Behind the Name:
Etymology of Arabic Names

Zina Saadi, Computational Linguist
June 14, 2006
Why Are We Looking Behind the Name?

 Background
    Geographical background
    Professional affiliation


 Linguistic So...
Languages of the Muslim World




          http://www.morainevalley.edu/ctl/MiddleEast/photoGallery.htm
                 ...
Outline

  Arabic name structure
     Iraqi, Maghrebi


  Linguistic rules behind Arabic names derivation
     Basic Rules...
English Name Structure

                    Full Name
                 John F. Kennedy




       First Name              ...
Arabic Name Structure

                                                                                                   ...
Components of an Arabic Full Name
  Title   Hypocoristic   Given-Name           Patronym                   Family-Name    ...
Components of an Arabic Full Name (Cont.)

     Given name
         Nouns         (Osama -> type of lion), (Maha -> Wild C...
Example of an Arabic Name
Al-Sheikh Abdullah Bin Hussein Bin Naser Bin… Al-Ahmar
                                         ...
Let’s Analyze the Name
                     http://www.alahmar.net/gallery/




     ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬        ‫ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ‬             ...
Other Examples of Arabic Names

         Arabic Mathematician (850)

                         ‫اﻟﺨﻮارزﻣﻲ‬        ‫ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬...
Basic Linguistic Rules of Arabic Name Derivation


     Arabic root & pattern derivational structure

         3-character...
Rules for Plurals in Names


        Jordanian Common Family Names:

           (‫ ,ﻓ ِﻴﻼت‬f’iilaat) -> (‫ ,ﻋ ِﻴ َات‬Ebeed...
Rules for Compound Names

  Compounds

     [A B] vs. [AB] Form (Connecting vs. Non-Connecting Characters)

   Name       ...
Use of Nisbah in Names

  Nisbah

     How Nisbah is formed?

     Types of Nisbah


     Nisbah Formation

           A s...
How Nisbah is Formed?

  Suffixing an assimilated yaa to the stem of the name A forming a
  name B

     B = stem(A) +    ...
Types of Nisbah

  Nationality or ethnical      Word                                     Nisbah
  background
             ...
Advanced Nisbah Forms

     Nouns ending with taa marbouta -> taa marbouta deletion



        Word              Nisbah

 ...
Advanced Nisbah Forms (cont.)

  Nouns consisting of:
     [1 letter + assimilated yaa]               Word                ...
Nisbah of Compounds

  [A B] form

      Proper noun compound

         Word                                  Nisbah
     ...
Nisbah of Compounds (cont.)

     Other noun compounds

        [Abu/Ibn/Um/Abd] + B => [Abu/Ibn/Um/Abd] + nisbah(B)

    ...
Nisbah of Compounds (cont.)


  [AB] form => nisbah(A)

       Example1:
              AB = ‫ﺣﻀﺮﻣﻮْت‬
                    ...
Nisbah of Two Proper Names
                                                                                      From the ...
Persian Influence on Arabic Names

  Arabic borrowing of Persian
  names

                                         Word   ...
Persian Influence on Arabic Names (cont.)
  Arabic borrowing of linguistically modified Arabic names by Persian


     Clo...
Turkish Influence

  Suffixation
     Stem (Arabic word) + [Ji] suffix
         -ji -> Profession

      Arabic Word      ...
Regional and Social Facts
  During the Ottoman ruling, the Elite class (Rulers, Leaders) were given Islamic
  Arabic Names...
References

Farid, Zainab. “Many of the names of Arab origin. The diversion did
   not affect the meaning”. Retrieved on M...
Thank You




zinas@basistech.com



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Behind The Arabic Name

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Behind The Arabic Name

  1. 1. Behind the Name: Etymology of Arabic Names Zina Saadi, Computational Linguist June 14, 2006
  2. 2. Why Are We Looking Behind the Name? Background Geographical background Professional affiliation Linguistic Software Solution Identify and generate more rules for name matching Name derivation: (Hamd -> Hamd, Hamed, Hamad, Hammoud, … ) Stem matching: Qantara -> Qantar -> (Qantarji, Qantary) Persian taa: (Farhat -> ‫)ﻓﺮﺣﺖ ,ﻓﺮﺣﺎت‬ Identify name boundaries Orthographic corrections: (‫ ,ﺁﻳﺘﻤﻴﻤﻮن‬Aitmimoun) -> (‫ ,ﺁﻳﺖ ﻣﻴﻤﻮن‬Ait Mimoun) 2 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Languages of the Muslim World http://www.morainevalley.edu/ctl/MiddleEast/photoGallery.htm 3 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Outline Arabic name structure Iraqi, Maghrebi Linguistic rules behind Arabic names derivation Basic Rules (Root & Patterns, Plurals) Advanced Rules (Compounds, Nisbah) Cross-lingual influence Persian, Turkish Regional and social facts Across the Arab World 4 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. English Name Structure Full Name John F. Kennedy First Name Last Name John Kennedy Middle Initial F. 5 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Arabic Name Structure Maghreb Full Name Middle East First Name Middle Name Last Name Hypocoristic/Given Name Patronym/Nisbah/Hypocoristic Houari/Ahmed Φ Mokrane/Saadi/Boumediene Tribal System Al-Namamshah Saud Given Name Patronym Patronym/Nisbah/Family-Name Enizat Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud/Zawaydeh Saddam Hussein Al-Tikriti 6 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Components of an Arabic Full Name Title Hypocoristic Given-Name Patronym Family-Name Nisbah Title Masculine (MSA: Imam, Sheikh), (Maghrebi: Si, Sidi, Moulai) Feminine (MSA: Sheikha), (Maghrebi: Lalla) Hypocoristic (Kunya) Metaphoric (Ibn Al-Ardh, son of the land) -> traveler Dialectal (Iraq: Khalid -> Abu Al-Walid, Hussein/Hassan -> Abu Ali) First-born child (Abu/Um Ahmad, Abu/Um Mona) Political (Houari Boumediene Mohamed Boukharouba) 7 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Components of an Arabic Full Name (Cont.) Given name Nouns (Osama -> type of lion), (Maha -> Wild Cow) Adjectives (Kareem -> generous), (Lateefa -> gentle) Verbs (Yazid -> he increases) Patronym (Nasab) Father’s and grandfather(s)’ given names Ibn Abdullah, Ouyahya, Bin Laden Family name Al-Ahmar Bani Oumayya, Banou Quraidha, Ait Hammouda, Al Saud Nisbah Al-Baghdadi (from Baghdad), Haddadi (blacksmith), Saadi 8 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Example of an Arabic Name Al-Sheikh Abdullah Bin Hussein Bin Naser Bin… Al-Ahmar ‫اﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻦ... اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬ http://www.alahmar.net/gallery/ 9 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Let’s Analyze the Name http://www.alahmar.net/gallery/ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬ Al-Ahmar Bin Hussein Abdullah Al-Sheikh Family Name Patronym Given Name Title 10 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Other Examples of Arabic Names Arabic Mathematician (850) ‫اﻟﺨﻮارزﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ Nisbah Patronym Given Name From Khawarezm Son of Mussa Muhammad Arabic Geography Scholar (1178-1229) ‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ اﻟﺤﻤﻮي اﻟﺒﻐﺪادي‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻗﻮت‬ ‫أﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎب اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻹﻣﺎم اﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬ Given Nisbah Patronym Name Hypocoristic Hypocoristic Title Son Father Captive bought by “Askar Alhamaoui” of Yaqut of Shihab Addin Al-Imam Al-Baghdadi -> from Baghdad Abdulla Ruby Abdulla Star of religion Al-Sheikh 11 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Basic Linguistic Rules of Arabic Name Derivation Arabic root & pattern derivational structure 3-character root ‫ ك.ت.ب‬Arabic Root -> (‫)ف.ع. ل‬ ‫“ آﺘﺐ‬to write” -> (‫“ )ﻓﻌﻞ‬to do” Root Pattern Example (‫ ,ك.ت.ب‬k.t.b) (‫ , َﺎﻋﻞ‬faa’il) ِْ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫( َﺎ ِﺐ َﺎ ِﻴﻦ‬Algerian Writer) ‫آﺗ ﻳﺳ‬ (‫ ,ح.م.د‬H.m.d) (‫ , َﺎﻋﻞ‬faa’il) ِْ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫َﺎ ِﺪ زﻳْﺪ‬ َ ‫ﺣﻣ‬ (Kuwaiti Poet) (‫ ,س.ع.د‬s.’.d) (‫ ,أﻓﻌﻞ‬af’al) ْ َْ ‫( أﺳ َﺪ ﺳ ِﻴﺪ‬Lebanese Poet) ‫َ ْﻌ َﻌ‬ (‫ ,ص.د.م‬S.d.m) (‫ ,ﻓ ﱠﺎل‬fa’’aal) ْ ‫َﻌ‬ ‫ﺻ ﱠام ﺣﺴﻴْﻦ‬ َ ُ ‫َﺪ‬ 12 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Rules for Plurals in Names Jordanian Common Family Names: (‫ ,ﻓ ِﻴﻼت‬f’iilaat) -> (‫ ,ﻋ ِﻴ َات‬Ebeedat), (ْ‫ ,ﺳ ِﻴ َات‬Seidat) ْ َ ‫ْﻌ‬ ‫ْﺒ ﺪ‬ ‫ْﻌ ﺪ‬ (‫ ,ﻓ َاﻋِﺔ‬fawa’ileh) -> (‫ ،ﻋ َاﻧ ِة‬Awandeh), (‫ ,ز َاﻳ ِة‬Zawaydeh) ‫َ ﻮ ِﻠ‬ ‫َﻮ ْﺪ‬ ‫َو ْﺪ‬ 13 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Rules for Compound Names Compounds [A B] vs. [AB] Form (Connecting vs. Non-Connecting Characters) Name Influence Comment Bin Ladin ‫ ﺑﻦ ﻻدن‬Colloquial /‫ /ن‬is a connecting letter Ibn Khaldoun ‫ اﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪون‬MSA /‫ /ن‬is a connecting letter Ait Ahmed ‫ ﺁﻳﺖ أﺣﻤﺪ‬Berber /‫ /ت‬is a connecting letter Abu Ahmed ‫ أﺑﻮ أﺣﻤﺪ/أﺑﻮأﺣﻤﺪ‬MSA /‫ /و‬is a non-connecting letter Boumediene ‫ ﺑﻮﻣﺪﻳﻦ‬Colloquial /‫ /و‬is a non-connecting letter Bahmed ‫ ﺑﺎأﺣﻤﺪ‬Yemeni /‫ /ا‬is a non-connecting letter Al Bawazir ‫ ﺁل ﺑﺎوزﻳﺮ‬MSA/Yemeni /‫ /ل‬is a connecting letter /‫ /ا‬is a non-connecting letter 14 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Use of Nisbah in Names Nisbah How Nisbah is formed? Types of Nisbah Nisbah Formation A sample of some linguistic rules Nisbah of compounds Nisbah of two names 15 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. How Nisbah is Formed? Suffixing an assimilated yaa to the stem of the name A forming a name B B = stem(A) + ِ +‫ي‬ ّ Example: ‫ﺻﺪام ﺣﺴﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻜﺮﻳﺘﻲ‬ ّ Saddam Hussein Al-Tikriti The logical relation between (A,B) => “if x is B, then x is from A” ‫ﻣﺤ ﱠﺪ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﻲ =< ﻣﺤ ﱠﺪ ِﻦ ﻗ ِﻴَﺔ ﻗﺮﻳْﺶ‬ َ ُ ‫ُ َﻤ ﻣ َﺒ ﻠ‬ ِ ْ َ ُ ‫ُ َﻤ‬ Muhammad Qureishy => Muhammad is from the tribe of Qureish 16 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Types of Nisbah Nationality or ethnical Word Nisbah background (‫ ,ﻋﺮب‬Arab) (‫ ,ﻋﺮﺑﻲ‬Arabic) (‫ ,هﻨﺪ‬India) (‫ ,هﻨﺪي‬Indian) Religious affiliation Word Nisbah (‫ ,إﺳﻼم‬Islam) (‫ ,إﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬Islamic) Trade or handicraft Word Nisbah (‫ ,ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬industry) (‫ ,ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬industrialist) Adjective formation Word Nisbah (‫ ,ذهﺐ‬gold) (‫ ,ذهﺒﻲ‬golden) (‫ ,ﺑﺤﺮ‬sea) (‫ ,ﺑﺤﺮي‬naval) 17 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Advanced Nisbah Forms Nouns ending with taa marbouta -> taa marbouta deletion Word Nisbah (‫ ,ﻗﺎهﺮة‬Cairo) (‫ ,ﻗﺎهﺮي‬Cairene) (‫ ,ﻣﻜﺔ‬Mecca) (‫ ,ﻣﻜﻲ‬Meccan) Nouns already ending with assimilated yaa How many letters does it consist of? 18 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Advanced Nisbah Forms (cont.) Nouns consisting of: [1 letter + assimilated yaa] Word Nisbah assimilated yaa -> (‫ ,ﺣﻲ‬living) َّ (‫ ,ﺣﻴﻮي‬vital) ّ ِ ََ Yaa+fatha+waw+kasra Waw+fatha+waw+kasra (‫ ,ري‬irrigation) ّ َ (‫ ,رووي‬irrigator) ّ ََِ [2 letter + assimilated yaa] Word Nisbah assimilated yaa -> (‫ ,ﻋﻠﻲ‬Ali) ّ َِ (‫ ,ﻋﻠﻮي‬Alawite) ّ ِ ََ fatha+ Φ +waw+kasra Waw+fatha+waw+kasra (‫ ,ﻧﺒﻲ‬prophet) ّ َِ (‫ ,ﻧﺒﻮي‬prophetic) ّ ِ ََ [3 letters and above + assimilated yaa] assimilated yaa -> Nisbah yaa 19 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Nisbah of Compounds [A B] form Proper noun compound Word Nisbah (‫ ,ﻋﺒْﺪ اﻟﺸﻤْﺲ‬Abdushams) (‫ ,ﻋﺒﺸﻤﺴﻲ‬Abshamsy) ‫ﱠ‬ َ ّ ِ ْ َ َْ (‫ ,ﻋﺒْﺪ اﻟ ﱠار‬Abduddar) ‫َ ﺪ‬ (‫ ,ﻋﺒﺪري‬Abdary) ّ ِ َ َْ (ْ‫ ,ﻋﺒْﺪ اﻟﻼت‬Abdullat) ‫ﱠ‬ َ (‫ ,ﻋﺒﺪﻟﻲ‬Abdaly) ّ َِ ْ َ 20 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Nisbah of Compounds (cont.) Other noun compounds [Abu/Ibn/Um/Abd] + B => [Abu/Ibn/Um/Abd] + nisbah(B) Word Nisbah (‫ ,ا ُﻮ ﺑﻜْﺮ‬Abu Bakr) َ ‫ﺑ‬ (‫ ,ا ُﻮ ﺑﻜﺮي‬Abu Bakri) ّ َِْ ‫ﺑ‬ (‫ ,إﺑْﻦ ﺳﻌْﺪ‬Ibn Saad) َ ِ (‫ ,إﺑْﻦ ﺳﻌﺪي‬Ibn Saadi) ّ ِْ َ ِ Possessive => nisbah(A) + B Word Nisbah (‫ ,ﺳﻴْﻒ اﻹﺳ َم‬Saif AlIslam) (‫ ,ﺳﻴﻔﻲ اﻹﺳ َم‬Saifiy AlIslam) ‫ْ ْﻼ‬ َ ‫َ ْ ِ ّ ْ ْﻼ‬ (‫ ,ﻋ َﺎد َﻟ ﱢﻳﻦ‬Imad Addin) ‫ِﻤ ا ﺪ‬ (‫ ,ﻋ َﺎدي َﻟ ﱢﻳﻦ‬Imadiy Addin) ‫ِﻤ ِ ّ ا ﺪ‬ 21 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Nisbah of Compounds (cont.) [AB] form => nisbah(A) Example1: AB = ‫ﺣﻀﺮﻣﻮْت‬ ََ ْ َ Example2: A = ‫ﺣ ﻀﺮ‬َْ َ AB = ‫ﺑﻌﻠ َﻚ‬ ‫َ َ ْﺒ‬ B = ‫ﻣﻮْت‬ َ A = ‫ﺑﻌﻞ‬ ْ ََ ‫ﺣﻀﺮي >= ﺣﻀﺮﻣﻮْت‬ ََ ْ َ ّ ِْ َ B = ‫َﻚ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺑ َﻠﻲ >= ﺑﻌﻠ َﻚ‬ ‫َ َ ْﺒ‬ ّ ‫َﻌ‬ Hadramawt => Hadri Baalbak => Baali Exceptions: ‫اﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻢ اﻟﺤﻀﺮﻣﻲ‬ ‫أﻳﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﻠﺒﻜﻲ‬ 22 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Nisbah of Two Proper Names From the CIA World Fact Book nisbah(A,B) => stem(A)+ 2 char (B) + nisbah yaa Example 1: ‫اﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ + اﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ =< ﺷﻔﻌﻨﺘﻲ‬ Al-Shafe’i + Abu Hanifa(t) => Shaf’anti Example 2: ‫ﺧ َارزم‬ ْ ِ ‫َﻮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺮﺳ َﺎن‬ ‫َ َ ِ ْﺘ‬ Khawarezm Tabaristan ‫ﻃﺒﺮﺧ ِي‬ ‫َ َ ْ َﺰ‬ Tabarkhazi 23 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Persian Influence on Arabic Names Arabic borrowing of Persian names Word Gloss Adjectives (‫ ,ﻧﺮﻣﻴﻦ‬Nermine) soft Nouns (‫ ,ﻧﺎزك‬Nazik) delicate, gentle (‫ ,ﻧﻴﻔﻴﻦ‬Neveen) new, modern Compounds (‫ ,ﺟﻴﻬﺎن‬Jihan) world (‫ ,ﺷﺎهﻨﺎز‬Shahnaz) pride of the king (‫ ,ﺻﺎﻓﻴﻨﺎز‬Safinaz) pride of purity 24 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Persian Influence on Arabic Names (cont.) Arabic borrowing of linguistically modified Arabic names by Persian Closed taa -> open taa Arabic Persian Gloss (‫ ,ﻧﻌﻤﺔ‬Nimah) (‫ ,ﻧﻌﻤﺖ‬Nimat) blessing (‫ ,ﺣﻜﻤﺔ‬Hikmah) (‫ ,ﺣﻜﻤﺖ‬Hikmat) wisdom Phonological influence (‫ ,ﻣﺮوة‬Marwa) (‫ ,ﻣﺮﻓﺖ‬Mervat) Mountain name 25 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Turkish Influence Suffixation Stem (Arabic word) + [Ji] suffix -ji -> Profession Arabic Word Stem + -ji (‫ ,ﻣﻜ َاة‬mikwah, Iron) ‫ِ ْﻮ‬ (‫ ,ﻣﻜﻮ ِﻲ‬Mikwaji, ironing man) ‫ِ ْ َﺟ‬ (‫ ,ﻗﻨْﺪ‬qand, hard sugar) َ (‫ ,ﻗﻨﺪ ِﻲ‬Qandaji, hard sugar maker) ‫َ ْ َﺟ‬ (‫ ,ﻗﻬ َة‬qahwah, coffee) ‫َ ْﻮ‬ (‫ ,ﻗﻬﻮ ِﻲ‬Qahwaji, café manager) ‫َ ْ َﺟ‬ Examples: Mateen Qandaji (Turkish Poet) Adnan Albajaji (from Iraq’s parliament) 26 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Regional and Social Facts During the Ottoman ruling, the Elite class (Rulers, Leaders) were given Islamic Arabic Names (Sultan Abdul Hamid) while the servants or housemaids were given foreign names Nowadays in Egypt, females in the middle- and lower-classes are given Islamic names (Khadija, Aisha), whereas higher-class females are typically given Persian, Turkish or common non-Islamic Arabic names (Susan, Mervat, Nancy) Given names (Khisha, Bahloul) under strict requirements can be changed (meaning of the name, clean record) The “Ba-”prefix, meaning “father of”, identifies its bearer as being of Hadrami descent (the Saudi linguist Bakalla and the Yemeni prime minister Bajammal) Sunnis’ most common names would be Abd + 99 names of God, Ahmed, Mohammed, and Aisha, whereas Shi’ites would prefer names such as Fatima, Ali, Hassan, and Hussein 27 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. References Farid, Zainab. “Many of the names of Arab origin. The diversion did not affect the meaning”. Retrieved on May 22nd 2006 http://www.alriyadh.com/2005/09/15/article94168.html Tabet, Elie. “Notes Sur L’organization Des Tribus Et L’Etymologie Des Noms Propres.” Oran Impremerie De L’association Ouvriere. 1882. Retrieved on April 10th 2006 http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k84223s The CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on May 22nd 2006 http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ Wikipedia, “Arabic Name”. Retrieved on May 21st 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_name Zeyad, Mosad, “Al-Nasab”. Retrieved on May 24th 2006 http://www.drmosad.com/index128.htm 28 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Thank You zinas@basistech.com 29 Copyright © 2006 Basis Technology Corp. All rights reserved.

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