Marja Vaarama: The SOLA Project: Monitoring Social Sustainability

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Marja Vaarama: The SOLA Project: Monitoring Social Sustainability

  1. 1. The SOLA Project:Monitoring Social SustainabilityLondon , December 19 – 20th, 2011 Marja Vaarama, THL, Finland Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  2. 2. Overview • The objectives • An integrated approach • The model • Next steps Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  3. 3. The objectives• Development of a theoretically grounded and evidence-based concept of Social Sustainability• Clarifying the relation to Social Quality and Quality of Life• Development of a framework for a monitoring instrument or ”dash board” of indicators• Placing social indicators into a general framework for monitoring Sustainability Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  4. 4. The Approach• An theoretically grounded model: - action theory : because human beings achieve Social Sustainability, Social Quality and Quality of Life through their actions - system theory: because system theory is a general framework supporting interdisciplinary models, research and policies Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  5. 5. The Approach• An evidence-based and practically feasible model: - evidence-based: because the indicators have to represent causally relevant factors to support effective policies - practically feasible: because indicators have to be implemented in political and administrative procedures, not just in research practices Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  6. 6. Monitoring Social Sustainability: A Model• Including 3 levels of policy monitoring: - Structures: societal institutions or „institutional capital“ - Processes: integration of persons in everyday life - Outcomes: Quality of Life and subjective Well-Being• Two limiting or guiding frame conditions: - Human ecology: the environmental conditions or „limits to growth“ - Values or ethical standards of quality: elements of the „good life“ and the „good society“ Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  7. 7. The basic ”logic” of the dimensionsWe need for any activity or process – individual or collective :• …the resources and access to do it,• …the know-how or capabilities to do it right,• …the orientation and values that doing it is right,• …the emotional-motivational disposition to feel comfortable in the process.Resources and capabilities are the “means” to do it.Orientations and emotions point to the “ends” we want to achieve.Resources and orientations are the conditions set “externally” by the physical environment (“means”), and the by the social environment (“ends”). Capabilities and motivations are the potentials or capacities that we ourselves “internally” contribute in the process. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  8. 8. The ”basic logic” “external“ environment instrumental evaluative “means“ “ends“ “internal” agency instrumental “means“ evaluative “ends“ “external“ resources valued norms environment “internal” capabilities desired feelings systemVappu Taipale 2010 Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  9. 9. Monitoring Social Sustainability: A Model (2)• Integrating 4 dimensions of society and individual Quality of Life by mediating social processes : - socio-economic security: economic wealth x individual access - social empowerment: democratic governance x personal competence - social inclusion: institutional rights x personal dignity - social cohesion: trust in institutions x affective well-being Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  10. 10. The general SOLA model value standards equity freedom social justice solidarity societal assets social quality individ. or „capitals“ processes QoL economy security social/physical environment polity empowerment capabilities/ health culture inclusion life valuation/ satisfaction civic society cohesion affective well-beingenviron. resources people technology Org. in time/space Human ecology Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  11. 11. The ”dash board” for monitoring sustainability : the general framework• Human ecology: - environment - resources and impact - population - demography - technology - material culture - space-time organisation - human geography• societal systems - economy - policy - culture - civil society• mediating processes – Social Sustainability - social security - social empowerment - social inclusion - social cohesion• Individual Quality of Life - living standard - capabilitites - life evaluation - affective well-being Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  12. 12. The model from the perspective ofindividual Quality of Life:The ” Onion – Model ” Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  13. 13. Monitoring QoL : A Model(Investments/Potentials) Institutional CapitalEconomical - ecological Capital Political Capital (Processes) Social Quality Social Security Social Empowerment (Outcomes) Quality of Life instrumental focus environment functional + resources competence on safety sense of achievement comfort control of a “good life” subjective QoL life emotinal meaning feelings evaluative focus social identity pychological +social relations well-being on Adapted from experience Pieper/Vaarama of a “good life” Social Inclusion Social Cohesion 2008Cultural Captial / Human Rights Social Capital /CommittmentsFocus on environment Focus on capabilities Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  14. 14. Monitoring QoL : A Model(Investments/Potentials) Institutional CapitalEconomical - ecological Capital Political Capital (Processes) Social Quality Social Security Social Empowerment (Outcomes) Quality of Life instrumental focus environment functional + resources competence on safety sense of achievement comfort control of a “good life” subjective QoL life emotinal meaning feelings evaluative focus social identity pychological +social relations well-being on Adapted from experience Pieper/Vaarama of a “good life” Social Inclusion Social Cohesion 2008Cultural Captial / Human Rights Social Capital /CommittmentsFocus on environment Focus on capabilities Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  15. 15. Socio-economic security :Sustainable economy and public welfare • investments and markets • welfare provision • productivity and human capital • sustainable consumption _____________________________________ • disposable income / transfer security • inequalities, class structure • professional education • employment security ____________________________________ • individual income, housing, services • supportive social relations • education, health care utilisation • environmental safetyMarja Vaarama 2011 Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  16. 16. Monitoring QoL : A Model(Investments/Potentials) Institutional CapitalEconomical - ecological Capital Political Capital (Processes) Social Quality Social Security Social Empowerment (Outcomes) Quality of Life instrumental focus environment functional + resources competence on safety sense of achievement comfort control of a “good life” subjective QoL life emotinal meaning feelings evaluative focus social identity pychological +social relations well-being on Adapted from experience Pieper/Vaarama of a “good life” Social Inclusion Social Cohesion 2008Cultural Captial / Human Rights Social Capital /CommittmentsFocus on environment Focus on capabilities Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  17. 17. Social Empowerment:Opportunities and Capabilities of Participation • economic regulation/ territorial politics • legal institutions / legitimation • capacities for democratic decision/administration • Public support / loyalty ___________________________________ • public space /opportunities for participation • ideological diversity / choice of views • political participation / influence • political commitment / motivation _____________________________________ • individual opportunities for participation • identification political groups/institutions • individual participation / functional capabilities • social / interaction competenceMarja Vaarama 2011 Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  18. 18. Monitoring QoL : A Model(Investments/Potentials) Institutional CapitalEconomical - ecological Capital Political Capital (Processes) Social Quality Social Security Social Empowerment (Outcomes) Quality of Life instrumental focus environment functional + resources competence on safety sense of achievement comfort control of a “good life” subjective QoL life emotinal meaning feelings evaluative focus social identity pychological +social relations well-being on Adapted from experience Pieper/Vaarama of a “good life” Social Inclusion Social Cohesion 2008Cultural Captial / Human Rights Social Capital /CommittmentsFocus on environment Focus on capabilities Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  19. 19. Social Inclusion:Rights, Laws and Values • utility of individual life for others • individual meaningfulness of life • life achivement • emotional life satisfaction ______________________________ • access and usage of cultural resources • non-discrimination/ minority inclusion • sub-cultural participation • institutional trust ________________________________ • cultural infrastructure/investments • values, human rights / religious institutions • cultural productivity, education, creativity • cultural consumptionMarja Vaarama 2011 Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  20. 20. Monitoring QoL : A Model(Investments/Potentials) Institutional CapitalEconomical - ecological Capital Political Capital (Processes) Social Quality Social Security Social Empowerment (Outcomes) Quality of Life instrumental focus environment functional + resources competence on safety sense of achievement comfort control of a “good life” subjective QoL life emotinal meaning feelings evaluative focus social identity pychological +social relations well-being on Adapted from experience Pieper/Vaarama of a “good life” Social Inclusion Social Cohesion 2008Cultural Captial / Human Rights Social Capital /CommittmentsFocus on environment Focus on capabilities Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  21. 21. Social cohesion, trust and civil society • comfort feelings / lack of stress • social joy, hopefulness • Pride, self esteem, lack of frustration • peacefulness / lack of anxiety _______________________________________ • work ties / economical networks • Bridging ties / institutional linking • binding ties facilitating cooperation • Bonding ties / communal ties _______________________________________ • non-market non-profit organisation • subcultures, ethnic communities • non-governmental organisations • self-help groups / care solidarityMarja Vaarama 2011 Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  22. 22. The model from the perspective ofSocial Sustainability :• 4 dimensions of social sustainability• The basic structure of 4 dimensions• Each dimension again sub-divided by the same 4 dimensions Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  23. 23. Social Sustainability means ends Social Social Security Inclusion conditions Social Social Empowerment Cohesion potentialsDefinition: Social Sustainability (SS) is the property of social processesto sustain social security, social empowerment, social inclusion andsocial cohesion for a population in a given region and over time.SS refers to a potential that may be more or less realised depending onconditions due to historically developed structures (societal structures/institutions)and to the ecological situation (human ecology/environmental sustainability)of a society.SS is intrinsically not only a descriptive, but also a normative concept,since criteria for social quality, social development, and social progressimply a reference to value standards. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  24. 24. Social Sustainability: the basic structure Instrumental “means” Valued “ends”Conditions : Problem: Uncertainty and risks Problem: Anomie Environments carry contingencies Social environments generate and risks not under control differences of orientations, norms and interests endangering cooperation Solution: Insurances and transfers for Solution: security of access to resources Shared values and institutions Social Security Social InclusionPotentials : Problem: Complexity Problem: Anxiety Controlling the environment means Diffuseness about Being and to cope with complex causal Belonging creates anxiety relations Solution: Solution: Emotional identification and trust to Development of own capacities by channel passions and desires promotion of health, education and cooperative divisions of labour Social empowerment Social CohesionNote: The four colours help to distinguish the basic four dimensions.Throughout the SOLA model the same colours are used for a given dimension Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  25. 25. Social Security Ensuring access to resources Ensuring fairness, equality conditions through employment and non-discrimination in and transfers work/class relations Ensuring adequate Ensuring the safety and potentials capabilities for utilisation and security of work/transfer professional education relations Aggregated individual satisfaction with living standardDefinition: Social Security (SocS) is the extent to which mediatingsocial processes apportion resources and secure their utilisation byindividuals and groups by (re-)producing adequate conditions andpotentials.Conditions include income, housing, goods, services and environmentalconditions as well as (in)equalities (not) barring “fair” access;potentials include individual competencies as well as safety and reliabilityof utilisation. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  26. 26. Social Empowerment Ensuring availability and access Ensuring a diversity of conditions to public space and public media alternative visions and views to enable critical discussion potentials Ensuring capabilities for Ensuring motivation and decision making and participation commitment for engagement by health and education Aggregated individual satisfaction with capabilitiesDefinition: Social Empowerment (SocE) is the extent to which mediatingsocial processes enable competent participation in decision making andcooperation for common goals by re-)producing adequate conditions andpotentials.Conditions include the provision of public space and public media as well asalternative visions or world views;potentials include competencies for participation based on education andhealth as well as motivational dispositions for commitment. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  27. 27. Social Inclusion Ensuring access to cultural and Ensuring human rights and conditions legal resources and services dignity, socially just treatment under the law, and non-discrimination potentials Ensuring capabilities and Ensuring general trust in participation in cultural activities legal, cultural and regional and arts, education and science institutions and regulations Aggregated individual satisfaction with meaning in lifeDefinition: Social Inclusion (SocI) is the extent to which mediating processesinclude individuals under institutions regulating their position, rights, obligations andcreative expression as recognised members with human dignity.Conditions include the access to cultural institutions and infrastructure as well asregulations for inclusive cultural and regional membership and for the non-discriminatory exercise of values, world-views and cultural identities;potentials include the participation in cultural activities as well as a general trust ininstitutional, cultural and regional/national regulations which will promote life stylescompatible with though not necessarily compliant with accepted legal and culturalnorms. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  28. 28. Social Cohesion Ensuring relationships of Ensuring relations of trust conditions social support in networks bridging between groups and communities and informal and linking between flexibility in formal individuals and institutions organisations potentials Ensuring bonding based Ensuring social capabilities on mutual personal trust, and binding relations social identity and sense of facilitating informal and formal place cooperation Aggregated individual satisfaction with affective well- beingDefinition: Social Cohesion (SoCC) is the extent to which mediatingprocesses facilitate social, pro-social or caring relations between individualsintegrating them into social groups, networks or communities.Conditions include the disposition for social support in the community or neighbourhood and theflexibility of formal organisation for the affordances of (legitimate) informal relations as well as thefacilitation of bridging social relations between social groups and communities and the linkingrelationships between individuals and institutions;potentials include the general social competence for creating binding social ties on the basis ofnorms of reciprocity as well as a disposition to engage in communal or bonding ties on the basis ofpersonal trust and a sense of belonging to the locality, region or – increasingly in informationsocieties – “virtual networks”. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  29. 29. The ”dash board”a first impression of the structure ofthe monitoring instrumentwhich might be realised on a PCscreen ... Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  30. 30. Human ecology Societal (sub-) systems Mediating processes Individual QoLResource A „Dashboard“ for Monitoring Environment (natural) Material evolution Economy Distributive Welfare Social Security Disposable Inequalities Living Standard Income, Supportivs Resources biodiversity Markets Provision Income/transf Class housing, SocialAccess Energy assets (“state”) er services structure services relations Regulation Biolog. Self- Supply Demand Professional Employment Education safety/soc of organisation Productivity Re-production education, security health -environm ecosystems Human consumption experience care trust capital utilisation People (demography) Polity Social Empowerment CapabilitiesPotential Population Generational/ recruitment, Legitimation Political Ideology base opportuni identifi-s Size, age structure territory, Legal support, Welt- ty cation, density econ. institutions Public space anschauung utilisation orientation regulation/inst Physical/ Life Capacities for Democracy Political Commitment productio Interaction mental expectancy decision Public support participation Motivation n partici- communi- health Fertility, administration Inst. for pation cation morbidity loyalty Technology / Artefacts Culture Social Inclusion Life ValuationAims Transport Information Investments/ Values Access, usage Non- Social Meaningf Housing communicatio Infrastructure Human rights of cultural discrimn. utility of l-ness of urbanisatio n access religious ressources minority/regi life life n instit. o.inclusion Production, Consumption Productivity Culture (sub-) cultural Institutional Life Emotiona Medical media education consumption participation trust/distrust, achieve- life technology Creativity deviance ment satisfactio n Organisation (in time- Civil Society / Social Care Social Cohesion Affective Well-being space) Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011Organic Migration Segmentation, Non-market/ Subculture Work ties/ Bridging ties Comfort Social joy
  31. 31. Next Steps :• The model will be discussed in interdisciplinary working groups including politicians and practitioners• The preliminary selection of indicators for each cell of the „dash board“ from existing sources in Finland has to be completed by additional indicators• The indicators have to be empirically tested by analyses of existing data and by pilot testing of new indicators• The further integration with the „Findicators“ has to be achieved, i.e. with the existing and developing monitoring system of the Finnish government. Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011
  32. 32. Thank You for Your Attention ! Marja Vaarama 19.12.2011

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