International partnerships for ecosystem science_Karan


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  • TERN was created to provide a nationally coordinated data collection; storage; publishing and sharing infrastructure for Australia.It builds on existing ecosystem data collection networks and aims to becomepart of standard practice in ecosystem science and management in Australia.
  • There are 15 facilities within TERN.Some will provide snapshot data or mapping products for Australia, while others provide long term recurrent monitoring of biodiversity and/or biogeochemistry data products.
  • TERN covers the spectrum from data collection to data storage, integration, analysis and synthesis.The Supersite Network provides plot based, recurrent ecosystem monitoring and has close ties to a number of other facilities within TERN.AusCover produces nationally consistent, satellite-based biophysical map products, remote sensing research data, and product validation for Australian conditions.OzFlux is a network Eddy covariance Flux towers that measure energy, water and carbon dioxide fluxes. Each Supersite hosts at least one flux tower.eMAST (ecosystem modelling and scaling infrastructure) is involved in the integration and scaling of biogeochemical and ecological data to develop and apply ecosystem models There are a number of plot based monitoring programs in TERN that work on different scales
  • LTERN or long term ecological monitoring network, integrates key established plot networks across Australia to tackle critical questions associated with the impacts of disturbance on Australian ecosystemsAusPlots Rangelands uses a standardised 1 ha plot survey method to undertake baseline vegetation and soil surveys across the Australian Rangelands which make up 81% of the continent and is represented in 52 bioregions. AusPlots Forests is amonitoring network that improves our understanding of tree growth, forest productivity and carbon dynamics in tall eucalypt forests in relation to continental-scale environmental gradients. The Australian Transects Network includes sub-continental transects that span biomes and traverse major rainfall, temperature and land-use gradients from the coast to inland areas.Supersites - currently have 10 Supersites spread around the country in different climates and vegetation types.
  • Each Supersite aims to answer local scientific questions that address ecological processes specific to the different biomes and assist local stakeholders and natural resource decision makers. The use of consistent monitoring protocols across all sites allows new comparisons and key scientific questions to be addressed by the network. For example:Do contrasting ecosystems differ in their vulnerability to extreme weather events such as droughts and heat waves?Can ‘tipping points’ be identified, and do those tipping points differ among contrasting environments?
  • The Supersite network works collaboratively with other facilities within TERN including AusCover, which collects remote sensing data from satellites and airborne platforms carrying out LiDAR and hyper-spectral scanning, terrestrial laser scans, producing digital elevation models and they also run phenocams at the sites.We are currently working with AusCover to refine and validate remote sensing of biomass across different terrestrial ecosystems in Australia.
  • OzFluxtowers provide data on radiation, heat, water and CO2 fluxes as well as collecting data from soil sensors.The towers also act as platforms for equipment such as phenocameras and acoustic recorders.
  • There is currently limited faunal monitoring across all sites. Each Supersite has bird surveys and 1 or 2 automated acoustic recorders.Acoustic data from each supersite can be accessed from a dedicated database web page. The data is presented visually and 1 min sections can be selected and played on-line. Analysis tools will soon be added to this web site and working groups developed to progress data handling and analysis strategies.
  • The ASN data portal can be used to locate data using the clickable map or by using search terms. There are separate databases in TERN for large datasets such as for OzFlux and AusCover data.We have a link to the acoustic recordings database located at Bush.FM. Each acoustic sensor will record terabytes of data per year with some Supersites hosting multiple acoustic sensors.
  • International partnerships for ecosystem science_Karan

    1. 1. International partnership for ecological observations at the continental scale: TERN- Australian Supersite Network/NEON partnership Mirko Karan Mike Liddell Stuart Phinn
    2. 2. Overview Introduction to the Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Evolution of an Australian Supersite Network Partnership with NEON / Future directions
    3. 3. Data sharing lifecycle/and increasing knowledge Ecosystem Science Research Questions Proposal and Funding Researcher(s) and Data Collection Data Sets + Meta-data Research Outputs Data Processing, Analysis, Integr ation and Synthesis. TERN Data Portal +License +Identifier
    4. 4. State and Federal Agencies Universities State and Federal Agencies P: +61 7 3346 7021 email TERN is supported by the Australian Government through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and the Super Science Initiative. 1 of 3 11/07/13 11:19 A Universities Other organisations International Partners
    5. 5. Multi-Scale Plot System
    6. 6. Plot based monitoring in TERN FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Cumberland Plain EucFACE Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt Victorian Dry Eucalypt Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Alice Mulga Litchfield Savanna Great Western Woodland
    7. 7. FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Evolution of the Supersites
    8. 8. FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Great Western Woodland
    9. 9. FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Cumberland Plain EucFACE Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt Victorian Dry Eucalypt Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Alice Mulga Litchfield Savanna Great Western Woodland
    10. 10. Australian Supersite Network FNQ Rainforest SEQ Peri-urban Cumberland Plain EucFACE Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt Victorian Dry Eucalypt Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Alice Mulga Litchfield Savanna Great Western Woodland ‘Do contrasting ecosystems differ in their vulnerability to extreme weather events such as droughts and heat waves?’ ‘Can ‘tipping points’ be identified and do those tipping points differ among contrasting environments?’
    11. 11. FNQ Rainforest FNQ Tropical Rainforest Supersite “What are the fundamental carbon & water stocks and flows in FNQ tropical forests and are these likely to change significantly in the future?” “How does seasonal water availability relate to species distribution, growth and phenology?”
    12. 12. Great Western Woodland Great Western Woodlands Supersite Menzies line fragmented wheatbelt woodland, shrubland intact eucalypt woodland, shrublan d low acacia woodland (mulga) “Are old growth semi-arid woodlands carbon sources or sinks” “Where do woodland trees source water from and what are the impacts of changed hydrology associated with mining?”
    13. 13. Cumberland Plain EucFACE Cumberland Plain EucFACE Supersite “Does CO2 enrichment stimulate ecosystem Carbon storage?” “Are species diversity and bio-structure altered by CO2 fertilisation?”
    14. 14. AusCover- satellite, 5 km x 5 km airborne LiDAR and Hyper-spectral scans, terrestrial laser scans, Digital elevation models, phenocams Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) A collaborative Network approach
    15. 15. OzFlux- radiation, heat, water and CO2 flux measurements, Microclimate, soil sensors A collaborative Network approach
    16. 16. eMAST - plant physiology measures 2010-2014 Leaf and branch analyses • leaf area/thickness/mass/N/P/C/ 13C/15N/water potential Leaf gas exchange measurements • measurements of photosynthesis and respiration • CO2 and light-response curves of photosynthesis • temperature response curves of respiration Plant water relations • Pre-dawn/midday leaf water potentials, pressure-volume curves • Whole tree hydraulic conductance A collaborative Network approach Total biomass (ton/ha) 49 Second major vegetation type: Gimlet woodland 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2012. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 27 Total biomass (ton/ha) 46 Groundwater bores drilled in 2013. No water to bedrock (~ 50m)! Carbon stocks are tied to water availability.
    17. 17. TERN Supersites Plant trait analysis 2010-2014 FNQ Cape Tribulation FNQ Robson Ck Cumberland EucFACE Warra Tall Eucalypt Calperum Mallee Alice Mulga Greater Western Woodlands
    18. 18. Plant related science questions Environmental sensitivity • How do plants’ drought-coping strategies differ between temperate/winter- wet and tropical/summer-wet climates? Predicting variations in traits • Are reported ‘global’ patterns in plant traits able to predict variations in traits across the Australian continent? Plant ecophysiology • How does stomatal behaviour relate to water availability? • Which is more important in determining the rate of net carbon gain by an ecosystem – photosynthesis or respiration?
    19. 19. Vegetation protocols Core 1 ha plot Vascular plant list - voucher specimens Abundance, Cover, Structure Forests - Direct measures (stems ≥ 10 cm DBH); RAINFOR Gentry transects (stems < 10 cm DBH ); seedling transects Rangelands - Direct measures (stems ≥ 10 cm DBH); Basal wedges; Point intercept method Biomass - Woody plant DBH, Height, Species, Coarse Woody Debris, clip plots, (Leaf litter) Photopoints Phenocameras Leaf Area Index Digital Cover Photography (flat image), Digital Hemispheric Photography, Point Intercept Method / clip plots Robson Creek node Core 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2012 Mixed species upland rainforest 266 species. Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 402 Estimated total C (ton/ha) 367 Daintree node Core 1Ha vegetation plot established in 2000 Above ground biomass (ton/ha) 270 Estimated total C (ton/ha) 267 Groundwater bores (3) drilled in 2008. 10m Plants don’t use it! DRO 5700mm MAP. Carbon stocks are tied to water availability. TERN Carbo Presentation by: Mike Lidde
    20. 20. Soil and Water protocols Core 1 ha plot Initial site and soil characterisation - Soil pit at flux tower, profile, bulk density, physico-chem analysis - 9 distributed cores for physico-chem analysis Hydrogeological description Digital Elevation Model OzFlux soil instruments - volumetric water content, Soil temp, soil heat flux Soil metagenomics - 16S Bact/archea; ITS Fungi; 18S Euk/algal (Baseline) Stream monitoring - pH, N, P, major ions, EC etc Bore(s) - depth logging
    21. 21. Fauna protocols Bird Surveys Acoustic recording
    22. 22. ASN Data Portal
    23. 23. Expanded protocols (subject to funding) Vegetation Plant functional traits Fruiting, Flowering Recruitment dynamics C, N, P stocks 13C,15N, CHO Soil Metagenomics - seasonal Soil moisture sensors - COSMOS cosmic ray sensors Soil arrays 5 x (5m x 5 m) - CO2, temp, heat flux Rain and bore water isotopes CO2 / GHG soil chambers / soil flux Fauna Small mammal trapping Camera traps Invertebrate fauna - ants / beetles /moths / mosquitoes
    24. 24. ASN - NEON Interactions Initial contact Review vegetation protocols Aug 2012 Nov 2012 Review soil protocols Jan 2013 ASN meeting / TERN Symposium MOU Review flux measurements Feb 2013 Aug 2013 Review QA / QC protocols TBA Further interactions with TERN will focus on Data Products, Informatics, Science Education and Project Management Facility and Program level discussions
    25. 25. ASN - NEON Interactions Continue working towards accurate, reproducible and cross-comparable protocols for ground and airborne measurements. Advancing standardization, calibration, QA/QC and uncertainty quantification of measurements, observations and data products Developing, testing and deploying new and emerging technologies
    26. 26. Interna=onal%Partners