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Session6 03 Allie&mearns

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Presentation made at the Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States conference, 23-24 November 2017, Seychelles. A partnership of the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Foundation, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group, University of Seychelles, Paris Tourism Sorbonne (IREST), and Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

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Session6 03 Allie&mearns

  1. 1. AN INVESTIGATION INTO COMMUNITY FISHING PRACTICES AROUND MNEMBA ISLAND, ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA Mr MZ Allie & Prof K Mearns mearnkf@unisa.ac.za University of South Africa
  2. 2. • Mnemba Island, Tanzania, which lies approximately 4.5 kilometers off the north-eastern coast of Unguja Island. • Mnemba Island covers and area of approximately 18 hectares and has a circumference of 1.5km. • The Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area (MIMCA) encompasses several reefs surrounding the island. The fringing reef consists of eleven individual reef sites, including the House reef and Kichwani reef. Burning Issue
  3. 3. • With the establishment of the &Beyond Lodge and zonation restrictions of MIMCA, a 200m exclusion perimeter was set around the island. • The 200m no-access perimeter encompasses less than half of the House reef, but a strict no-fishing restriction is in place on the entire reef. Burning Issue
  4. 4. Study Aim • Aimed at studying the characteristics of current fishing practices around Mnemba Island Objectives of the study • Assess current fishing practices and methods of fishing. • Assess species of fish most targeted by fishermen and which species of fish are most sought after for the markets. • Investigate whether there is a rising trend for specific types of fish due to the increase in the tourist market. • Provide recommendations for the improvement on sustainable fishing practices. • Provide input into the future management of the MIMCA. Conflict between Fishermen, Tourist activities and Mnemba Lodge exclusive use Zone.
  5. 5. • Single multi-method case study. • Data collection involved data collection from dockside monitoring. • Catch receipts were undertaken by the researcher by counting and taking photographs of fish caught by means of patrolling the beach and waiting for fishermen to approach. • Questionnaires and surveys: With local communities and local authorities.
 • Fieldwork took place from July/August 2015/6/7 • The interviews and surveys with the fishermen focused on the following 4 categories: Number of fishing boats on both the Mnemba Island reefs; Number of fishermen infractions and perceived gear type; Number of fishermen standing in the eulittoral zone; and Number of fishing boats in the immediate vicinity of Mnemba Island Research Design & Method
  6. 6. • List of fish species bought by Mnemba Island Lodge: • The Lodge pays 8000 Tanzanian shillings/kilogram for fish and 5500 Tanzanian shillings/kilogram of octopus. (US$3.50/kg & US$2.50/kg),(Before 2015, 5000TNS/kg fish &3500TNS/kg octopus.) • The Lodge can buy between 20 and 40 kilograms of fish per day. Results
  7. 7. • Largest consumer of fish are the lodge staff. • Study has shown that despite the rise in demand for fish in the area, no apparent destructive fishing methods are used by the fishermen. • Traditional fishing methods are used; handlines, fish traps and spear fishing. • Data shows that there is no correlation between the number of fish bought and the number of guests at the lodge at any given time. • All fish brought to the island by the local fishermen is bought by the lodge provided that they were the correct size and species. • Fishermen are paid more by the Lodge for their catch (during Ramadaan). • July and August of 2015 shows a significant drop in the amount of fish bought by the lodge. This can be attributed to the fact that the local fishermen boycotted the island during these months. Fishermen demanded a higher price for the fish sold to the lodge. Findings
  8. 8. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Fish Octopus
  9. 9. Traditional fish traps (Dema) alongside a traditional Ngalawa on Matemwe beach
  10. 10. A local spear fisherman with his catch for the day, Eagle Ray (Myliobatidae) and a Grouper fish (Serranidae). Eagle rays are a common food source in Zanzibar.
  11. 11. • Yellow-fin tuna bought by the lodge on 21 August 2015. The tuna was bought in Stone Town. The reason for this is due to the boycott on Mnemba Island from the local fishermen
  12. 12. • Perception that fish stocks are dropping and too many fishermen in the area. Data shows otherwise. • Lack of proper vessels to access deep sea fishing grounds. • Economic situation of locals does not allow for fish to be stored (no freezers), hence small fish are caught and bought by locals as consumption is easier. • MIMCA zone is proving to be effective in terms of compliance from the local fishermen. • Fishermen are adhering to the MIMCA zone restrictions Contributions
  13. 13. • The Mnemba Island Lodge supports both the fishermen and MIMCA (2019 renegotiate fish and Octopus prices) • More conflict between dive activities and exclusive use than with fishermen • Spatial zoning with Fishermen very viable more problematic between Mnemba Lodge and Dive activities • More in depth study must be conducted for the area. • A follow up study was conducted in 2017, the results of the study are yet to be released. Implications

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