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Ecosystem Value Chains in Business Enterprise and Nature - THNK

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Comparing examples found in nature with examples of business enterprises, we highlight the different characteristics that make up an ecosystem's value chain.

Including specialists, coopetitors, cross feeders, system developers, infomediaries, system service providers, sector shapers, aggregators, open platforms, intermediaries, sectors, clusters, geographic hubs, adaptors, communities.

Providing a case study for each characteristic, this presentation helps you to understand your ecosystem positioning and using these levers, you will be able to visually map the different actors that make up your ecosystem.

Published in: Business

Ecosystem Value Chains in Business Enterprise and Nature - THNK

  1. 1. 1 Aself-developed coexistence ofvarious creatures ECOSYSTEMS
  2. 2. 2 Separatesuppliers,deliveringtocompetingproducers,deliveringtoseparatecustomers VALUE CHAINS
  3. 3. Asymbiotic relationships between customers, competitors, suppliers,and stakeholders
  4. 4. 4 THE ECOSYSTEM IS A SELF-DEVELOPED, LIVING HOME OF VARIOUS CREATURES DYNAMIC AND CO-EVOLVING COMMUNITIES OF DIVERSE ACTORS THAT CREATE AND CAPTURE NEW VALUE THROUGH BOTH COLLABORATION AND COMPETITION
  5. 5. SPECIALISTS Where could/should you outsource tospecializedactors todeliveraspecific function? Perform onespecificfunctionandallowlargerentitiestooutsourceit
  6. 6. 6 SPECIALISTS Where could/should you builda specializedoutsource thatdelivers a specificfunction? ENTERPRISE NATURE Smallenterprises that perform one specific function extremely well and allowa large corporate tooutsource a particularfunction. As aresult, “virtualcompanies” emerge, consistingentirely of specialists. Dunnhumby provides CRManalyticsfor big retailers,earning theirloyalty, anduncovering new retailopportunities. Cleanerfishremove dead skinand ectoparasitesfrom otherfish, benefiting both species.
  7. 7. COOPETITORS Withwhichdirect competitorwould you liketocollaborate? Directcompetitorsworkingtogethertosharecostsandeffortsof development
  8. 8. 8 COOPETITORS Which direct competitorwouldyou liketocollaborate with? Philips and Sony jointly set new industry standards when developing the first CD-player. Also, the open source movement is aform of coopetition. ENTERPRISE NATURE In the animal kingdom, different species sometimes hunt together (e.g., coyotes &badgers) to form unlikely but mutually beneficial partnerships. Directcompetitorsworking together to share the costof development, set standards, develop anew market, whilemaintainingtheir competitive offers in the market.
  9. 9. CROSS FEEDERS Which institution’ssuccesswould benefit you, without you sellingtothem? Companiesthatpursue theirowninterestsandbenefitfrom eachother’ssuccess
  10. 10. 10 CROSS FEEDERS Which institution’ssuccesswould benefit you, without you sellingtothem? ENTERPRISE NATURE “Wintel”, a partnership betweenMicrosoft andIntel, toproduce micro-processors for Windows PCs Beespollinatingflowers enabling fertilizationand reproduction of both parties,and resultinginnuts and fruits. Companies that pursuetheir owninterests and benefit from each other’s success, e.g., because one company’s product creates demand for the other company’s product. Or twocompanies can stimulateeach other togo tohigher levels ofperformance.
  11. 11. SYSTEM DEVELOPERS Which initiativeswouldqualify,promote, cleanseyour sector? Activities that advance the health of an industry
  12. 12. 12 SYSTEM DEVELOPERS Which initiativeswouldqualify,promote, cleanseyour sector? Industry associations, audit firms, guilds,and comparisonsites. ENTERPRISE NATURE Institutionsthatprovide marketinformation, quality audits, industrypromotion, lobbying,standard setting, etc. – i.e., activities thatadvance the healthof a industry. Bushfires allowcertainplantsto reproduce andevolve.
  13. 13. INFOMEDIARIES What type of information would improve ecosystem functioning? Gatherandlinkinformationonbehalfoftheirenvironmentanditsusers
  14. 14. 14 INFOMEDIARIES A special breed of systemdevelopers, infomediaries gather and linkinformationon particular subjectson behalf of commercial organizationsand their potential customers. It alsoworks tohelp them take control over informationgathered about them. ENTERPRISE NATURE What type of information would improve ecosystem functioning? Skyscanneraggregates the most up-to-date flight prices from different travel websites; HumanRights Watchresearches andmonitors human rights compliancearound the world. Vervet monkeys have adistinct alarmcallfor leopard predators; flockingbirds serve as warning signforapproaching lions.
  15. 15. SYSTEM SERVICE PROVIDERS Which serviceswouldempower sectorgrowth? Resources andservicesthatempowerthegrowthofasector
  16. 16. 16 SYSTEM SERVICE PROVIDERS Which serviceswouldempower sectorgrowth? MailChimpoffers customersupport services; HyperIslandoffers techeducation. ENTERPRISE NATURE Institutionsthatprovide resources and services thatempower the growthof asector, e.g., educational institutions,technology providers, supportservice providers (administration,logistics,consulting,etc.). Soil nutrients, “circle of life”, insects.
  17. 17. SECTOR SHAPERS Identify the orchestrator inyour ecosystem. What is your ecosystempositioning? Canand shouldyou assumeanorchestrating role? Shapinganindustryby defining itsstructures, incentives,rules
  18. 18. 18 SECTOR SHAPERS Identify the orchestrator inyour ecosystem. What is your positioning? Canandshould you assumeanorchestrating role? Apple, Google, Microsoft, Salesforce, Tesla,Nike ENTERPRISE NATURE Beavers,HomoSapiens Companies that attempttoshape an industry byredefining itsstructure,incentives, rulesof conduct in order to develop the entiremarket (and itsshare init).
  19. 19. AGGREGATORS Would your service be more valuable whencombined withothers? Bundling products or services to provide an integrated service, rich in variety
  20. 20. 20 AGGREGATORS Would your service be more valuable whencombined withothers? Virgin, Amazon ENTERPRISE NATURE Companies that bundle productsor services (produced by others)to provide an integrated service, a richvariety of choice or buyer assurance The Amazon rainforest, grasslands
  21. 21. OPEN PLATFORMS Where coulddemand andsupply meetinyour industry? An open market place forbuyers and sellers to convene and develop
  22. 22. 22 OPEN PLATFORMS Where coulddemand andsupply meetinyour industry? EXAMPLES NATURE Marketplaces, exchanges, catalogues, libraries,trade markets: opportunitiesfor buyers and sellersto convene, connect, trade, compare and settleprices. eBay,Force.com, NYStock Exchange Waterpools
  23. 23. INTERMEDIARIES Where isyour industry off balance,inturmoil, confused, muddled– and whatopportunity does this provide? Companiesthatworkasintermediatesbetweenbuyers andsellers
  24. 24. 24 INTERMEDIARIES Where isyour industry off balance,inturmoil, confused, muddled– what opportunity does thisprovide? EXAMPLE NATURE .Companies that exploitmarket inefficiencies and lower transactioncosts and tend to be marginalizedinstable ecosystems asplayers “godirect”.They become the intermediates between buyersand sellers, either indistributionand access (retailers) or in deal making and price setting(re-sellers,market makers, brokers). Scavengers, likevultures andrats, feedon deadanimal andplant material. Consultants,real estatebrokers
  25. 25. SECTORS If you are ina sector,not anindustry, canyou articulateyour systemcontribution? Industries thatconsist of arichvariety of playersservicingeach other ina system
  26. 26. 26 SECTORS If you are ina sector-not anindustry- canyou articulateyour systemcontribution? ENTERPRISE NATURE Industries thatconsist of arichvariety of playerscooperating, competing, servicing each other in asystem instead ofa chain. Coral reefs bring together innumerable amounts of species forco-existenceand evolution. The complexityof medicaldevices forces/incentivizes the healthcare sectortojointly produce innovative products.
  27. 27. CLUSTERS How might you group withcross-sectoractorstojointly promote your interests? Sub-groupsworkingtogether withother sectors togrow and promotetheir interests
  28. 28. 28 CLUSTERS EXAMPLES NATURE Clustersare sub-groupsof actorsoperating ina particularsector thatwork together withuniversities and publicsector togrowtheir sector and promote itsinterests(e.g., throughpublicfinancing, favorable treatments). How might you group withcross-sectoractorstojointly promote your interests? Frenchdefense industry Seagullscirclingaround fisher’s boats toget accesstofish.
  29. 29. GEOGRAPHIC HUBS Canyou identify hubs that willhelp you gainenhanced accesstoresources, knowledge and expertise? A physical concentration of research and development ina particular industry
  30. 30. 30 GEOGRAPHIC HUBS EXAMPLES NATURE Geographic areas, e.g., a city or district,typicallywitha leading educational institution and a leading corporate inthe middlethat concentrate on research and development ina particular industryand includespecialist firms,startups,conferences, venture capital. Canyou identify geographic hub(s)that willhelp you gainenhanced accesstoresources, knowledge and expertise? Anting, Shanghai’s carindustry hub Anoasis inthe desert
  31. 31. ADAPTORS How does your offering adapt withchanging needs of our customers overtime? Value is createdbytheevolutionandadaptationtoconditionsandneeds
  32. 32. 32 ADAPTORS How does your offering adapt withchanging needs of our customers overtime? EXAMPLE NATURE Rather than offering a staticproduct or service, businesses are offering value that evolves withchanging conditions and needs over time. Hibernation: chipmunks andbears go intoa a deepsleepduring wintertime. Zara business model isdesigned around rapid marketadaptation, chasinglatesttrends by creatingshort turn-over cycles(from initial design tosales).
  33. 33. COMMUNITIES Is your enterprise part of acommunity? Groups ofusers thatcombineefforts to protecttheirsurvival
  34. 34. 34 COMMUNITIES EXAMPLE ANIMAL KINGDOM Is your enterprise part of acommunity? Groupsof consumers, producers or suppliersthat combine efforts toprotect or further their interests. Herds, i.e.,large groups of animalsthat live andmove together for joint survival. Buyergroups, cooperatives.
  35. 35. 35 ECOSYSTEM POSITIONING • What kindof actor(s) / ”species” are you? What is your ecosystem positioning? • Using these levers, visually map thedifferent actors that make up your ecosystem. 1. SPECIALISTS Small enterprises that performonespecific functionextremely well andallowa largecorporate to outsource aparticularfunction 2. COOPETITORS Direct competitors working together to share the costof development,setstandards,developannewmarket,while maintainingtheir competitiveoffers inthemarket. 3. CROSS FEEDERS Companies that pursue their owninterests andbenefitfrom each other’s success. E.g.,because one company’s productcreates demandfor theother company’s product. 5. INFOMEDIARIES A special breed ofsystem developers,infomediaries gather andlink informationonparticular subjects onbehalf ofcommercialorganizations andtheir potential customers. 6. SYSTEM SERVICE PROVIDERS Institutions thatprovideresources and services thatempower the growthof asector,e.g.,educationalinstitutions, technology providers,supportserviceproviders (administration,logitistics, consulting). 7. SECTOR SHAPERS Companies that attempttoshape anindustrybytryingtodefineits structure,incentives,rules of conductinorder todevelopthe entire market(andits own share init). 4. SYSTEM DEVELOPERS Institutions thatprovidemarketinformation,qualityaudits,industry promotion,lobbying, standardsetting,etc.– i.e.,activities thatadvance thehealth of anindustry.
  36. 36. 36 9. OPEN PLATFORMS Market places, exchanges,catalogues, libraries,trade markets: opportunities for buyers andsellers toconvene,connect,trade,compareandsettle prices. 10. INTERMEDIARIES Companies that intermediatebetweenbuyers andsellers, either indistribution andaccess (retailers) orin deal making and price setting(re-sellers, marketmakers, brokers).They exploitmarket inefficiencies and lower transactioncosts,so tedtobemarginalizedin stable ecosystems asplayers “godirect”. 11. SECTORS Industries that consist of arich varietyof players, cooperating,competing,and servicing eachother ina systeminsteadof a chain. 13. GEOGRAPHIC HUBS Geographic areas (cities,districts), typically witha leadingeducationalinstitutionanda leading corporatethatconcentrateonR&Din aparticular industryandincludespecialist firms, startups, conferences, andventurecapital. 14. ADAPTORS Rather than offering astaticproductor service, business are offering value thatevolves withchangingconditions and changes over time. 15. COMMUNITIES Groups of consumers,producers,or suppliers thatcombineefforts toprotectorfurther their interests. 12. CLUSTERS Sub-groups of actors operating inaparticularsector thatwork together withuniversities andthe public secor togrowtheir sector andpromoteits interests (e.g., throughpublicfinancing,favourable treatments). 8. AGGREGATORS Companies that bundleproducts or services (produced by others) toprovideanintegratedservicea richvariety of choice of buyer assurance.

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