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Overview• What is a supersite• Great Western Woodlands  Supersite location and  vegetation• Regional-scale goals• Credo fl...
What is a Supersite?Temporally intensive long term measurements to facilitate a mechanistic  understanding of ecosystem pr...
Supersites - overarching questions What are the current stocks and fluxes of energy, carbon, water and nutrients between e...
The Great Western     WoodlandsWorld’s largest extant Mediterranean-climate woodland (16 M ha)Largely intact, diverseMosai...
The Great Western Woodlands TERN supersite                                                    low acacia woodland         ...
Current and recent projectsRegional-scale goals General goals    •Inform management and climate adaptation in GWW    •Info...
Credo flux tower and intensive monitoring                                              low acacia woodland                ...
Credo        • Ex sheep station now managed          for conservation by DEC WA        • 120 km NW Kalgoorlie        • 260...
Flux tower             Led by Craig Macfarlane             36 m tower installed January 2012             Operational Decem...
Net CO2 flux (uncleaned) – ecosystem scale                                 0.3                                            ...
Available energy and latent heat loss                                     900                                             ...
volumetric water content         0.0               0.1                     0.2                               0.3          ...
Credo core monitoring                                                                                                     ...
Gradient plots                                low acacia woodland                                      (mulga)            ...
Gimlet plots: fire-age gradient  How do gimlet woodland structure, floristics, fuels,  invertebrates and soil processes ch...
Salmon gum plots – environment gradients                           Environmental controls of floristic                    ...
Sandplain plots                                                                              Red sandplainsSWATT transect ...
Wheatbelt Nutrient Network experiment http://www.nutnet.umn.edu/
Additional projects                                  low acacia woodland                                        (mulga)   ...
FLAMES model   Adaptation of the FLAMES model to predict effects of climate, fire and exotic   invasion on woodland dynami...
Ngadju Kala projectDocumentation of Ngadju fire knowledge•Can GWW NRM offer livelihoods for GWW traditional owners?•How ca...
PhDs and post-docs                      Henrique Togashi, Macquarie University                      Supervised by Prof. Co...
Potential future projects•Where do woodland trees get their water?•Recovery of soils and vegetation after exclusion of liv...
Climate resilience and wheatbelt restoration                                         Can adaptive variability within GWW e...
Bowen ratio and BREB evaporation (W m-2)         0             1                     2                             3      ...
Net radiation and soil heat flux                    1000                                                                  ...
Bowen ratio energy balance • Preliminary (cheap) test of whether Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB)   method can be used to...
Bowen ratio energy balance - conclusion • Fails to accurately estimate understorey/soil evaporation in a dry   environment...
Suzanne Prober_The Great Western Woodlands Supersite in Western Australia
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Suzanne Prober_The Great Western Woodlands Supersite in Western Australia

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Suzanne Prober_The Great Western Woodlands Supersite in Western Australia

  1. 1. You can change this image to be appropriate for your topic by inserting an image in this space or use the alternate title slide with lines. Note: only one image should be used and do not overlap the title text. Enter your Business Unit or Flagship name in the ribbon above the url. Add collaborator logos in the white space below the ribbon. [delete instructions before use] The Great Western Woodlands SupersiteSuzanne Prober, Craig Macfarlane, Richard Silberstein, Kevin Thiele, Stephen van Leeuwen, Colin Yates,Margaret Byrne, Garry Cook, Carl Gosper, Judith Harvey, Ian Kealley, Adam Liedloff, Keren Raiter CSIRO ECOSYSTEM SCIENCES
  2. 2. Overview• What is a supersite• Great Western Woodlands Supersite location and vegetation• Regional-scale goals• Credo flux tower and intensive monitoring• Gradient plots• Additional projects
  3. 3. What is a Supersite?Temporally intensive long term measurements to facilitate a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem processes• Core field site representing an Australian biome; with flux tower and base station• At least one gradient transect (10 km to 400 km)• Supporting studies
  4. 4. Supersites - overarching questions What are the current stocks and fluxes of energy, carbon, water and nutrients between ecosystem components and the atmosphere/ hydrosphere/ geosphere? 1a. How are these conditioned by management/disturbance/inter-annual variability? 1b. What key processes determine ecosystem/non-biosphere exchanges? 1c. How are key processes expected to respond to future environmental change? 1d. Are there network-wide trends in changes in inter-annual stocks and fluxes? What are the current patterns and dynamics of biodiversity? 2a. How is biodiversity impacted by management / disturbance / inter-annual variability ? 2b. How will biodiversity respond future environmental change? 2c. Are there general patterns across the network?
  5. 5. The Great Western WoodlandsWorld’s largest extant Mediterranean-climate woodland (16 M ha)Largely intact, diverseMosaic of woodlands, mallee, scrub-heath, ironstone and greenstoneranges and salt lakesWoodlands at as low as 220mm MAR
  6. 6. The Great Western Woodlands TERN supersite low acacia woodland (mulga) Menzies line intact eucalypt fragmented woodland, wheatbelt shrubland woodland, shrubland 100 km
  7. 7. Current and recent projectsRegional-scale goals General goals •Inform management and climate adaptation in GWW •Inform management and climate adaptation in the adjacent wheatbelt
  8. 8. Credo flux tower and intensive monitoring low acacia woodland (mulga) Menzies line intact eucalypt fragmented woodland, wheatbelt shrubland woodland, shrubland 100 km
  9. 9. Credo • Ex sheep station now managed for conservation by DEC WA • 120 km NW Kalgoorlie • 260mm mean annual rainfall • Facilities: new field studies centre jointly funded by DEC WA, TERN and others • Flux tower and 1 ha plots in old growth Salmon gum woodland 35km from Credo facilities
  10. 10. Flux tower Led by Craig Macfarlane 36 m tower installed January 2012 Operational December 2012
  11. 11. Net CO2 flux (uncleaned) – ecosystem scale 0.3 net respiration 0.2 carbon flux (mg CO2 m-2 s-1) 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 net photosynthesis -0.3 2-Feb 7-Feb 19-Dec 24-Dec 29-Dec 3-Jan 8-Jan 13-Jan 18-Jan 23-Jan 28-Jan
  12. 12. Available energy and latent heat loss 900 6 available energy latent heat loss rainfall 800 5 700 available energy and LE (W m-2) 600 4 rainfall (mm/30mins) 500 3 400 300 2 200 1 100 0 0 9-Jan 11-Jan 13-Jan 15-Jan 17-Jan 19-Jan 21-Jan 23-Jan •Latent heat loss/evaporation (green) increasing after rain
  13. 13. volumetric water content 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.619-Dec24-Dec 5cm 70cm 50cm 30cm 20cm 10cm rainfall29-Dec 110-140cm 3-Jan 8-Jan Soil water versus depth13-Jan18-Jan23-Jan28-Jan 2-Feb 7-Feb 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 rainfall (mm/30mins)
  14. 14. Credo core monitoring As per supersite protocols •Floristics – 1 ha plots •Bioacoustics •Soil pit •Bird surveys (Birds Aust) •Webcam (Restrepo) •AusCover •AusPlots Bioacoustic Eucalyptus salmonophloia (Salmon gum) woodland monitoring Webcam •Plant physiology 2 6 Dendrometers measuring seasonal change in tree diameters 5 1diameter increment (mm) 4 rainfall (mm/30mins) 0 3 2 -1 1 -2 0 Soil pit 20-Dec 25-Dec 30-Dec 4-Jan 9-Jan 3-Feb 8-Feb 14-Jan 19-Jan 24-Jan 29-Jan 1 ha vegetation plots
  15. 15. Gradient plots low acacia woodland (mulga) Menzies line intact eucalypt fragmented woodland, wheatbelt shrubland woodland, shrubland 100 km
  16. 16. Gimlet plots: fire-age gradient How do gimlet woodland structure, floristics, fuels, invertebrates and soil processes change with time since fire, and what does this imply for fire management?GWW Strategy , DEC WA, CSIROGosper, Prober, Yates, Wiehl
  17. 17. Salmon gum plots – environment gradients Environmental controls of floristic variation and vegetation structure in salmon gum woodlands of the GWW Judith Harvey, Masters candidate, Curtin University Supervised by Laco Mucina, University of WA, S. Prober, CSIROCurtin Uni, UWA, CSIROHarvey, Mucina, Prober
  18. 18. Sandplain plots Red sandplainsSWATT transect &GWW SupersiteSpecies turnover inshrublands Yellow sandplains White sandplains 100 kmTERN (SWATT), DEC WA, GWW Supersite, CSIRO
  19. 19. Wheatbelt Nutrient Network experiment http://www.nutnet.umn.edu/
  20. 20. Additional projects low acacia woodland (mulga) Menzies line intact eucalypt fragmented woodland, wheatbelt shrubland woodland, shrubland 100 km
  21. 21. FLAMES model Adaptation of the FLAMES model to predict effects of climate, fire and exotic invasion on woodland dynamics and carbon stocks • Developed for tropical savannahs Diagrams from Liedloff et al. 2007 Ecological Modelling • Adapt for Salmon gum woodlandsBiodiversity Fund, CSIROLiedloff, Cook, Prober, Gosper, Yates, et al
  22. 22. Ngadju Kala projectDocumentation of Ngadju fire knowledge•Can GWW NRM offer livelihoods for GWW traditional owners?•How can Indigenous fire management improve ecological outcomes for GWW? WA govt GWW strategy, DEC WA, GLSC, CSIRO Prober, O’Connor, Yuen, Walker, the Ngadju community
  23. 23. PhDs and post-docs Henrique Togashi, Macquarie University Supervised by Prof. Colin Prentice Comparative ecophysiology of tropical and warm-temperate forests and woodlands Keren Raiter, University of WA Supervised by Profs Richard Hobbs, Hugh Possingham The cryptic and the cumulative: mitigating regional ecological impacts of mining and exploration in SW Australia’s Great Western Woodlands Dr Natalia Restrepo, Prof. Alfredo Huete, University of Technology, Sydney Integrating remote sensing, landscape flux measurements, and phenology to understand the impacts of climate change on Australian landscapesWebcamUniversity of WA, Queensland University, Macquarie University
  24. 24. Potential future projects•Where do woodland trees get their water?•Recovery of soils and vegetation after exclusion of livestock•What determines the Menzies line?•Diversity and function of soil cryptogam crusts in GWW•Time-since-fire impacts on invertebrate groups
  25. 25. Climate resilience and wheatbelt restoration Can adaptive variability within GWW eucalypts contribute to climate adaptation in the wheatbelt? •Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. lissophloia (oil mallee) •Eucalyptus salubris (gimlet) Measurements along a climate gradient and in common gardens •Photosynthetic rate, transpiration, WUEi •Leaf traits (specific leaf area etc.) •C and N bulk leaf isotopes •C cellulose isotopes •O isotopes •Genetic analysis using DArT markersNCARRF, DEC WA, ECU, CSIRO, University of TasmaniaMclean, Stylianou, Stock, Byrne, Prober, Potts, Steane, Vallaincourt
  26. 26. Bowen ratio and BREB evaporation (W m-2) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 819-Dec24-Dec29-Dec 3-Jan Bowen ratio 8-Jan13-Jan18-Jan Bowen ratio energy balance BREB evaporation23-Jan28-Jan rainfall 2-Feb 7-Feb 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 rainfall (mm/30mins)
  27. 27. Net radiation and soil heat flux 1000 6 net radiation soil heat flux rainfall 800 5 600 4radiation (W m-2) rainfall (mm) 400 3 200 2 0 1 -200 0 2-Feb 7-Feb 19-Dec 24-Dec 29-Dec 3-Jan 8-Jan 13-Jan 18-Jan 23-Jan 28-Jan
  28. 28. Bowen ratio energy balance • Preliminary (cheap) test of whether Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method can be used to separate soil/understorey evaporation from stand evaporation in a remote location. • Instruments located in clearing near backup weather station. About 80m from trees. • Three capacitance temperature/humidity sensors (Sensirion SHT15) at both 1m and 3m height. Three sensors increase precision and reduce bias compared to one sensor. No aspiration or moving parts reduces power requirements and maintenance. • Available energy modelled from measured global solar radiation.
  29. 29. Bowen ratio energy balance - conclusion • Fails to accurately estimate understorey/soil evaporation in a dry environment with high insolation. • Could try a larger clearing (less overstorey influence) and better quality instruments. • Alternatives include a second EC system at 2m height (simple but expensive) or sapflow probes (complicated and expensive).

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