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Clusters 0.0.: back to basics 
Alberto Pezzi 
Parallel 1.1 Common problems, common markets and shared value 
creation 
11 ...
CLUSTERS 0.0.: BACK TO BASICS 
ALBERTO PEZZI 
DIRECTOR OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGY AND CLUSTERS DIVISION 
ACCIÓ / DIRECTORATE ...
INDEX 
 Business clustering before the invention 
of cluster concept 
 Wild clusters Vs. domesticated clusters 
 Curren...
4 
END OF XIV CENTURY: COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Via degli orefici 
Via seterie 
Via calzolerie 
… 
BOLOGNA 
Carrer argenteria...
5 
END OF XIX CENTURY: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 
Lancashire 
cotton textiles 
Sheffield 
cutlery 
North Staffordshire 
potter...
6 
BEGIN XXI CENTURY: DIGITAL REVOLUTION 
Source: Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network, Internet Cluster Analysis 2000
1990: first mention to “clusters” by MEP 
1992: first cluster-based regional development policies 
XIII Cent. Today 
2000 ...
Clusters generate endogenous 
competitiveness advantages by: 
- improving companies’ operational 
efficiency 
- fostering ...
Firm working in a cluster environment are 
more competitive
POLICY 
INTERVENTION 
Cluster initiative 
“Cluster initiatives are organised 
efforts to increase the growth and 
competit...
MACROECONOMIC 
COMPETITIVENESS 
Microeconomic 
Competitiveness 
Help cluster firms to upgrade 
their strategies 
Cluster p...
• Cross-cluster projects 
• International linkages 
• Specialized networks and 
institutions 
• Other horizontal policies:...
apezzi@tci-network.org
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TCI 2014 Clusters 0.0.: back to basics

By Alberto Pezzi, presented at the 17th TCI Global Conference, Monterrey 2014.

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TCI 2014 Clusters 0.0.: back to basics

  1. 1. Clusters 0.0.: back to basics Alberto Pezzi Parallel 1.1 Common problems, common markets and shared value creation 11 November 2014
  2. 2. CLUSTERS 0.0.: BACK TO BASICS ALBERTO PEZZI DIRECTOR OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGY AND CLUSTERS DIVISION ACCIÓ / DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INDUSTRY GOVERNMENT OF CATALONIA TREASURER AND MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS - TCI NETWORK This presentation does not represent an official position and shall neither be binding nor construed as institutional commitment by ACCIÓ - Generalitat de Catalunya. The examples it contains should be considered as illustratives.
  3. 3. INDEX  Business clustering before the invention of cluster concept  Wild clusters Vs. domesticated clusters  Current and future challenges for cluster policy
  4. 4. 4 END OF XIV CENTURY: COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Via degli orefici Via seterie Via calzolerie … BOLOGNA Carrer argenteria Carrer dels assaonadors Carrer dels sombrerers … BARCELONA
  5. 5. 5 END OF XIX CENTURY: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Lancashire cotton textiles Sheffield cutlery North Staffordshire pottery Yorkshire woollen textiles
  6. 6. 6 BEGIN XXI CENTURY: DIGITAL REVOLUTION Source: Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network, Internet Cluster Analysis 2000
  7. 7. 1990: first mention to “clusters” by MEP 1992: first cluster-based regional development policies XIII Cent. Today 2000 ca: first cluster-based organizations Wine (California) AND (Vs.) “domesticated” clusters € POLICY MAKERS’ INTERVENTION Apply managerial techniques and practices to increase cluster performance Biotech (Cambridge – UK) “wild” clusters Silicon Valley Sports / luxury cars (Modena – IT) Packaging machinery (Bologna – IT) POLICY MAKERS’ INTERVENTION Observe cluster dynamics and try to learn and take advantage from it
  8. 8. Clusters generate endogenous competitiveness advantages by: - improving companies’ operational efficiency - fostering innovation and tacit knowledge diffusion - stimulating creation of new companies especially through spin-offs - accelerating social capital formation Source: adapted from M.E. Porter, 1998
  9. 9. Firm working in a cluster environment are more competitive
  10. 10. POLICY INTERVENTION Cluster initiative “Cluster initiatives are organised efforts to increase the growth and competitiveness of clusters within a region, involving cluster firms, government and/or the research community” Örjan Sölvell, Göran Lindqvist & Christian Ketels in The Cluster Initiative Greenbook (2003). Implementation Institutionalization Mapping Anlysis Mentoring Monitoring Evaluation POLICY INSTRUMENT Cluster organization Cluster organizations are entities that are managing and representing a cluster initiative. A cluster organization does not necessarily have members, but it provides services to the cluster initiative participants. SPONTANEOUS PHENOMENON Cluster “Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries, and associated institutions in particular fields that compete but also cooperate” Michael E. Porter (2008) The California Wine Cluster Growers/Vineyards Educational, Research, & Trade Organizations (e.g. Wine Institute, UC Davis, Culinary Institutes) Sources: Michael E. Porter. California Wine Institute, Internet search, California State Legislature. Based on research by MBA 1997 students R. Alexander, R. Arney, N. Black, E. Frost, and A. Shivananda. Wineries/Processing Facilities Grapestock Fertilizer, Pesticides, Herbicides Grape Harvesting Equipment Irrigation Technology Winemaking Equipment Barrels Bottles Caps and Corks Labels Public Relations and Advertising Specialized Publications (e.g., Wine Spectator, Trade Journal) Tourism Cluster Food Cluster California Agricultural Cluster State Government Agencies (e.g., Select Committee on Wine Production and Economy)
  11. 11. MACROECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS Microeconomic Competitiveness Help cluster firms to upgrade their strategies Cluster policies -> better economies of scale in analyzing  Help to identify and choose among different strategic options  Horizontal cooperation activities among companies  Promote strategic change at company level Improve cluster business environment  Improve support and related industries  Improve factor conditions: ad hoc training, technological transfer, etc.  Reinforce sophisticated demand: public procurement, etc.  Adapt and fine-tune other horizontal policies : innovation, entreprenueship, quality, internationalization, etc. and acting
  12. 12. • Cross-cluster projects • International linkages • Specialized networks and institutions • Other horizontal policies: ₋ Entrepreneurship ₋ FDI attraction ₋ Internationalization ₋ Innovation and R&D 12 RELEVANT SCOPE • Cluster scope defining elements: ⁻ KETs ⁻ societal challenges ⁻ advanced services ⁻ business models evolution CLUSTER CONNECTIVITY GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT • Excellence of cluster organizations • Training and capacitation cluster managers • Public-private cooperation • Business leadership MONITORING, FINE-TUNING AND EVOLUTION • Evaluation of policy intervention • Evolution of business • Market and technological foresight • New emerging industries and clusters
  13. 13. apezzi@tci-network.org

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