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Session2 01 Florian_Carius


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• Presentation made at the Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States conference, 23-24 November 2017, Seychelles. A partnership of the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Foundation, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group, University of Seychelles, Paris Tourism Sorbonne (IREST), and Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

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Session2 01 Florian_Carius

  1. 1. Tourism-induced contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals: insights from Jozani – Chwaka Bay National Park and Biosphere Reserve, Zanzibar/Tanzania Florian Carius Scientific Officer at BfN
  2. 2. “Harnessing tourism’s benefits will be critical to achieving the sustainable development goals” Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (2014) UNWTO (2015) elaborated how tourism can potentially contribute to all 17 SDGs Aim of this presentation: To provide evidence from only a single case in a protected area context where a National Park attracts visitors to the core & buffer zone of a Biosphere Reserves which serves as geographical scope for the distribution of benefits The burning issue
  3. 3. • Key biodiversity area of Coastal forests of East Africa (one of 35 biodiversity hotspots of global significance) • 2004: National Park (50km2) • 2016: UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (212km2) • 16,423 residents Jozani – Chwaka Bay National Park and Biosphere Reserve (case study area) TANZANIA Zanzibar Pemba Unguja KENYA
  4. 4. Case study objectives 1. What are the governance structures and processes involved with tourism revenue sharing? 2. How do beneficiaries invest the shared funds? 3. How do their investments contribute to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (based on the 169 targets)? Qualitative research design • Single case study, transdisciplinary approach • 1 month field work in August 2016: semi-structured interviews with all benefitting parties in all villages + observations on site • Qualitative content analysis of collected material Objectives & methods
  5. 5. Tourism development of Jozani – Chwaka Bay National Park Tourism revenues are only generated by entrance fees: • 10 US-$ for adult tourists • half the price for residents • half those prices for children, resp. ~345,000 € p.a.
  6. 6. Tourism revenue sharing scheme National Park Authority 32% Forestry Agency 18% Petty Farmers' Union 30% Community Mangrove Boardwalk 8% Community Development Fund 8% Local Conservation Association 4% Community institutions  50% | 50% Government institutions Scheme was a result of negotiations within an ICDP Portions were a result of a transparent baseline study (considered as fair) All funds are hypothecated (dedicated to conservation and development of the area)
  7. 7. Selected contributions to the SDGs Local CSOs established loans and savings schemes Forest = refuge for wildlife mitigating human-wildlife conflicts on farmlands + farmers are compensated for crop-damage by wild animals CDF: hospital infrastructure and maintenance, purchase of medicine CDF: infrastructure, maintenance and equipment of nursery, primary and secondary schools, teachers’ salaries and uniforms Women are noteworthy represented in Village Conservation Committees and in NP-related jobs CDF: catered for water supply and access, for sanitation and for irrigation farming
  8. 8. Selected contributions to the SDGs CDF: rural electrification through establishing power lines and poles National Park offers direct employment and business opportunities improving the standard of living CDF: road maintenance and equipment of a computer/IT centre Foreign NP visitors cater for flow of financial capital from industrialised to a LDC and Small Island Developing (Sub-)State CDF: road and bus maintenance, securing passenger transport Visitor information centre illustrates the ecological footprint of tourism encourages sustainable consumption
  9. 9. Selected contributions to the SDGs CDF: climate change mitigation (reforestation of forest and mangroves as carbon sink) and adaptation (planting of tree alleys along roads reducing heating) Fishing is prohibited in the National Park part of Chwaka Bay restoring fish stock CDF: reforestation and patrols in community forests detecting incidents of illegal activities in protected areas Establishment and empowerment of community and government institutions promoting friendly relations and good governance Biosphere Reserve Advisory Committee is an important forum to harmonise efforts between government and communities Money can fund any development but it is remarkable that in this single case local stakeholders manage to contribute to all 17 SDGs without even knowing them!
  10. 10. 1. Local communities’ capacities to deliver SDG contributions should not be underestimated 2. SDGs as international standard are relevant at local level 3. Small budgets can generate multifaceted impacts through clever investments 4. Participation consumes time but pays off and is more important for civil society than the budget of the tourism revenue system 5. Combination of individual compensation (for those bearing disproportionate costs of conservation) and collective benefits (at community level) proved equitable 6. Good governance and institutional sustainability of beneficiaries constitutes the basis for joint efforts of government and communities Contribution
  11. 11. 1. National Park management needs to diversify the tourism products (attractions) 2. Staff continuity (trust in relations), recruited from Biosphere Reserve communities dilutes traditional government vs. community dichotomy 3. Jozani – Chwaka Bay National Park and Biosphere Reserve is a good practice example in linking conservation and tourism for catalysing sustainable development Community-based tourism is not necessary to benefit communities as it is often producing discrepancies between winners and losers and vulnerable to leakages (communities do not benefit from tourism beyond tourism revenue sharing) 4. Market-based approach of generating revenues without creating donor-recipient dependencies (once set up within an ICDP) no development cooperation required anymore 5. Tourism revenue sharing empowers local communities to invest according to their priorities community investments maintain government investments and vice versa 6. Could be an interesting case study for TAPAS publications (e.g. review of IUCN BPG) Implications
  12. 12. Acknowledgement Biosphere Reserve and National Park Managers Ali A. Mwinyi Tahir Abass Haji Mgeni Sheha Ali Field Assistant