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TCI 2014 The evolution of cluster policies in Europe from regions to cluster organisations: the cluster trap

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By Elisabet Juan Tresserra, presented at the 17th TCI Global Conference, Monterrey 2014.

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TCI 2014 The evolution of cluster policies in Europe from regions to cluster organisations: the cluster trap

  1. 1. The evolution of cluster policies in Europe from regions to cluster organisations: the cluster trap Elisabet Juan Tresserra Academic 3: The Evolution of Cluster: from the Competitive Advantage of Nations to the Cluster Initiatives Greenbook 2.0 12 November 2014
  2. 2. Your partner in economic development The evolution of cluster policies in Europe from regions to cluster organisations: the cluster trap TCI 2014 Monterrey
  3. 3. 2 Main presentation ideas 01 The best cluster is not the strongest but the one with a higher capacity of adaptation 02 Change requires new references and a vision 03 Organisations are often necessary to lead this change 04 But regions should recover a more active role
  4. 4. 3 What makes a cluster successful?
  5. 5. Clusters are complex adaptative ecosystems 4
  6. 6. Clusters are complex adaptative ecosystems 5 The success of a cluster does not depend on its agglomeration but in its knowledge, capacity of change and adaptation to new realities ” Based on Saxenian, Comission of European Communities, Sölvell, Giuliani “
  7. 7. Clusters are complex adaptative ecosystems 6 The success of a cluster does not depend on its agglomeration but in its knowledge, capacity of change and adaptation to new realities ” Based on Saxenian, Comission of European Communities, Sölvell, Giuliani “
  8. 8. 7 Different stages, different adaptation capacities GROWTH (E.G. SALES, VOLUMES) TIME BIRTH GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE Sölvell, Menzel and Fohrnal
  9. 9. 8 Different stages, different adaptation capacities GROWTH (E.G. SALES, VOLUMES) TIME Maximum cluster sinergies BIRTH GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE Sölvell, Menzel and Fohrnal
  10. 10. 9 GROWTH (E.G. SALES, VOLUMES) TIME Different stages, different adaptation capacities Poorer cluster performance BIRTH GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE
  11. 11. 10 GROWTH (E.G. SALES, VOLUMES) NON CLUSTER COMPANIES TIME BIRTH GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE INDUSTRY Different stages, different adaptation capacities
  12. 12. 11 GROWTH (E.G. SALES, VOLUMES) NON CLUSTER COMPANIES TIME BIRTH GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE INDUSTRY Different stages, different adaptation capacities The same reasons that make a cluster productive will turn against it under new conditions “ ” Based on Saxenian, Sölvell
  13. 13. 12 How do complex systems change?
  14. 14. 13 Change steps (Kotter) 2 3 New references Sustain change
  15. 15. 14 Change steps (Kotter) 2 3 New references Sustain change
  16. 16. 15 Change steps (Kotter) 2 3 New references Sustain change
  17. 17. 16 Change steps (Kotter) 2 3 New references Sustain change
  18. 18. 17 Change in a complex organisation does not happen casually and needs a vision , new leaders and a governance “ ” Cause change Vision New references and eliminate obstacles New framework
  19. 19. 18 Are cluster organisations the solution?
  20. 20. 19 Figures on cluster organisations 66% of the funding is public. Membership accounts for 25% and services for 9%. 66% 90% of the cluster organisations are managed by an existing institution PUBLIC FUNDING 90% Source: ESCA evaluations, Kettels (2012) based on study on 254 european cluster organisations PREVIOUSLY EXISTING 1.000 CLUSTER ORGANISATIONS (2012) 60% PRIVATE BOARD 60% of the board members are private, 15% public institutions, 17% academia
  21. 21. 20
  22. 22. 21 Clusters are already “organisation rich”, should we create… Another organisation?
  23. 23. 22 Clusters are already organisation rich, should we create… Another organisation? A framework for change?
  24. 24. 23 Clusters are already organisation rich, should we create… Another organisation? A framework for change? • Reinforced actions! • Modified actions! • New actions! • Actions in collaboration!
  25. 25. 24 What elements do we need to create it? Framework Plan Company strategy! Control
  26. 26. What is the role of the regional government? 25
  27. 27. 26 Why regions started cluster policies and why is it important?
  28. 28. 27 Why regions started cluster policies and why is it important? Europe 38% 20-50%
  29. 29. 28 Why regions started cluster policies and why is it important? Europe 38% 20-50% It is not only about clusters, it is about prosperity in a territory “ ” Based on Porter, Fontrodona, European Commission
  30. 30. 29 Why regions started cluster policies and why is it important? Competitiveness policies Cluster initiatives • Regional • Innovation • Internationalisation • Clusters • … • Better education • Market development • Technology development • Competitive environment • … Clusters provide with objective knowledge to design better policies “ ” Based on Sölvell
  31. 31. 30 What are the take outs?
  32. 32. Plan Framework Company strategy! 31 Food for thought Control Frameworks make sense with a purpose and it is how they should be evaluated
  33. 33. Plan Framework Company strategy! 32 Food for thought Cluster based policies are about prosperity and regions are an optimal unit Control Frameworks make sense with a purpose and it is how they should be evaluated
  34. 34. Plan Framework Company strategy! 33 Food for thought Cluster based policies are about prosperity and regions are an optimal unit Control Frameworks make sense with a purpose and it is how they should be evaluated CLUSTERS REGIONS Strike a balance in which regions regain control over cluster policies
  35. 35. 34 Thank you Elisabet Juan Tresserra elisabet.juan@competitiveness.com

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