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Session4 03 Whitney Hoot

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Presentation made at the Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States conference, 23-24 November 2017, Seychelles. A partnership of the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Foundation, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group, University of Seychelles, Paris Tourism Sorbonne (IREST), and Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

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Session4 03 Whitney Hoot

  1. 1. Whitney Hoot NOAA Coral Fellow Bureau of Statistics and Plans Guam
  2. 2. Photo: guamreeflife.com > 1000 species Two species > 350 species > 5,100 total species on Guam’s reefs > 300 species
  3. 3. BIOLOGICAL CULTURAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC Photo: guamreeflife.com $164 million USD/year van Beukering et al. 2007 (Adj. to 2017 dollars) 75% from tourism
  4. 4. 1,535,410 total visitors in 2016 > $1.5 billion USD/yr spent on Guam by visitors 1 in 3 jobs on Guam are in tourism industry > 10,000 tourist weddings > 2,000 marathon runners from overseas Source: Guam Visitors Bureau
  5. 5. Japan 57%Korea 28% Japanese Korean Dolphin tour 12% 14% Parasailing 16% 4% Jet ski 10% 4% Wind surfing 1% 2% Beach visit 22% 11% Scuba 9% 7% Snorkeling 19% 27% USA 5% Taiwan 3% China 2% Other 5% Tourist activities (2016) Source: Guam Visitors Bureau
  6. 6. guamreeflife.com guamreeflife.com
  7. 7. Alexis Sturm
  8. 8. Benthic cover (2006) Source: NOAA Coral Reef Habitat Assessment for US Marine Protected Areas: Territory of Guam (2009)
  9. 9. Benthic and coral health surveys
  10. 10. Benthic and coral health surveys BENTHIC COVER LHC = Live hard coral SC = Soft coral RKC = Recent dead coral DC = Old dead coral RUB = Rubble PVMT = Pavement SA = Sand CCA = Crustose coralline algae MAA = Macroalgae CYA = Cyanobacteria AF = Damsel algal farm OT = Other
  11. 11. Acropora pulchra (42%) Porites cylindrica (20%) Pavona decussata (16%)
  12. 12. Benthic and coral health surveys PHYSICAL DAMAGE BRK = Broken branch tips ABR = Abrasion TPL = Toppling FRC = Fractured colony DISEASE WS = White syndromes BBD = Black band BRB = Brown band GA = Growth anomalies SEB = Skeletal eroding band OTHER PAL = Paling BLE = Bleaching PR = Pigmentation response CYA = Cyanobacterial overgrowth Photos: Alexis Sturm 19% of colonies affected by physical damage
  13. 13. Benthic and coral health surveys Photos: Laurie Raymundo PHYSICAL DAMAGE BRK = Broken branch tips ABR = Abrasion TPL = Toppling FRC = Fractured colony DISEASE WS = White syndromes BBD = Black band BRB = Brown band GA = Growth anomalies SEB = Skeletal eroding band OTHER PAL = Paling BLE = Bleaching PR = Pigmentation response CYA = Cyanobacterial overgrowth
  14. 14. Benthic and coral health surveys Photos: Laurie Raymundo PHYSICAL DAMAGE BRK = Broken branch tips ABR = Abrasion TPL = Toppling FRC = Fractured colony DISEASE WS = White syndromes BBD = Black band BRB = Brown band GA = Growth anomalies SEB = Skeletal eroding band OTHER PAL = Paling BLE = Bleaching PR = Pigmentation response CYA = Cyanobacterial overgrowth
  15. 15. 7% of colonies impacted by white syndromes
  16. 16. 1% of colonies impacted by black band disease
  17. 17. Human use surveys
  18. 18. Human use surveys Ypao Beach Park Lotte Hotel Lotte Hotel Ypao Beach Park Monday – Sunday 7:00am to 10:00am 10:00am to 1:00pm 1:00pm to 4:00pm 4:00pm to 7:00pm
  19. 19. Human use surveys Ypao Beach Park Lotte Hotel Lotte Hotel Ypao Beach Park Monday – Sunday 7:00am to 10:00am 10:00am to 1:00pm 1:00pm to 4:00pm 4:00pm to 7:00pm
  20. 20. 6,948 human users recorded
  21. 21. = Waders = Swimmers & snorkelers = Watercraft = Fishers = Reef walkers
  22. 22. = Waders = Swimmers & snorkelers = Watercraft = Fishers = Reef walkers
  23. 23. Human user density versus coral damage prevalence Human user density (humans/m2 within 250 m radius) y = 35.478x + 0.1347 R2 = 0.98565 Coraldamage(%ofcolonies)
  24. 24. Contribution • Low cost, transferable method to measure human user density in coastal marine environments • Found strong correlation between human user density and rate of coral damage • Supports need for outreach and raising awareness
  25. 25. Outreach and education Over 200 community members trained to identify and report reef impacts
  26. 26. Messaging to reduce human use impacts
  27. 27. Implications • Feedback loop: Tourism impacts coral reefs and coral reefs impact tourism • Importance of regulating recreational human use activities in marine protected areas • Next steps: Analysis of coral disease prevalence vs. human user density
  28. 28. Acknowledgements • Collaborators: • Alexis Sturm • Dr. Laurie Raymundo • Adrienne Loerzel • David Burdick • Assistance with human use surveys: • Marybelle Quinata • Phil Cruz • Interns at the Center for Island Sustainability • Support from the Guam Bureau of Statistics and Plans (BSP) and the University of Guam Marine Laboratory (UOG) • Funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC)

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