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Session2 04 Felicite_Fairer-Wessels

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Presentation made at the Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States conference, 23-24 November 2017, Seychelles. A partnership of the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Foundation, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group, University of Seychelles, Paris Tourism Sorbonne (IREST), and Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

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Session2 04 Felicite_Fairer-Wessels

  1. 1. The reality of providing communities with socio-economic benefits in a coastal protected area in South Africa • Felicite Fairer-Wessels (PhD) • Associate Professor Tourism Management • University of Pretoria • South Africa
  2. 2. iSimangaliso Wetland Park • Inscribed 1999 as St Lucia WHS • 2003 name change
  3. 3. The Wetland Park must be the only place on the globe where the world’s oldest land mammal (the rhinoceros) and the world’s biggest terrestrial mammal (the elephant) share an ecosystem with the world’s oldest fish (the coelacanth) and the world’s biggest marine mammal (the whale).” (Pres Nelson Mandela 2002)
  4. 4. iSimangaliso Wetland Park
  5. 5. Traditional fish traps
  6. 6. • Challenge: Rural communities are non active stakeholders in tourism development – 640,000 people living around iSimangalilso • Community participation in tourism is necessary to obtain socio-economic benefits in a coastal protected area such as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park • The aim is to determine the level of community awareness and involvement through focus group discussions • 2 pilot case studies were undertaken: Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay - areas adjacent to the protected wetlands to determine critical issues: ownership, protection of the natural resource base, job opportunities resulting in socio-economic benefits • To determine the importance of relevant information for rural communities to mobilize themselves socio-economically ito survival • Over 80% below the poverty line; only 15% economically active Burning Issue
  7. 7. Qualitative study: non-probability convenience sampling of individuals from the Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay communities Instruments: Focus group discussion schedule to direct discussions Lake Sibaya: Data collected through focus group discussions with a group of adults each from Mabaso (8) and Mbila (7) communities with a mother-tongue fieldworker present Kosi Bay: Data collected through 2 focus group discussions with women mussel harvesters from Kosi Bay community; 6 with no formal education and 8 with primary level education. A mother-tongue fieldworker was present Population: adults from area adjacent to iSimangaliso Wetland Park Limitations: Lake Sibaya: Tembe community was not involved the fieldwork Kosi Bay: men were not involved
  8. 8. Mabaso & Mbila Communities
  9. 9. • The data were translated, transcribed and content analysis of the data were done
 • The Mabaso-Mbila Case: * On the border of the 2 communities, two tourism developments were done: * Boathouse on Lake Sibaya * Baya Camp on Lake Sibaya • Findings indicate that the income was too small to support both communities which has resulted in conflict, namely * sinking of the house boat * Baya Camp being deserted * Need for a ‘champion’ from the community to negotiate conflict • Once staff have been trained they leave for urban areas for jobs and opportunities • The communities do not experience tangible economic benefits that reach the lower levels of the community Findings: Lake Sibaya
  10. 10. Mabaso-Mbila Tribal conflicts Sunken Houseboat Lake Sibaya & Baya Camp, deserted
  11. 11. • Data were translated, transcribed and the content analysed • The number of harvested mussels had decreased due to the increase of women harvesting, and due to uninformed harvesters young mussel beds were being exploited • More than half of the women harvested mussels for household consumption, while the rest harvested solely for business purposes • Women harvesters obtained no information from the Dept of Forestry & Fisheries/other government agency - only through face-to-face information sharing amongst themselves, or those women whose husbands informed them • Also by listening on a cell phone or community radio to mother tongue speakers. • They were keen to obtain relevant information but wanted personal visits and information communicated verbally by the relevant government officials • According to the women, the men and Indunas from the community obtained relevant information through the DAFF and Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife regarding agricultural practices; both face-to-face and thru pamphlets (although illiteracy hampers use of printed material) • Women are thus excluded from the information dissemination process and no information is being made available to them to improve their livelihoods and socio-economic status Findings: Kosi Bay
  12. 12. • The need for transparent collaboration between communities, authorities and all stakeholders for tourism development • The role of Indunas (senior men) must be redefined as community information providers to verbally disseminate information, to “walk the talk” • Identifying a ‘champion’ within a community to drive ideas • Communities must realise that tourist developments are usually small in scale and can only partly contribute to the local socio-economic situation and not replace them • Skills training & information is needed for the community ito responsible/sustainable tourism ito the natural & cultural resource base (e.g. licenses to control overfishing) • Support to all adult community members from the DAFF & Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife in the dissemination of relevant information to them to benefit socio-economically through sustainable tourism practices Practical contributions for socio- economic benefits
  13. 13. • The way forward: • iSimangaliso’s Rural Enterprise Accelerator Programme (REAP)’s partnership initiative with Raizcorp, World Bank and Global Environmental Facility supports 187 entrepreneurs with 80 grants to value of R77.8m awarded tp business • Development of ancestral lands of impoverished communities (i.e. Eastern Shores State forest, Cape Vidal State Forest and Sodwana State Forest) ito responsible and sustainable tourism development to encourage socio-economic benefits in the long run. 13 land claims have been successful. • Developing of partnerships and networks with stakeholders for future development of infrastructure and hospitality facilities to encourage socio-economic benefits • Dissemination of relevant information, skills development and Sustainable Development Education (SDE) for all communities to encourage socio-economic benefits in this protected and its adjacent areas (concessions training 2017) of 32 protected area managers
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