLE encompasses the various sectors in Information and Communications Technology, Agri-fishery and other technological proficiency. TLE is geared towards the development of technological proficiency and is anchored on knowledge and information, entrepreneurial concepts, process and delivery, work values and life skills. The TLE that is functional is one that equips students with skills for lifelong learning. is focused on mastery of skills and is founded on the cognitive, behavioral or psychomotor and affective dimensions of human development. So teaching TLE, is teaching facts, concepts, skills and values as a whole.
SLIDE 12 With the implementation of the new curriculum guides and learning modules for the TLE, we are assured that the K to 12 graduates are equipped with employable skills that match the industry requirements and prepare them into entrepreneurial venture that will provide income for the family and ultimately, uplift their economic status in life.
Aligning Creative Approaches Towards Re-engineering Our Tourism Education and Training Programs
ALIGNING CREATIVEAPPROACHES TOWARDS RE-ENGINEERING OUR TOURISMEDUCATION AND TRAININGPROGRAMIMELDA B. TAGANASOIC-Executive Director, Qualifications andStandards Office,TESDA
What is a Qualification? Package of competencies describing a particular function or job role existing in an economic sector. It covers the work activities required to undertake a particular job role.
What is the Philippine QualificationsFramework (PQF)? It is a national policy, describes the levels of educational qualifications and sets the standards for qualification outcomes. A quality assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers of a certain country
It is competency-based. It is labor market driven. It is assessment based qualification recognition.
President’s SONA 2011 “… ngayon pa lang, nagtatagpo na ang kaisipan ng DOLE, CHED, TESDA at DepEd upang tugunan and isyu ng job mismatch. Susuriin ang mga curriculum para maituon sa mga industriyang naghahanap ng empleyado, at gagabayan ang mga estudyante sa pagpili ng mga kursong hitik sa bakanteng trabaho.”
Objectives of the PQF: To establish national standards and levels for outcomes of education and training, skills and competencies To support the development and maintenance of pathways and equivalencies which provide access to qualifications and assist people to move easily and readily between the different E & T sectors and between these sectors and the labour market
Objectives of the PQF To align the PQF with international qualifications framework to support the national and international mobility of workers thru increased recognition of the value and comparability of Philippine qualifications
Benefits of the PQF:I. FOR THE PERSON Encourages lifelong learning allowing the person to start at the level that suits him and then build-up his qualifications as his needs and interests develop and change over time Certificates and licenses recognized by government
II. FOR THE EMPLOYERS Assures that standards and qualifications are consistent to job requirements/demand Provides common understanding on standards, qualifications and levels
III. FOR THE E & T PROVIDERS Ensures transparency in training provision, conformance to standards and preciseness of accountability for learning outcomes Provides common understanding of policies and guidelines on credit transfers, articulation, portability, bridges pathways and RPL
IV. FOR THE AUTHORITIES Provides the standards, taxonomy and typology of qualifications as bases for granting approvals to providers and stakeholders Harmonizes qualifications in E & T across Philippines
The PQF: INPUTS OUTPUTS Industry needs Qualification Levels Need for global Descriptors recognition of competencies RegistersCurrent qualifications issues at all levels Philippine Working Groups Qualification Pathways &Qualifications issues in recognition of s Framework Equivalencies prior learning Quality AssuranceResearch and policy papers on NQF Information & Guidelines NQFs of other countries International Alignment Consultation and Advocacy With Stakeholders
THE PHL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK WAGE EMPLOYMENT/ENTREPRENEURSHIP/SELF- EMPLOYMENT Basic Ed TESD HEL 8 POST DOCTORAL DEGREE POST BACCALAUREATEL 7 PROGRAMSL 6 BACCALAUREATE PROGRAMSL 5 P A T H W A Y NC VL 4 S NC IV NC III - V KNOWLEDGE-L 3 BASED PERSON NC III SPECIALIZATION CORE COMPETENCIES 12L 2 NC II 11 10L 1 NC I 9 COMMON COMPETENCIES 8 MENSURATION and TECHNICAL USE OF DRAFTING HANDTOOLS OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & TOOLS/EQUIP MAINTENACE ARTS / CALCULATION CRAFTS 7 APTITUDE & INTEREST SAFETY TECHNOPRENEURSHIP & GREEN SKILLS FOR GREEN JOBS 6 ASSESSMENT KNOWLEDGE-BASED COMPETENCIES FOUNDATIONAL HIGHER ORDER THINKING 5 SKILLS (HOT) SKILLS • Critical Thinking 4 • ENGLISH • SCIENCE • • Creative Thinking Innovation 3 GEC • MATHEMATICS • Problem Solving GENERIC SKILLS 2 • Work & Values Cluster 1 • Interpersonal Cluster LIFE SKILLS • Cognitive Cluster K LEARNING DOMAINS • Adaptability Cluster
THE PHL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK (Approved by the NEDA SDC-Cabinet on May 18, 2012) BASIC ED TESD HIGHER EDUCATIONL8 DOCTORAL AND POST DOCTORALL7 POST BACCALAUREATEL6 BACCALAUREATEL5 DIPLOMAL4 NC IVL3 NC III NC IIIL2 G12 NC IIL1 10 NC I
LEVEL 1 Knowledge and skills that are manual or concrete orKNOWLEDGE, practical and/or operational in focus. SKILLS AND VALUES Applied in activities that are set in a limited range ofAPPLICATION highly familiar and predictable contexts; involve straightforward, routine issues which are addressed by following set rules, guidelines or procedures. In conditions where there is very close support, DEGREE OF guidance or supervision; minimum judgment orINDEPENDENCE discretion is needed.QUALIFICATION NATIONAL CERTIFICATE I TYPE
LEVEL 2 Knowledge and skills that are manual, practicalKNOWLEDGE, and/or operational in focus with a variety of options. SKILLS AND VALUES Applied in activities that are set in a range ofAPPLICATION familiar and predictable contexts; involve routine issues which are identified and addressed by selecting from and following a number of set rules, guidelines or procedures. In conditions where there is substantial support, DEGREE OF guidance or supervision; limited judgment orINDEPENDENCE discretion is needed.QUALIFICATION NATIONAL CERTIFICATE II TYPE
LEVEL 3 Knowledge and skills that are a balance of theoreticalKNOWLEDGE, and/or technical and practical.SKILLS AND Work involves understanding the work process, VALUES contributing to problem solving, and making decisions to determine the process, equipment and materials to be used. Applied in activities that are set in contexts with someAPPLICATION unfamiliar or unpredictable aspects; involve routine and non-routine issues which are identified and addressed by interpreting and/or applying established guidelines or procedures with some variations. Application at this level may involve individual DEGREE OF responsibility or autonomy, and/or may involve someINDEPENDENCE responsibility for others. Participation in teams including team or group coordination may be involved.QUALIFICATION NATIONAL CERTIFICATE III TYPE
LEVEL 4 Knowledge and skills that are mainly theoretical and/orKNOWLEDGE, abstract with significant depth in one or more areas; SKILLS AND contributing to technical solutions of a non-routine or contingency nature; evaluation and analysis of current VALUES practices and the development of new criteria and procedures. Applied in activities that are set in range of contexts, mostAPPLICATION of which involve a number of unfamiliar and/or unpredictable aspects; involve largely non-routine issues which are addressed using guidelines or procedures which require interpretation and/or adaptation. Work involves some leadership and guidance when DEGREE OF organizing activities of self and othersINDEPENDENCEQUALIFICATION NATIONAL CERTIFICATE IV TYPE
LEVEL 5 Knowledge and skills that are mainly theoretical and/orKNOWLEDGE, abstract with significant depth in some areas together SKILLS AND with wide-ranging, specialized technical, creative and conceptual skills. VALUES Perform work activities demonstrating breadth, depth and complexity in the planning and initiation of alternative approaches to skills and knowledge applications across a broad range of technical and/or management requirements, evaluation and coordination. Applied in activities that are supervisory, complex andAPPLICATION non-routine which require an extensive interpretation and/or adaptation/ innovation. DEGREE OF In conditions where there is broad guidance and direction, where judgment is required in planning andINDEPENDENCE selecting appropriate equipment, services and techniques for self and others. Undertake work involving participation in the development of strategic initiatives, as well as personal responsibility and autonomy in performing complex technical operations or organizing othersQUALIFICATION DIPLOMA
LEVEL 6 KNOWLEDGE, Graduates at this level have broad SKILLS AND and coherent knowledge and skills VALUES in their field of study for professional work and lifelong learning APPLICATION Application in professional work or research in a specialized field of discipline and/or for further study DEGREE OF Independent and /or in teams ofINDEPENDENCE related field with minimal supervisionQUALIFICATION Baccalaureate Degree TYPE
LEVEL 7 KNOWLEDGE, Graduates at this level have SKILLS AND advanced knowledge and skills in VALUES specialized or multidisciplinary field of study for professional practice or self-directed research APPLICATION Applied in professional work that requires leadership and management in a specialized or multidisciplinary professional work, research and/or for further study DEGREE OF Independent and or in teams ofINDEPENDENCE multidisciplinary field with very minimal supervisionQUALIFICATION Post-Baccalaureate Program TYPE
LEVEL 8 KNOWLEDGE, Graduates at this level have highly SKILLS & advanced systematic knowledge and skills VALUES in very specialized or complex multidisciplinary field of learning for multifaceted research or professional practice or for the advancement of learning APPLICATION Applied in highly specialized or complex multidisciplinary field of professional work, research and/or further study that require management expertise, innovation and leadership DEGREE OF Independent and/or in teams of multi-INDEPENDENC disciplinary and complex setting EQUALIFICATIO Doctoral Degree and Post-Doctoral N TYPE Programs
PQF GOAL:“Every educated/trained Filipino:the best for fellow Filipinos; thechoice of the rest of the world.”
P4A Model for TLE Job Sheet Assignment or Sheet Operation Sheet Self-Check Information Sheet
From Supply to DemandDriven TVET system Supply-Driven Demand-Driven Teacher focus Workplace focus Group dynamics Individual needs Set curriculum Customized learning Sets periods of work Flexible delivery Final exams Assessment on-going All assessment off-the-job Assessment on and off the job “Industry” (institution Specific industry qualification determined) qualifications Own performance Performance relative to others Outcomes oriented Emphasis on time and Assessment criterion process (competency) referenced and customized Assessment norm reference and standardized Emphasis on what you can do in the workplace Emphasis on how to learn Several paths to qualifications Single path to qualifications
Demand Driven SystemIndustry Demands a Providers adjust Competent Industry recognizedCompetent workforce programs to meet demand entrants ready for the of Industry standards world of work
Industry-driven approaches Provide right indication on manpower demand of the industry
Industry-driven approaches Recommend industry priority occupations for skills development
Industry-driven approaches Advocate skills training and certification of their workers
Industry-driven approaches Set competency standard requirements of the industry
Demand-Driven TVET Systems The Curriculum is determined and delivered by staff working in partnership with industry Demand-driven TVET requires a confident and mature governance system, education and tourism sector Assumes that personnel on both sides are willing to work together and it demands a shift in thinking Requires the establishment of industry standards at the national level
WHAT IS COMPETENCY-BASEDTVET?A competency-based TVET islearning methodology in TVETprovision which involve thefollowing 10 basic principles:• The training is based on curriculum developed from the competency standars;• Learning is modular in its structure;• Training delivery is individualized and self-paced;
10 basic principles of Competency-based TVET continuation……. • Training is based on work that must be performed; • Training materials are directly related to the competency standards and the curriculum modules; • Assessment is based in the collection of evidence of the performance of work to the industry required standard;
10 basic principles of Competency-based TVET continuation……. • Training is based both on and off- the-job components; • Allows for recognition of prior learning (RPL) or current competencies; • Training allows for multiple entry and exit; and • Approved training programs are Nationally Accredited
Benefits of CBT system forgraduates• Training related to workplace practices• Training requirements expressed as outcomes• Nationally recognized qualifications• Creation of career paths• Workplace-based assessment• Increased employability• Greater confidence in what people can do in the workplace
Benefits of new TVET system foremployers • Basis for common and clear understanding of outcomes through certification • Improved recruitment effectiveness • Workplace-based assessment
LIST OF 46 ASEAN TOOLBOXES NominalCompetencies HoursCommon Core1 Work effectively with customers and colleagues 302 Work in a socially diverse environment 253 Implement occupational health and safety procedures 354 Comply with workplace hygiene procedures 205 Perform clerical procedures 156 Access and retrieve computer-based data 257 Converse in English at a basic operational level 1208 Communicate on the telephone 109 Maintain hospitality industry knowledge 2010 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge 3011 Promote products and services to customers 2512 Manage and resolve conflict situations 2513 Perform basic First Aid procedures 2514 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry 1515 Develop protective environments for children in tourism destinations 25
Housekeeping16 Provide housekeeping services to guests 1517 Clean public areas, facilities and equipment 6018 Clean and prepare rooms for in-coming guests 3019 Maintain and operate an industrial laundry 6020 Launder linen and guests’ clothes 2521 Provide valet services to guests 4522 Clean and maintain industrial work area and equipment 40English Language23 Respond effectively to instructions given in English 6024 Start conversations and develop good relations with guests 6025 Communicate effectively in English on a telephone 6026 Read general information texts or media 6027 Write a short message in English 60Human Resource Development28 Plan, conduct and evaluate a staff performance assessment 6029 Coach others in job skills 2530 Prepare and deliver training sessions 40Security Services31 Manage intoxicated persons 1032 Provide a lost and found facility 1533 Plan and conduct an evacuation of premises 2034 Establish and maintain a safe and secure workplace 60
Customer Service, Sales and Marketing35 Develop and update local knowledge 3036 Prepare and deliver a presentation 3537 Establish and maintain a business relationship 60General Administration38 Use common business tools and technology 2539 Plan, manage and conduct meetings 3040 Receive and store stock 15Financial Administration41 Process a financial sale transaction 3042 Prepare and monitor budgets 35Resource Management43 Monitor workplace operations 2544 Manage quality customer/guest service 3545 Recruit and select staff 4546 Provide professional support to business colleagues 60
LEVEL NC II NC III NC IVBASIC • Participate in workplace • Lead workplace communication • Utilize specializedCOMPETENCIES communication (7) (39) communication skills (1) • Work in team environment (1) • Lead small teams • Develop teams and • Practice occupational health and • Develop and practice negotiation individuals (29) safety procedures (3) skills • Promote environmental • Practice career professionalism • Use relevant technologies (38) protection (15) (9) • Use mathematical concepts and • Collect, analyze and techniques (41) organize information • Solve problems related to work • Plan and organize work activities (42) • Apply problem solving techniques in the workplace (12)COMMON • Develop and update industry • Roster staff (45) • Conduct assessment (28)COMPETENCIES knowledge (10, 35) • Control and order stock (40) • Manage workplace diversity • Observe workplace hygiene • Establish and conduct business (2) procedures (4) relationships (37) • Manage quality customer • Provide effective customer • Train small groups (30, 46) service (44) service (11) • Manage finances within a • Perform workplace and safety budget (42) practices (13) • Perform computer operations (6)CORE • Provide Housekeeping Services • Plan and schedule routine • Manage physical assetsCOMPETENCIES to Guest (16) maintenance, repairs and • Manage stock purchases • Prepare Rooms for Guest (18) modifications and inventory • Laundry Linen and Guest Clothes • Escort, carry and store valuable • Provide a lost and found (20) items facility (32) • Provide Valet Service (21) • Observe and monitor people • Provide for the safety of VIPs • Clean Premises (17) (43) (34) • Contribute to the implementation of emergency procedures (33)
TRAINER MANUAL TRAINEE MANUAL ASSESSOR MANUAL• Competency •Unit Descriptor •Competency StandardAssessment •Assessment Matrix •Oral Questions• PowerPoint •Glossary •Written QuestionsPresentation •Elements •Answer to Questions• Training Equipment •Presentation of Written •Observation Checklist•Instructions for Trainers Work •Third-Party Statementfor Using PowerPoint •Recommended Reading •Competency Recording •Trainee Evaluation Sheet Sheet
SESSION PLAN LEARNING MATERIALS ASSESSMENT•Module Title •How to Use the CBLM PACKAGE•Learning Outcomes •Introductory Page •Self-Assessment•Learning Activities 1.Module Title Guide1.Learning Content 2.Introduction2.Methods 3.Performance Objectives •Assessor’s Guide3.Presentation 4.Learning Outcomes •Rating Sheet 5.Assessment Criteria4.Practice •Specific Instructions5.Feedback 6.Assessment Methods6.Resources •Learning Experiences/Activities for the Candidate7.Time •Instruction Sheets •Competency Information/Operation Sheet Assessment Results 1. Self-Check Summary 2. Answer Key
UPDATES ON TRAINING REGULATIONSPromulgated Training Regulations Status1. Bartending NCII Reviewed and promulgated2. Food and Beverage Services NCII Reviewed but not yet promulgated3. Food and Beverage Services NCIII Reviewed but not yet promulgated4. Food and Beverage Services NCIV For review in 20135. Housekeeping NCII For review Oct-Dec 20126. Housekeeping NCIII For review in 20137. Housekeeping NCIV For review in 2013
UPDATES ON TRAINING REGULATIONSPromulgated Training Regulations Status8. Tour Guiding Services NCII For review Oct-Dec 20129. Travel Services NCII For review Oct-Dec 201210.Front Office Services NCII For review Oct-Dec 201211. Cookery NCII Reviewed and Promulgated12. Commercial Cooking NCIII For review in 201313. Commercial Cooking NCIV For review in 201314. Bread and Pastry Production NCII For review in 201315. Events Management Services NCIII For review in 201316. Attraction& Theme Parks Operation NCII For review in 201317. Tourism Promotion Services NCII For review in 2013
www.tesda.gov.ph Training Regulations Competency-Based Curriculum Exemplar Registry of Certified Workers TESDA initially offers tourism related online courses, namely: Room Attendant Servicing, a core competency of the Food and Beverage Servicing NCII; Guestroom Attendant Servicing NC II, a core competency of the Housekeeping NC II