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Towards the extinction of mega data centres? To which extent should the Cloud be distributed at the network edge?

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Keynote by Thierry Coupaye at the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, Niagara Falls, Canada, October 2015.

Summary: Cloud computing emerged, a decade or so ago, from underused computing and storage ressources in Internet players mega data centres that were thought to be provided "as a service". As a result of this inception, Cloud is often considered as a synonym for massive data center, which somehow fuels a very centralised vision of (cloud) computing and storage provision. However, we might be at a time in which the pendulum begins to swing back. Indeed, several initiatives are emerging around a vision of more geographically distributed clouds where computing and storage resources are made available at the edge of the network, close to users, in complement or replacement of massive remote data centres. This presentation discusses, through some examples, the evolution of cloud architectures towards more distribution, the signs and stakes of these mutations.

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Towards the extinction of mega data centres? To which extent should the Cloud be distributed at the network edge?

  1. 1. 1 © Orange Towards the extinction of mega data centres? To which extent should the Cloud be distributed at the network edge? Keynote @ 4th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking, Niagara Falls, Canada October 5-7 2015 Thierry Coupaye (PhD) Head of cloud platforms research, Orange Labs, France
  2. 2. 2 © Orange §  Cloud evolutions, variations and mutations §  Centralized or distributed: pick one! §  Centralized or distributed: take both! §  End of story: natural selection? Outline
  3. 3. 3 © Orange The speaker §  Head of cloud platforms research at Orange Labs §  Orange Expert on Future Network -  Sponsor of the “Programmable and cloud networking” domain §  Background in distributed systems architecture -  Active database systems at University of Grenoble, France -  Semi-structured data management at European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK -  Large scale software deployment at Dassault Systems, France -  Component-based software architectures at Orange, France -> autonomic and cloud computing
  4. 4. 4 © Orange
  5. 5. 5 © Orange Why is Cloud Computing strategic for Orange ’’Cloud Computing is in our DNA’’. Orange Business Services, Dec. 2009 “Cloud Computing is here to drive the IT ecosystem so traditional ICT providers must transform or die.” Yankee Group, 2008 “Cloud computing holds enormous potential for telecom service providers if they get aggressive about driving technological innovation there.” Telephony Online, April 2009. 1.  evolution of hosting offers for enterprise market XaaS for multinational companies, large national accounts, and medium and small enterprises 2.  evolution of mass market services platforms and services -  communications, audiovisual (TV, DVR, music), healthcare, IoT/M2M, transport, gaming… -  emergence of personal cloud 3.  evolution of information systems –  network and service provisioning and management, customers management, business intelligence, billing… –  human resources, inventory (network, suppliers), finances… 4.  embodiment of Future Internet Architecture “SDN”, “NFV”, “Network Softwarization” §  Very few networks/platforms/services inside Orange will not be impacted by cloud computing §  The future of Orange depends partly on its capability to master cloud computing
  6. 6. 6 © Orange cloud evolutions, variations and mutations
  7. 7. 7 © Orange Cloud evolution Cloud is not a synonym for mega data centres!
  8. 8. 8 © Orange Back to the definition of Cloud Computing (adapted from NIST) 6 characteristics 1.  On Demand 2.  Self-Service 3.  Network Access 4.  Resource Pooling (multi- tenancy) 5.  Rapid Elasticity 6.  Measured Service, Scalable pricing 3 delivery models (markets) 1.  Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS) 2.  Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) 3.  Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 4 deployment models 1.  Private cloud 2.  Public cloud 3.  Hybrid cloud 4.  Community Cloud Source: Forrester Location transparency is the point!
  9. 9. 9 © Orange “The future of cloud computing - an army of monkeys?” Sam Johnston, Sept. 2008 “I don't care if my cloud computing architecture is powered by a grid, a mainframe, my neighbour's desktop or an army of monkeys, so long as it's fast, cheap and secure.” Source: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/cloud-computing/xs2ctSEvMbw
  10. 10. 10 © Orange Trends, variations, mutations towards cloud distribution Centralized public clouds are in fact generally distributed over multiple (mega) data centres for availability reasons Verizon (©) Orange (©)Microsoft (©) Amazon (©) 1
  11. 11. 11 © Orange Verizon Data Centres
  12. 12. 12 © Orange Amazon (AWS) Data Centres
  13. 13. 13 © Orange Microsoft Azure Data Centres
  14. 14. 14 © Orange Orange Data Centres Sydneycore MPLS POP other core backbone routes data centres core DC interconnections Atlanta, GA Normandie Lodz Rio de Janeiro major service centres Mauritius Cairo Delhi London San Jose, CA Sterling, VA Francfurt Singapore Hong Kong Paris
  15. 15. 15 © Orange Hybrid and community clouds are by nature distributed over multiple data centres/clouds2 © Avaeglo © Orange Trends, variations, mutations towards cloud distribution
  16. 16. 16 © Orange Networks are getting « softwarized » and are converging with a distributed vision of cloud computing. 3 examples: §  Virtual CDN (vCDN) §  Cloud RAN (C-RAN) §  Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) 3 © Dataquest Trends, variations, mutations towards cloud distribution
  17. 17. 17 © Orange Virtual Content Delivery Networks (vCDN) §  vCDN is a step towards CDN “cloudification” §  vCDN is a step towards cloud distribution at the edge of the network CDN providers would like to deploy their functions inside mobile networks © Akamai © Amazon §  CDN -  Caching servers placed closed to users -  Used for video streaming and also web accelaration, device management, application delivery, virtual desktops… -  Less effective in varying conditions (e.g. flash crowds) §  vCDN – virtualization-based CDN -  Dynamicity of ressource (caches) location -  Isolation in multi-providers scenarios
  18. 18. 18 © Orange Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RAN) §  C-RAN is a step towards RAN “cloudification” §  C-RAN is a step towards cloud distribution at the edge of the network in the access network because RRH and BBU distance cannot exceed ~20-40kms §  Traditional/All-in-One/Macro-Base architecture -  Co-location of radio and baseband processing §  Distributed Base Station -  Separation of radio (RRH) and baseband processing (BBU) -  More convenient place for BBU (maintenance…) -  Still static assignment of BBU to RRH §  Cloud-RAN -  BBU virtualization and pooling Dynamicity/flexibility in RRH-BBU assignment, better performance, energy and cost savings, easier maintenance and evolution Source: “Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks – A Technology Overview”. A. Checko and al. IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials, 7(1), 2015.
  19. 19. 19 © Orange Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) §  MEC is a step towards cloud distribution at the edge of the network §  MEC targets geo-distributed applications §  ETSI ISG targetting: -  a standard service environment open to 3d party service developpers and content providers -  on top of a standard hosting infrastructure -  located at the RAN Edge §  Benefits: low latency, high bandwidth, access to radio network data §  Use cases: video analytics, location- based services, IoT, augmented reality, caching © ETSI
  20. 20. 20 © Orange Centralized or distributed: pick one!
  21. 21. 21 © Orange Economical issues Criteria Centralized Cloud/Mega DC Distributed Cloud/Micro DC Construction cost (terrain, building) Complex to choose a site, to get authorisations. Smaller and more discrete buildings. Existing buildings can be reused. Extension cost Very low up to the DC physical limit. Very high beyond: need to build new mega DC. Small and smooth. Very low until the DC physical limit. Easy beyond to rent or build a new small building or a « DC container » Construction security cost Strong, active, humanized security. A mega-DC is an industrial site… Can be passive and light 😊😟 😊😟 😊😕 © Orange © Sun Microsystems
  22. 22. 22 © Orange Environmental issues Criteria Centralized Cloud/Mega DC Distributed Cloud/Micro DC Energy cost Good price because of high volumes but heat reselling may be difficult for isolated DC Less or no need for cooling. Higher capacity to use locally produced clean energy (solar, wind…). Easyness to resell heat to surrounding buildings Energetic connectivity DC needs to be close to massive electricity production. Redondance of energy producers may be difficult (e.g. in France) No special approvisionnement. Easyness to get multiple producers Network connectivity Large DC can be located close to big peering points Most micro DC are not always close to major peering points DC workers transportation cost Workers generally not in close proximity May need transportation but workers live not far away Risks (industrial, natural, economic…) Large size implies higher risks and associated cost Lower risks. Lower cost. 😊😟 😊😕 😏 😏 😊 😟 😟 😊 © Qarnot Computing
  23. 23. 23 © Orange Technical issues Criteria Centralized Cloud/Mega DC Distributed Cloud/Micro DC Manageability (supersvision) Centralized management is easier (homogeneity) More complex, need more automation but hardware management easier. Security Easy security management. Smaller attack surface (risk fragmentation). Less damage in case of attacks. Availability and reliability SPOF risk. Difficult DC redundancy. Higher dependability on core network and Internet traffic No SPOF. Easier recovery. Inter-DC fault tolerance. Local traffic. Performance Very efficient « inside the DC » but not necessarily from user’s point of view. Lower latencies. Intrinsic support of user mobility (follow-me cloud) Core network traffic Heavy Lighter 😕 😏 😊😏 😟😊 😊😟 😟 © University of Technology Sydney 😊
  24. 24. 24 © Orange Socio-political issues Criteria Centralized Cloud/Mega DC Distributed Cloud/DC Proximity and data protection Concerns with data location in remote/foreign mega DC More trust in local data centre (e.g. “proxicenter” in Rennes, France) Sovereignty and land-use planning Huge economic attraction but limited to happy few and mega DC generally out of city centres Local authorities (e.g. cities) expectations i) from their own needs (smart cities) and ii) to attract business Legal issues Concerns with data location (e.g. health, fiscal), lawful interception Easier adaption to local regulations. QoE improvement through data location (cf. Net Neutrality) “Libertarianism” Embodiment of “digital imperialism” Contributes to fulfilment of expectations for decentralized and open (source) infrastructures Proxycenter, Rennes, France © TDF 😊 😊 😊 😊 😟 😕 😟 😟
  25. 25. 25 © Orange Centralized or distributed: take both!
  26. 26. 26 © Orange Fog Computing §  A paradigm from Cisco “Fog Computing is a highly virtualized platform that provides compute, storage and networking services between end devices and traditional Cloud Computing data centres, typically, but not exclusively located at the edge of the network” * §  Cisco Fog Computing = Cloud + IoT -  Data collection from sensors/things -  Local data processing and actuators control -  Filtering, aggregation and upload to remote DC for batch analysis §  Use cases: connected vehicles, smart grid, wireless sensors and actuators… web acceleration © Cisco * Source: “Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things”. Flavio Bononi and al, Cisco. ACM SIGCOMM International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, August 2012.
  27. 27. 27 © Orange Some other geo-distributed clouds §  NTT Edge Computing -  Small servers in vicinity of users and devices -  Uses cases: smart city/building, M2M, medical, gaming, speech/ image recognition -  Edge accelerated web platform research prototype §  AT&T Cloud 2.0 -  Balance between local storage/ computation and remote offloading -  Favor local storage/computation by a device or a federation of devices (~Device-to-Device) §  SAVI -  Canadian initiative: U. Waterloo, Toronto, McGill… + IBM, Cisco, Juniper… -  Testbed •  for accelerated distributed (possibly short-lived) applications deployment •  over virtualized small-cell wireless access network •  Connected through optical backhaul to multi-tier cloud including both mega DC and smart converged edges
  28. 28. 28 © Orange Orange geo-distributed cloud §  NGPoP -  Virtualized converged access network -  Virtualized computing and storage -  Open to 3d parties §  Discovery (http://beyondtheclouds.github.io) -  A open initiative lead by Inria with Orange and Renater -  Targets a Locality-based Utility Computing platform (“LUC-OS”) -  Hypothesis •  Autonomic and decentralized management •  OpenStack substrate §  An ubiquitous cloud platform that leverages a continuum of DC from mega DC to nano/pico DC (user devices/things) through mini/micro DC (network PoP) §  Orange as a (geo) distributed open cloud platform operator
  29. 29. 29 © Orange Geo-distributed cloud for new applications Source: NGMN 5G White Paper §  “intrinsically local” §  Crowd/social §  Connected cars §  Smart Home §  Smart City §  IoT in general §  Interactive §  Gaming §  E-health §  Augmented reality §  Virtual reality
  30. 30. 30 © Orange End of story: natural selection?
  31. 31. 31 © Orange 1.  Geo-distributed applications will continue to grow 2.  The construction of new massive mega DC might slow down 3.  Smaller DC in closer users’ vicinity will complement mega DC 4.  User devices are potential cloud platforms too (“nano DC”, “CloudLets”) 5.  Different cloud deployment scenarios will probably co-exist -  which raises many interesting technical/research challenges… 6.  This new landscape could change the actors play webcos <-> cloud providers <-> CDN providers <-> telcos Final word: natural selection?
  32. 32. 32 © Orange Thank you! Acknowledgments This talk contains material from Ivan Meriau, Arnaud Diquélou, Daniel Stern from Orange Labs, Sylvain Quief and al. from Orange Cloud for Business Link: Please comment on Orange research blog here: http://research.orange.com/en/fog-computing-and-geo-distributed-cloud/

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