Cluster basics: Introduction to the Cluster Concept

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By Alberto Pezzi presented at the 12th TCI Global Conference, Jyväskylä 2009

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Cluster basics: Introduction to the Cluster Concept

  1. 1. Clusters 101Jyväskylä, 13 October 2009
  2. 2. Clusters 101: an introduction to cluster basicsAlberto PezziHead of Analysis and Foresight UnitObservatory for Industrial Foresight Department of Innovation,Universities and Enterprise - Generalitat de CatalunyaSecretary and member of the Board of Directors – TCI-network
  3. 3. IndexAn introduction to cluster conceptClusters and cluster-based competitivenessreinforcement initiativesBasics of cluster-based reinforcement initiatives
  4. 4. IndexAn introduction to cluster concept
  5. 5. Bologna, XV centuryJewelry streetShoe-makers streetSilk-makers street
  6. 6. Main industrial districts in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)> 1.000 mil.500-1.000 mil.< 500 miloltre 1000100-1000fino a 100BOLOGNAMotocicletasCARPIGenero de puntoFUSIGNANOcalzadoFORLÌMueble tapizadoSAN MAURO P.calzadoMIRANDOLABiomédicaREGGIO EMILIAMaquinaria agrícolaSASSUOLOAzulejosPARMAAgroalimentarioPIACENZAMaquina herramientaRIMINIMaquinaria parala maderaBOLOGNAMaquinaria packagingFAENZA-IMOLACerámicaPARMACarnicaRIMINI-RICCIONETurismo playaRAVENNAquímicaCESENAAgroalimentarioFAENZA-LUGOConservas de frutaRAVENNAPlantas off-shoreFacturación deldistrito(‘000 €)Numero de empresas> 1.000500-1.000< 500> 1000100-1000< 100Fuentes: CENSIS, 1998, CLUB DEI DISTRETTI INDUSTRIALI, CLUSTER COMPETITIVENESS, análisis propia
  7. 7. Cluster-based competitiveness reinforcement initiativesLeather tanning workshops in Igualada (Barcelona) begin XVIII centurySource: J. Nadal, Atlas de la Industrialización en España 1750-2000, Barcelona 2003
  8. 8. Cluster-based competitiveness reinforcement initiativesLeather tanning workshops in Igualada: XVIII century and todaySource: J. Nadal, Atlas de la Industrialización en España1750-2000, Barcelona 2003Source: Googlemap.T. Megia, Infforme situació sector cluster pell a IgualadaInforme intern del OPI-SIEInternal report – not published
  9. 9. Geographic concentration / localized systems of enterprises“concentration of many small factories specializing in the different phases of the same productionprocess, which and operated at in one location or at in a cluster of locations” (A. Marshall, 1890)“entità socio-territoriale caratterizzata dalla compresenza attiva, in un’area territoriale circoscritta,naturalisticamente e storicamente determinata, di una comunità di persone e di una popolazione diimprese industriali” (G. Becattini, 2000)“A cluster is a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated institutionsin a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities” (M. E. Porter, On Competition,1998)Footwear industryRaw materials(recolectors)Leather tannersFontanellas i MartiVidal BoschCurtidos BadiaApparel industryGoes SATorras SA(...)ChemicalproductsCleaning andtanningAdovinbeWarehouseBuyersAssociationsUnió d’adobadorsCEC-FECURGremi de BlanquersTechnologicalCentresAIICASLAUGHTERHOUSESOther end-users• Proximity• Networking• Specialization
  10. 10. IndexAn introduction to cluster conceptClusters and cluster-based competitivenessreinforcement initiatives
  11. 11. Clusters“Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specializedsuppliers, service providers, firms in related industries, and associated institutions inparticular fields that compete but also cooperate”Michael E. Porter in On Competition (1998).Cluster Initiatives“Cluster initiatives are organised efforts to increase the growth and competitiveness ofclusters within a region, involving cluster firms, government and/or the researchcommunity”Örjan Sölvell, Göran Lindqvist & Christian Ketels in The Cluster Initiative Greenbook (2003).“Cluster Policy”Policies directed at creating, mobilizing or strenghening a particular cluster Policiesdirected to use clusters to increase the efficiency of other specific instrumentsMicroeconomics policies directed to improve business environmentAdpated from Oxford Research, (2008) Cluster Policy in Europe, Brussels.
  12. 12. Cluster reinforcement initiatives worldwide2001199719921980Selectedregions andcountries withcluster-baseddevelopmentinitiatives+-Emilia-RomagnaToscana(industrial-districtsbased policies) ....EuskadiScotlandChihuahuaArizonaCatalunyaMassachussets New ZealandCosta RicaCalifornia....SwedenTurkeyLithuaniaAustriaJordanMéxicoSouth Africa....FranceEstoniaDenmarkSloveniaUKMinas Gerais (BR)...1990 2003 2006PakistanKazakhstanPoland….ParaguayRio Negro (AR)….2009ILLUSTRATIVENOT EXHAUSTIVEApprox. more than 1.400initiatives from countriesand regions all over theworld (*)Over 1.100clusterorganizationsonly in Europ(**)
  13. 13. IndexAn introduction to cluster conceptClusters and cluster-based competitivenessreinforcement initiativesBasics of cluster-based reinforcement initiatives
  14. 14. Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessCOMPETITIVENESSCLUSTERBUSINESSSTRATEGY• Focus on business segments and not onstatistical sectorsStrategy of the future for theclusterBUSINESS SEGMENTSome key-concepts• Final goal• Tool: place on which thinking and talking aboutstrategy, strategic challenges and implementing relatedactionsSource: L. Ramis, 2008
  15. 15. Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessSome key-conceptsFinal goalCompetitiveness(Productivity)Innovative CapacityProsperitySource; Michael E. PorterCOMPETITIVENESS
  16. 16. Source: The Economist, Dec. 23rd, 1999 from A. Maddison, IMF,
  17. 17. Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessFocus on business segments and not onstatistical sectorsBUSINESSSEGMENTSome key-conceptsSource: OPI - Hernández et al., 2005
  18. 18. Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessCLUSTERSome key-conceptsTool: place on which thinking and talking about strategy,strategic challenges and implementing related actionsFootwear industryRaw materials(recolectors)Leather tannersFontanellas i MartiVidal BoschCurtidos BadiaApparel industryGoes SATorras SA(...)ChemicalproductsCleaning andtanningAdovinbeWarehouseBuyersAssociationsUnió d’adobadorsCEC-FECURGremi de BlanquersTechnologicalCentresAIICAOther end-usersLeathertanningSLAUGHTERHOUSESSource: L. Ramis, 2008
  19. 19. Benefit of clusters for enterprisesEconomic prosperity is linked to the degree of cluster strength (EuropeanCluster Observatory)Cluster firms benefit from knowledge sharing and skilled labour85% of cluster firms state that a cluster initiative has improved theircompetitiveness. (Cluster Initiative Greenbook, 2003)Cluster firms are more innovative than non-cluster firms. (2006Innobarometer)Cluster firms register more trademarks (29% vs. 14%) andapply for more patents (29% vs. 12%). (2006 Innobarometer)Cluster firms contract out more research (41% vs. 20%) and carry out lessresearch in-house (44% vs. 53%). (Source: 2006 Innobarometer)Cluster firms expect improved support services. (2006 Innobarometer)Source: DG Industry and Enterprise, 2008
  20. 20. Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessBUSINESSSTRATEGYStrategy of the future for theclusterSome key-conceptsHideCollection andtraetmentManufacturingInitialphasesCost leaderbusinessManufacturingand finishingFlexibilityRepositionInitialordersNon-manufacturingbusinessLuxuryproductionProductionmanagersSource: adapted from Libro Blanco de la Piel en España, 2005
  21. 21. REASONS FOR CHOOSING CLUSTERS TOWORK AT A REGIONAL POLICY LEVELS INCATALONIAThey already presents in the territory andthey allow economies of scale to: understand business and its strategy to act within a homogeneous group offirms to promote changeMONTSIÀHome furnitureOlive oilBARCELONAFarmaciaTapsCosméticaUrban tourismBusiness schoolsMedical devicesPIRINEUMilky productsANOIALeather tanningKnitwearMARESMEKnitwearVALLÈSConsumer electronicsAutomotiveMotorcyclePackagingLLEIDAFarm machineryBuilding materiialsFresh fruitGIRONAMeat processingMineral waterPENEDESWinePALLARSTourismLA GARRIGAHome furnitureCOSTA DAURADASeaside tourismCluster policy in CataloniaLA BISBALPotteryCOSTA BRAVANORDSeaside tourismA CLUSTER IS THE REFERENCEUNIT TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTCOMPETITIVENESSREINFORCEMENT INITIATIVESSource: adapted from Competitiveness
  22. 22. BusinessenvironmentBusiness strategyat company level+ Different strategic options atcompany level Iniciatives according to strategy Horizontal cooperation activitiesamong companies Strategic change at company level Ad hoc training Workshops on Innovation,internationalization Change in rules Competitiveness horizontal policyreinforcement: innovation,internationalization, etc.Innovation policies, clusters and regional competitivenessSource: adapted from Competitiveness
  23. 23. • To define the cluster and its business• To understand the industry, its insignt,trends and key competitivenesselements• To analysis profitability of the industry• To analyze competitors• Business Environment analysis(Diamond)• To define strategic options for thecluster ...Strategic analysis Change process• To involve companies and other actorsin strategic change• To break conventional wisdom• To motivate companies to participatein the project• To create leadership ...Source: adapted from CompetitivenessCluster-based competitiveness reinforcement initiatives
  24. 24. For comments please contact:apezzi@tci-network.org

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