Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa_Challenges and opportunities in the implementation of wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring: carbon fluxes at the Victorian Dry Eucalypt Supersite
Challenges and opportunities in the implementationof wireless sensor networks for environmentalmonitoringDr. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa, P.Eng., SM IEEEEarth and Atmospheric Science DepartmentUniversity of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canadaarturo.firstname.lastname@example.org
Are we facing a change in our environmental monitoring paradigm?1. The science of environmental monitoring is evolving as well as the technology that supports it. • How do we conduct new synthesis?2. Environmental monitoring science is facing a disproportioned increase on data availability. • How do we manage, analyze and visualize TBs of information?3. The way that we communicate and divulge environmental monitoring data is also changing. • How do we accurate communicate environmental trends using clear language?
Evolution of Science Paradigms1st Paradigm Thousand years ago: • Science was empirical and aimed to describe natural phenomena.2nd Paradigm Last few hundred years: • 2 . The theoretical branch of a 4 G c2 using models, generalizations a 3 a23rd Paradigm Last few decades: • A computational branch paradigm emerged aimed at simulating complex phenomena4th Paradigm Today: • Data exploration (eScience): unify theory of experiment, and simulation, taking into consideration that: – Data captured by instruments or generated by simulator – Processed by software – Information/Knowledge stored in computer – Scientist analyzes database / files using data management and statistics
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Great potential and numerous advantages over wired ecosystem monitoring and part of the 4th Paradigm of Science Purelink.ca Altenergymag.com
Interdisciplinary Nature of WSN research and development• Sensor design and field testing: hardware and software integration.• Sensor power management: power optimization and harvesting.• Network architecture design: optimal area coverage and architecture design of network topology• Advance cyber- infrastructure: intelligent data query and analyses.• Integration into Environmental monitoring programs: ground and remote sensing. From node - to site - to decision making.
WSN Design and Field Testing Modification of WSNs For specific environmental applications Land, Water, Life, and Air applications
Australia’s field testing site:Whroo, VIC. TERN Supersite
Sensor Power Management1. Remote monitoring systems have to operate within a limited energy budget2. Need to manage the available resources • Collect available energy (energy harvesting) • Store excess energy (batteries) • Be efficient (avoid energy waste)3. Power management • Extend life • Reduce maintenance
Network Architecture Design and Network Spatial Topologies
Advanced Cyber- Infrastructure1. Upload your field data 3. Visualize and analyze your data 2. Data query (QC) 4. Retrieve selected data
Optimal VPD from 7-12 hPa Daytime VPD > 10 at Whroo Super Site July-Sept 2% Sept-Nov 42%Ksj.mit.edu Nov-Feb 74%
Baseline Definition & Long TermMonitoring: Ecosystem Succession Metrics New approaches for data exploration and trend detection are necessary given the large size of emerging datasets: Machine Learning, Probabilistic distribution analysis, non-parametric statistics…
Baseline Definition & Long Term Monitoring: Ecosystem Succession Metrics Surface albedo • Changes on micro- meteorological variables as a result of ecological succession. • Responses to Ecological Restoration Relative Humidity • Key tool to monitor changes on the restoration of Oil sands.
Derived information: Event Detection (Brazil) Normal Productivity Insect attack Storm event Optical sensor network captures anomalous events in detail
Challenges on the development of WSNs1. Remote outdoor durability2. Component miniaturization • Integration of Nanotechnology3. Improved communication and coverage4. Sub-second sampling and sampling on demand; • Specialized software for event detection5. Enhanced memory capacity6. Advanced cyber-infrastructure --> cloud computing data management • Data analytics approaches for data analysis in real time.
Nano Materials for water Temperature & pH Courtesy of Dr. Mike Serpe, Chemistry Department, UAlberta.