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Session3 04 Braack&Mearns


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Presentation made at the Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States conference, 23-24 November 2017, Seychelles. A partnership of the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Foundation, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group, University of Seychelles, Paris Tourism Sorbonne (IREST), and Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

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Session3 04 Braack&Mearns

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. With an increasing number of factors affecting the health of the world’s marine resources, and experts predicting the collapse of global fisheries by 2048, &Beyond is expanding its focus on wildlife conservation to include the protection and sustainability of our seas with Oceans Without Borders – a call to preserving our marine eco-systems MISSION Through research, conservation initiatives, and collaborating with community and governments, OWB aims to strengthen the current conservation status of our islands as well as grow opportunities for community development VISION Established and dynamic marine reserves and marine protected areas encompassing ‘take and no-take zones’ that maintain their biological productivity. These conservation areas will support sustainable marine fisheries and similar community enterprises in surrounding areas and also contribute to the ecological enhancement of the greater areas associated with OWB
  3. 3. Background Building on the positive influence it has had on more than 9 million acres of protected wildlife land, &Beyond has recently increased its portfolio of exclusive island lodges to now encompass &Beyond Mnemba Island (off the coast of Zanzibar), &Beyond Benguerra Island (in Mozambique’s Bazaruto Archipelago) and &Beyond Vamizi Island (in the Quirimbas Archipelago) The linkage of 2,000 km of Indian Ocean coast line through these 3 islands has created a unique opportunity -in a critical area of this fragile marine eco-system - to highlight and proactively tackle the local conservation and community development challenges and by doing so provide a spotlight on practical and effective global marine conservation solutions
  4. 4. Vamizi’s Unique Mother Reef System Vamizi’s unique source reef system is at the centre of an ocean current network that moves up and down the East coast of Africa towards Benguerra and Mnemba respectively. This enables coral and fish spawn to be moved with the currents, creating a unique opportunity for research and marine conservation between the three islands.
  5. 5. OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Internal Expertise & Utilisation Of World Class External Resources
  6. 6. 7 Objective 1 - Logistical support and enlarging of current marine protected areas (MPA’s) Objective 4 – Supporting current conservation and research initiatives and establishing new projects Objective 3 - Facilitating and developing sustainable community benefits from the marine environment and developing alternative revenue sources that are not marine dependent Objective 2 - Upgrading current MPA’s to Marine Reserves which have a higher conservation status Objective 5 – Use ‘flag-ship’ conservation projects to showcase OWB and the plight of marine ecosystems to the world Create marine based conservation initiatives that include direct social and economic benefits to local communities, while securing and improving the ecological status of the three islands, with an ambitious aim of establishing dynamic models in marine conservation that can be exported to other areas under similar threat OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Goals and Objectives
  7. 7. OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Current and Historic Projects Protection of Reefs Protection of Endangered Species 8 • Research on Hydro-dynamics, tidal erosion and impact on island and reefs - Mnemba • Assessing impact of boat traffic to assess impact on reefs – Mnemba • Assessing impact of snorkelers on reefs – Mnemba • Establishing MIMCA • Establishing a marine sanctuary at Vamizi • Community fishing practices and management of local fish stocks • Community stakeholder analysis • Research on the ecology of the Aders’ Duiker • Aders’ translocation to grow species in other areas • Grey reef shark population monitoring - tagging, acoustic and satellite monitoring • Green turtle nest protection and monitoring Community Empowerment and Capacity Building • Protection of the Vamizi Sanctuary – Patrolling and engaging with Community Fishing Councils • Engagement with government to protect Neptune's Arm and Metunda reefs - Vamizi • Research and monitoring of coral reefs • Monitoring of fisheries and fish stocks in the Vamizi sanctuary • Study of mass coral spawning – Vamizi • Conservation lessons with local schools • Weekly and monthly community leadership meetings • CLEF scholarship program through the African Foundation • Building of classrooms and clinics with the Africa Foundation • Access to water programs • Tagging and tracking a turtle – with Seasense Mnemba • Implementation of MIMCA VamiziMnemba BenguerraCurrent Projects Historic Projects
  8. 8. Community Empowerment and Capacity Building • School Education Program • Supporting local conservation and marine biology research interns • Stakeholder Engagement • Facilitating alternate income projects Protection of Reefs • Advocacy documentary • Creating MPA’s and exclusion zones – Mnemba, Vamizi Neptune’s Arm and Metunda • Strengthening the monitoring and patrolling of marine sanctuaries • Research and monitoring of reef health, species and bleaching • Artificial Reef program Protection of Endangered Species • Turtles – protection and management of nests, monitoring of turtles • Sharks – research to enable protection of the grey reef shark • Whales – monitoring behavior and migration patterns across 3 islands • Dolphins – measuring the impact of tourism on dolphins • Dugongs – facilitating the creation of alternate income sources • Aders' Duiker – DNA testing and research to protect this endangered antelope VamiziMnemba Benguerra 9 Protecting our marine life across 2 000km’s of Indian Ocean coastline OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Proposed Future Project Summary
  9. 9. The continuous recording and study of mass coral spawning around Vamizi make the protection of these reefs critical. It is the only official coral monitoring program of this kind in Africa • Protection of the current marine sanctuary through patrolling and engagement with the Community Fishing Councils • Engagement with government to protect Neptune's Arm and Metunda reefs • Research and monitoring of coral reefs and bleaching • Monitoring of fisheries and fish stocks moving in and out of the protected zone The Mnemba fringing reefs face degradation, due to lack of regulation. The project will set out to work with government to create exclusion zones and more regulation in this area • Privatise the house reef to create a protected no take and limited tourism zone • Work with MIMCA to upgrade the atoll to a Marine Protected Area (MPA) • Research and monitoring of coral reefs to understand the impact • Explore the possibility of artificial reefs to create alternate sources of fish and diving to take the pressure off the house reef • Fish populations and impact (all 3 islands) • Engaging with communities to create alternate income sources, to reduce net fishing and reef damage • Engage with the Bazaruto National Park and WWF to determine next steps in reef protection • Fish populations and impact (all 3 islands) Coral reefs are a vital indicator of the health of the earths oceans and are increasingly threatened. A combined project will monitor the health and diversity of the coral reefs at all three island OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Protection of Reefs Vamizi Mnemba Benguerra
  10. 10. 11 OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Protection of Endangered Species Protection of the endangered sea turtles at all 3 islands: • Mnemba is the only protected nesting site for green turtles in Zanzibar • Vamizi Island is home to the oldest and only ongoing turtle monitoring project in northern Mozambique • Benguerra is possibly the only island off Africa where all 5 turtle species nest • Monitoring, marking and protecting nesting sites • Night patrols to protect nests • Relocating nests if endangered by encroaching water levels • Monitoring and assisting with hatchings to ensure survival • Identifying and tracking turtles when they return to nest • Hawksbill photo identification documentation • At Neptune’s Arm, a large aggregation of up to 30 grey reef sharks has been witnessed at certain times of the year. All the sharks are mature females, suggesting that this location may be very important in the sharks’ reproduction cycle. Shark populations are severely threatened, making research on this species vital for their protection • Grey reef shark monitoring –tagging, acoustic and satellite monitoring project of a population of grey reef sharks • Benguerra is also a habitat for sharks. OWB is engaging with the National Park to understand the protection of these endangered species • Research and tracking of the humpback whale population at all three islands will contribute to a global data base, learning about their behaviour and migration patterns • Shore observations • Boat and photo identification, drone tracking and/or hydrophone
  11. 11. 12 Benguerra is home to the only population of dugong along the east coast of Africa. Fishing nets and community fishing cause a great threat to this endangered species. The project to protect the dugong is to work with local communities to create alternate income sources – such as vegetable gardens Mnemba is home to Africa’s rarest antelope species, the Aders' Duiker. In order to protect this species we have to gain in depth knowledge of their breeding patterns and optimal population size on the island • DNA analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the antelope • Monitoring and evaluation of the population to ensure optimal breeding size • Translocations to improve breeding potential and maintain sufficient genetic strength on the island • Mnemba and Benguerra are home to two sub-species of the Suni antelope • Research between the islands on the DNA structure will enable deeper insight into the protection and breeding of this species Assess the impact of tourism on bottle nosed dolphins at Mnemba and humpback dolphins at Benguerra • Research on dolphin population sizes and behavior patterns • Assess the threats and impact of tourism • Develop an action plan OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Protection of Endangered Species
  12. 12. 13 • Build on the current conservation lesson model to develop a marine education program that can be integrated into schools • Identify an educationalist to design the programme • Engage with schools and education departments in each country • Implement with support of an education development organization • Develop research positions within the research programs to include a certain number of local interns per year to build capacity of our future conservationists and scientists • Continue to work with and engage local government and communities to increase MIMCA’s effectiveness at Mnemba Island • Continue to support local community conservation initiatives and application for increased conservation status from government for Neptune's Arm and the extended protected zone at Vamizi • Finalize a community needs analysis and feasibility of a Community Conservation Project within Bazaruto National Park (Benguerra Island) • Sources of income that are not dependent on marine life, could enable communities to reduce their dependence on it. • Engage with local communities to understand what businesses or skills are needed • Facilitate linking business development NGO’s, micro-financing and skill development organisations with the willing community members • Investigate innovative ways for local communities to benefit in the direct profits of the local island lodges including supply and supply chain benefits or indeed P&L profit participation based on reaching key OWB project targets OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Community Empowerment and Capacity Building
  13. 13. OCEANS WITHOUT BORDERS | Working with the Africa Foundation Africa Foundation was founded in 1992- 25 years of experience Africa Foundation is a non-profit organisation whose purpose is to facilitate the empowerment and development of people living in or adjacent to, protected areas in Africa, where &Beyond operate Education Small Business Development Health Care and Water Access • Over 7,000 students and 500 teachers have received conservation lessons • 438 Students have received tertiary education from the AF Bursary program CLEF (Community Leaders' Education Fund) • Over 80 schools have improved infrastructure (including 200 classrooms, 3 libraries and media centers, 13 kitchens and 3 administration blocks) • Built 2 clinics and support 5 medical centers • Pay the salary of one medical practitioner • Have provided access to water to over 56,000 people • Improved sanitation for over 7,000 people with 175 Enviroloos • Support 10 centers for home based care volunteers to assist the elderly Achievements to Date • Provided seed capital to 41 small businesses • Support 30 food gardens and 12 commercial farmers Core Experience to leverage for OWB • Established relationships with communities • Established community project management – including engaging with government and gaining buy-in from communities • Channel for processing funds • Africa Foundation staff and OWB staff work hand in hand on OWB related community projects Africa Foundation COMMUNITIES &BEYOND (OWB) DONORS
  14. 14. Conclusion As the human population grows there is more and more pressure on our ocean systems. Fishermen are using destructive methods to catch fish, and killing anything that gets caught in their nets or that they feel might be a threat to the fish they are trying to catch- including whales, dolphins, dugongs and turtles In order to protect the marine environments around the three islands, vitally necessary resources are needed to protect these fragile eco-systems