Plagiarism

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  • Today we’re going to work together to figure out what, exactly, plagiarism is and how you can avoid it. How many of you think you have a concrete grasp of the causes and consequences of plagiarism? (Usually not many people raise their hands) How many of you are still a little confused? Hopefully today we’ll clear up some gray areas and misconceptions. If you still have questions after the presentation, feel free to ask me or visit the UWC.

    Now we’re going to start off with a little activity. I’m going to play you a song, and you tell me what it is. Ready?
  • [Click the blue music button and play the song until someone guesses.]

    [Correct answer: Diamonds are Forever by Shirley Bassey – If no one gets it, don’t reveal it.]
  • [THIS IS THE SECOND MUSIC SLIDE! Click the blue button and wait for guesses. The audience usually knows by now who has written this song.]

    [Correct answer: Diamonds from Sierra Leone by Kanye West]
  • [If the audience guessed correctly, quickly congratulate them]

    In the first song, Shirley Bassey is talking about how diamonds are a luxury item. She says, “Diamonds are forever / they are all I need to please me / Diamonds never lie to me / when love’s gone, they’ll luster on.
    She is talking about how diamonds are better than love. They’re reliable, beautiful, a sign of wealth.

    In Kanye (pronounced khan-yay) West’s song, he’s talking about dealing with poverty and hardship (I think). He says, “I remember I couldn't afford a Ford Escort or even a four-track recorder”

    So, Kanye is using Bassey’s song to begin his own conversation. He’s not agreeing with her message, but he’s using it to support his own claim that maybe diamonds aren’t forever. He’s saying that Bassey claims that diamonds (and material things and wealth) are all you need. He retorts by saying that all that wealth comes at a price (such as the blood diamonds coming out of Sierra Leone).
  • [Click the blue button and wait for guesses]

    [Correct answer: Georgia on my Mind by Ray Charles]
  • Click the button and wait for guesses]

    [Correct answer: Georgia by Field Mob, featuring Ludacris – Most people will just guess Ludacris, so accept that as an answer]
  • [Quickly congratulate again]

    So what did the modern-day artists have in common? They used old songs to create something new, and they had permission to do so. Now let’s listen to one last set of songs.

    In his song, Ray Charles is talking about how much he loves Georgia. He says, “Still in peaceful dreams I see, the road leads back to you.” He sees Georgia as a place where he finds peace and joy.

    In his song, however, Ludacris uses what Ray Charles says to start a conversation. “It's mean in the dirty south. If you ever disrespect it then we'll clean out your dirty mouth. You gotta be brave in the state of... Georgia.” He’s comparing the way Georgia was for Ray Charles to the way it is for him. He’s talking about how times have changed by reminding us of how Georgia was viewed by some (Ray Charles) in the 60’s and comparing that to the view he has now. So, again, he’s using Charles’ song to support his idea that things have changed. It’s not just dropped in because it sounds good or because they’re both talking about the same state. It’s there to create a comparison between the Georgia of the past and the Georgia of the present.

    So what did the modern-day artists have in common? They used old songs to create something new, and they had permission to do so. Now let’s listen to one last set of songs.
  • [Click the button and wait for guesses]

    [Correct answer: Under Pressure by Queen]
  • [Click the button and wait for guesses]

    [Correct answer: Ice, Ice Baby by Vanilla Ice]
  • Vanilla Ice did NOT ask for permission to use Queen’s music, and there were legal repercussions. Plagiarism is a lot like this; granted, you probably won’t face a multi-million dollar lawsuit for missing a citation, but the academic consequences can still be pretty severe.

    Also, Vanilla Ice doesn’t use Queen’s music for any particular reason. It has nothing to do with his song. There is no conversation happening here. He just thought it sounded cool so he dropped in there just because.
  • Please note: If you’re paraphrasing by just changing some words here and there, you’re Vanilla Icing your paper.
  • Now we’ll have a little quiz.

    While researching data for your paper on hip-hop music sales, you find a chart that defends your main argument. You download the chart and add it to your paper without documenting the source. Is inserting this chart plagiarism?

    How many of you think it is?
    How many of you think it isn’t?

    Yes, it’s plagiarism! The chart was created by (and belongs to) someone else, so you’ve got to cite.
  • No—you cite the summary properly in text and in the bibliography.
  • And one more.

    While writing a research paper on the rhetoric of anti-war folk songs, you find an article that is perfect. Knowing that you shouldn't copy the article word-for-word in your paper, you instead exchange key words and rearrange sentences. You also included a complete citation with the page number and the source.

    Raise your hand if you think this is plagiarism.
    Raise your hand if you think it’s not.
    [If most people don’t raise their hands at all, make a joke, such as, “And raise your hand if you have no idea.”]

    Yes, it is plagiarism.

    Some students argue that this is not plagiarism—that it is an example of paraphrasing. However, failing to integrate the source into your text and ‘parroting’ the meaning while keeping most of the sentence structure and vocabulary of the original is considered ‘patch writing,’ and by many, plagiarism.
  • According to the TAMU Student Rules, plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas processes, results, or words without giving credit to the source. But what does that mean in a practical sense?
  • Plagiarism is:

    Copying and pasting from a source into your paper
    Turning in someone’s work as your own
    Using someone else’s ideas without giving credit
    Making up sources
    Resubmitting the same paper to different professors without permission

    The last one can be a little confusing. How can it be plagiarism if it’s your own work? Some professors may allow you to submit something that you’ve previously written, but they don’t have to so it’s always good to check with your professor first. Also, if you’ve had something published in a scholarly journal, the journal now has rights to that work so you may have to ask permission to use that work somewhere else.
  • What can happen to you if you plagiarize?

    You can receive a zero for the assignment
    And an “F” on your transcript (There may also be a note that you failed for academic dishonesty)
    Suspension, dismissal, or expulsion from the University
    You’ll also be required to participate in an academic integrity course.

    We want to mention these consequences not to make you paranoid, but so that you can understand the full extent of the problem.
  • So how do we avoid plagiarism?

    We cite!

    Remember that each discipline has its own style guide. Search online, check the library handouts, or stop by the UWC to see most style guides.
  • Why Do we Cite?
    Give credit to the author

    Protect intellectual property

    Allow readers to cross-reference sources
    So if I’m reading your paper and I saw a really interesting quote and wanted to read the entire article, I could just go back to your works cited page and find all the information I needed to find that article. This is also helpful to keep in mind because none of the authors you’re quoting came up with their ideas out of thin air. They all used other works as well so you can use their bibliographies to further generate your research.

    Add credibility to your argument
    Having credible sources makes your argument seem more credible. It’s like if you’re watching the news and they’re interviewing random people on the street. How seriously would you take that person? Would you immediately trust what they were saying? Now, what if they were interviewing an expert in the field they were discussing? How much would you trust what that person has to say? How much would you question them?

    *It also shows what part of your paper is someone else’s work, which in turn shows where your analysis is
  • Information considered to be “common knowledge” does not require a citation. What is common knowledge?

    According to Cal State San Marcos, there are two general criteria for common knowledge:
    Quantity –this information can be found in many common sources (of varying types—dictionaries, encyclopedias)
    Ubiquity –everyone in your audience would know this information

    **Remember that if you are uncertain, always include the citation.

    http://library.csusm.edu/plagiarism/howtoavoid/how_avoid_common.htm
  • Points 1 and 2:
    Points 1 and 2 are relatively straightforward.
    If no one can reasonably disagree with your information, it’s probably a fact and would not need to be cited.
    If a general audience would already know this information, it would be considered common knowledge and would not need to be cited.

    For example:
    “Abraham Lincoln was the United States President during the Civil War.” **This is a fact that no one would disagree with, and a general U.S. audience would know this information. (It is not something that could be reasonably argued.) This would be considered common knowledge and would not need to be cited.
    “Abraham Lincoln was the most effective president in United States history.” **Many people would disagree with this information. It is an interpretation, rather than a fact. Unless this is an argument that you are constructing yourself, you must cite where you got it/who said it.

    Point 3:
    The third point is a bit more difficult because it applies to your audience specifically.
    3. If this information is a generally accepted viewpoint or a well-known fact within your field of discourse, then it would be considered common knowledge *TO YOUR AUDIENCE* and would not need to be cited.
  • So which of these would be considered common knowledge?

    Raise your hand if you think it’s…
    Smith’s study on music and brain development had 600 participants, aged 5 to 10.
    Ke$ha’s latest album was banned in 24 cities in the U.S.
    The capital of Tennessee is Nashville.
    9,073 people attended a Dave Matthews Band Concert in 2006.

    You’re right; the capital of Tennessee is common knowledge. [FYI: The capital of Tennessee is Nashville.]
  • For things that are NOT common knowledge, we need to cite sources, and we need to cite them correctly.

    Let’s talk about how and when you should cite sources.

    (Note: the examples in this presentation are in the APA style, which is most common for the social sciences.)
  • “The Big Three” are the instances when you should use a citation. Almost everyone knows that direct quotes require an in-text citation, but paraphrased and summarized information also require citations.

    Any time you use an idea from an author, be sure that you are remaining faithful to author’s original intent.

    Basic rule of thumb—cite any piece of information that is not your original work, wording, or idea.

    *Tailor your choice according to what discipline (e.g. sciences tend not to quote, social sciences put more emphasis on the author, etc.)
  • What is summarizing, exactly?

    Providing the main argument or salient point from a source.



  • APA
    Here’s an example of a summary. The original source is an article about illegal music downloading.

    Summaries generally do not require a page number since they refer to an entire work rather than a particular part of a work.

    So, in this example you didn’t need a lot of really specific views or facts from this article. You just needed the overall idea of what the article’s all about. So you boiled the entire article down into a few sentences.

    For example, I might find a long article that described years worth of research and experiments that proved that eating hamburgers makes you happy. But maybe all I need in my paper are the findings of the research. I don’t need to know where they performed the experiments or how many lab rats they fed hamburgers to. All I need to know is the result so I would just summarize the entire article.

  • MLA
    Here’s an example of a summary. The original source is an article about illegal music downloading.

    Summaries generally do not require a page number since they refer to an entire work rather than a particular part of a work.

    So, in this example you didn’t need a lot of really specific views or facts from this article. You just needed the overall idea of what the article’s all about. So you boiled the entire article down into a few sentences.

    For example, I might find a long article that described years worth of research and experiments that proved that eating hamburgers makes you happy. But maybe all I need in my paper are the findings of the research. I don’t need to know where they performed the experiments or how many lab rats they fed hamburgers to. All I need to know is the result so I would just summarize the entire article.

  • Chicago

    Here’s an example of a summary. The original source is an article about illegal music downloading.

    Summaries generally do not require a page number since they refer to an entire work rather than a particular part of a work.

    So, in this example you didn’t need a lot of really specific views or facts from this article. You just needed the overall idea of what the article’s all about. So you boiled the entire article down into a few sentences.

    For example, I might find a long article that described years worth of research and experiments that proved that eating hamburgers makes you happy. But maybe all I need in my paper are the findings of the research. I don’t need to know where they performed the experiments or how many lab rats they fed hamburgers to. All I need to know is the result so I would just summarize the entire article.

  • What is paraphrasing, exactly?

    Someone else’s essential ideas and information in your own words, it keeps you from directly quoting too much, and it’s more detailed than a summary. Paraphrasing requires that you understand the information of the work being paraphrased.

    In this case, I need more specific information about that hamburger study. This time I do need to know how many rats they fed hamburgers too, but the quote in the article is in very technical terms that my reader may not understand. So, I take that more specific piece of information and put it into my own words before quoting it.



    Don’t forget to use a citation every time you paraphrase!

  • APA

    Here’s an example of paraphrasing.



    It looks at a specific detail from a longer work and includes the same information but in the author’s own voice.

    If possible, provide the page number to indicate where you paraphrased this information from.

  • MLA

    Here’s an example of paraphrasing.



    It looks a specific detail from a longer work and includes the same information but in the author’s own voice.

    If possible, provide the page number to indicate where you paraphrased this information from.

  • Chicago

    Here’s an example of paraphrasing.



    It looks a specific detail from a longer work and includes the same information but in the author’s own voice.

    If possible, provide the page number to indicate where you paraphrased this information from.

  • APA

    Note to presenter: Read the first passage aloud. Then read the next two paragraphs aloud and discuss which paragraph is a better paraphrase. The first paraphrase is weak because it is just a copy of the original with a couple of words/punctuation marks changed here and there. The second paraphrase is much stronger because it is a true paraphrase, written in the author’s own voice. Both paraphrased paragraphs have citations, but the first one might be considered plagiarism by teachers because it is not in the author’s own voice and is too close to the original.
  • MLA

    Note to presenter: Read the first passage aloud. Then read the next two paragraphs aloud and discuss which paragraph is a better paraphrase. The first paraphrase is weak because it is just a copy of the original with a couple of words/punctuation marks changed here and there. The second paraphrase is much stronger because it is a true paraphrase, written in the author’s own voice. Both paraphrased paragraphs have citations, but the first one might be considered plagiarism by teachers because it is not in the author’s own voice and is too close to the original.
  • Chicago

    Note to presenter: Read the first passage aloud. Then read the next two paragraphs aloud and discuss which paragraph is a better paraphrase. The first paraphrase is weak because it is just a copy of the original with a couple of words/punctuation marks changed here and there. The second paraphrase is much stronger because it is a true paraphrase, written in the author’s own voice. Both paraphrased paragraphs have citations, but the first one might be considered plagiarism by teachers because it is not in the author’s own voice and is too close to the original.
  • Should be used sparingly  when the author has said something particularly effectively, when you cannot say it any better, when you are referring to a eminent scholar who would give strong support to your argument

    Should always have a tag/signal phrase to connect the quote to your writing
    Examples of tag words: acknowledges, agrees, argues, believes, claims, concedes, demonstrates, disagrees, emphasizes, insists, suggests, observes, proves, says [that]


    It’s important to introduce and explain your quotations because, in your essay, you are having a conversation with your reader. So, if I’m your reader and I’m reading your words, I know that you are telling me something and I’m processing it as I read. So it is very much like we are having a conversation.

    When you drop a quote out of the sky without any introduction or explanation, it feels like some new person just butted into our conversation without even saying who he is. He just popped his head in to blurt something out and I don’t know if he knows what you and I were talking about or if he’s a crazy person trying to tell me he found a map to Atlantis.

  • APA

    Most citation styles differentiate between short quotes and long quotes. Here is an example of a short quotation. The tag phrase and citation information are highlighted in blue.

    The first example has a tag phrase to introduce the quote, while the second is an example of integrating the quote into your own sentence.

    Check with your specific style guide for differences in citation requirements and definition of “short” and “long” quotes.

    A short quote is less than 40 words.
  • MLA

    Most citation styles differentiate between short quotes and long quotes. Here is an example of a short quotation. The tag phrase and citation information are highlighted in blue.

    The first example has a tag phrase to introduce the quote, while the second is an example of integrating the quote into your own sentence.

    Check with your specific style guide for differences in citation requirements and definition of “short” and “long” quotes.

    A short quote is four or fewer lines of typed text.
  • Chicago

    Most citation styles differentiate between short quotes and long quotes. Here is an example of a short quotation. The tag phrase and citation information are highlighted in blue.

    The first example has a tag phrase to introduce the quote, while the second is an example of integrating the quote into your own sentence.

    Check with your specific style guide for differences in citation requirements and definition of “short” and “long” quotes.

    A short quote is four or fewer lines of typed text.
  • APA

    This is an example of a long quote (40+ words). Use long quotes VERY sparingly, and avoid them if you can.

    Note the differences between a long quote and a short quote. In a long quote: the quote is generally introduced with a colon, the text is indented, there are no quotation marks, and the period goes before the full citation.
  • MLA

    This is an example of a long quote (5+ lines of typed text). Use long quotes VERY sparingly, and avoid them if you can.

    Note the differences between a long quote and a short quote. In a long quote: the quote is generally introduced with a colon, the text is indented, there are no quotation marks, and the period goes before the full citation.
  • Chicago

    This is an example of a long quote (5+ lines of types text). Use long quotes VERY sparingly, and avoid them if you can.

    Note the differences between a long quote and a short quote. In a long quote: the quote is generally introduced with a colon, the text is indented, there are no quotation marks, and the period goes before the full citation.

    As with short quotes, check your style guide for particulars.
  • In this exercise, you all get to decide if the sample of a student’s work is plagiarism.
  • Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    Yes, this is plagiarism. This is a direct copy of the original’s second sentence without quotes and without a citation.
  • APA

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No, this is not plagiarism. It gives credit to the author (Piekarski) and quotes directly, indicating properly where the quotes material begins and ends, and giving a page number so the reader can find it. The quote is worked in well, too.
  • MLA

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No, this is not plagiarism. It gives credit to the author (Piekarski) and quotes directly, indicating properly where the quotes material begins and ends, and giving a page number so the reader can find it. The quote is worked in well, too.
  • Chicago

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No, this is not plagiarism. It gives credit to the author (Piekarski) and quotes directly, indicating properly where the quotes material begins and ends, and giving a page number so the reader can find it. The quote is worked in well, too.
  • APA

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No; this is an example of a paraphrase. It keeps the author’s main point here, but it puts it in the author’s own voice.
  • MLA

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No; this is an example of a paraphrase. It keeps the author’s main point here, but it puts it in the author’s own voice.
  • Chicago

    Is this plagiarism? Read the original source and raise your hand if you think it is.

    No; this is an example of a paraphrase. It keeps the author’s main point here, but it puts it in the author’s own voice.
  • If you have citation questions:
    Check the style manual!
    Ask your professor
    Come to the UWC

    If you are in doubt, go ahead and cite. It’s always better to include a citation and remove it later.
  • Now that you know what plagiarism is generally and about the 3 different things you need to cite, we wanted to provide some practical strategies to help you avoid it in your writing.

    While you are writing:

    Be sure you fully understand any text you want to cite. this makes sure that you can incorporate the source into your own writing, so you aren’t just putting a bunch of sources together randomly.
    Take detailed and accurate notes. Always label whether you’ve summarized, paraphrased, or directly quoted. a lot of plagiarism is unintentional and comes as a result of poor note-taking.
    Write down all necessary citation information when you first decide to use a source. that way you won’t have to go back and find your source, and you can avoid possibly giving incorrect information.
    Color code your sources in text. This will help you determine how much of your paper is other people’s work vs. how much is your own synthesis/analysis. Remember that sources should back YOUR argument up; they should not comprise the entirety of your paper.




    http://library.csusm.edu/plagiarism/howtoavoid/how_avoid_notes.htm
  • When you’ve finished a draft of your paper:

    Read your paper aloud.  this will help you hear if a paraphrase sounds too close to the original (you can tell if it doesn’t “flow” or sound like your own voice)
    Check your paraphrasing and summary against the original documents
    Make sure that every in-text citation has a corresponding full citation in your reference list
    Use turnitin.com. ask if your professor has a class account or come to the UWC to check. Turnitin.com is not only a good resource to highlight potential plagiarism, but also to determine whether you’ve used your sources effectively in your writing.


    While they may be a good starting off point, don’t just trust the citation websites! Always double check.
  • For additional or more specific help with citing, make an appointment with us at writingcenter.tamu.edu.
  • Like us on Facebook. Check out our video podcasts on YouTube and our audio podcasts on iTunes. Follow us on Twitter. Check out our Pinterest page. Check in with us on Four Square.
  • Plagiarism

    1. 1. Avoiding Plagiarism 2
    2. 2. Name that tune! 3
    3. 3. Name that tune! 4
    4. 4. The Artists “Diamonds are Forever” Shirley Bassey 1971 “Diamonds from Sierra Leone” Kanye West 2005 www.cardiffians.co.uk/.../shirleybasseytml www.thesunblog.com/frosting/archives/2007/09/ 5
    5. 5. Name that tune! 6
    6. 6. Name that tune! 7
    7. 7. “Georgia on my Mind” Ray Charles 1960 “Georgia” Field Mob feat. Ludacris 2005 http://assets.rollingstone.com/assets/images/music/lists/100 -greatest-singers-of-all-time/306x306/ray-charles.jpg http://smartsexyrichcrazy.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/09/ludacris-fsh.jpg 8 The Artists
    8. 8. Name that tune! 9
    9. 9. Name that tune! 10
    10. 10. “Under Pressure” Queen & David Bowie 1981 “Ice Ice Baby” Vanilla Ice 1990 http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_L0EDrCiS6pE/SdRfRhJmP- I/AAAAAAAABiU/oiQgK1uJdbw/s400/39c6bb676e59affd4f9 7a4f805b71a72.jpg http://capitalistliontamer.files.wordpress.com/2009/0 3/iceman.jpg 11 The Artists
    11. 11. 12
    12. 12. While researching for your paper on dance club music sales, you find a chart that supports your main argument. You download the chart and add it to your paper without documenting the source. 13 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Billboard+charts&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1621&bih=853&tbm=isch& prmd=imvns&tbnid=I8rfvsiXda9ATM:&imgrefurl=http://imaginepeace.com/archives/5495&docid=yvbxDAXYnEWjZM& imgurl=http://imaginepeace.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/billboard- chart.jpg&w=499&h=799&ei=jF3_T66VM6Si2gXP9s2hBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1405&vpy=147&dur=158&hovh=284& hovw=177&tx=141&ty=168&sig=106090041932312229745&page=1&tbnh=147&tbnw=91&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r :7,s:0,i:162 iz-khalifa-hip-hop-rookie-of-the-year/ Is This Plagiarism?
    13. 13. Is This Plagiarism? 14 You are writing a paper about African American spirituals and rock n' roll. When you find an article that supports your argument, you summarize the article in your own words and cite it in text and in the bibliography. http://ctl.du.edu/spirituals/assets/comp/swinglow.jpg
    14. 14. While researching the rhetoric of anti-war folk songs, you find an article that is perfect. To avoid copying the article word-for-word in your paper, you instead exchange key words and rearrange sentences. You include a complete citation with the page number and the source. 15 http://vietnamartwork.wordpress.com/hippies-anti- war/ Is This Plagiarism?
    15. 15. TAMU Student Rules Plagiarism The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving credit to the source. From: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/Student%20Rules/definitions.html 16
    16. 16. Plagiarism is… Copying and pasting from a source into your paper Turning in someone’s work as your own Using someone else’s ideas without giving credit Making up sources Resubmitting the same paper to different professors without permission 17
    17. 17. The Consequences You may not go to jail but . . . A zero for the assignment An “F” on your transcript Suspension, dismissal, or expulsion from the University Mandatory participation in an academic integrity course 18
    18. 18. How Do We Avoid Plagiarism? We Cite! 19
    19. 19. Why Do We Cite? Give credit to the author Protect intellectual property Allow readers to cross- reference sources Add credibility to your argument Help defend your research 20
    20. 20. Common Knowledge It can be easily found in general reference sources. Ex: America’s independence day was July 4th, 1776. It includes generally known facts, such as the names of leaders of prominent nations, basic scientific laws, famous historical events, or common observations. Ex: Barack Obama is the president of the United States. 21
    21. 21. 22 NO NO YES NO YES YES Cite! You probably don’t need to cite. 1. Is this information someone might disagree with? 2. Would a general audience know this information? 3. Would your audience know and accept this information?
    22. 22. Which of the following would be considered common knowledge? A. Smith’s study on brain development had 600 participants, aged 5 to 10. B. Ke$ha is the best female pop singer today. C. The capital of Tennessee is Nashville. D. 9,073 people attended a Dave Matthews Band Concert in 2006. 23
    23. 23. Citing Your Sources 24
    24. 24. The Big Three 1. Summarized information 2. Paraphrased information 3. Direct quotations 25
    25. 25. Summarizing Gives a broad overview of the material Focuses on what the author is saying generally Only highlights the main argument REMEMBER: Include a citation when summarizing! 26
    26. 26. According to researchers at the University of Herefordshire, illegal downloading is more commonplace among teenagers than originally thought, with half of 14- to 24 year-olds sharing music (Sabbagh, 2006). Original Source Summary 27 Summarizing
    27. 27. Paraphrasing Is more detailed than a summary Requires understanding of the work being paraphrased Keeps you from directly quoting too much Explains someone else’s ideas in your own words 30 REMEMBER: Include a citation when paraphrasing!
    28. 28. Original Source The average digital music player carries 1,770 songs, meaning that 48 percent of the collection is copied illegally. The proportion of illegally downloaded tracks rises to 61 percent among 14- to 17-year-olds. In addition, 14 percent of CDs (one in seven) in a young person's collection are copied. Paraphrase Researchers found that, on average, 61% of teenagers’ music library was illegally downloaded and one in seven CDs were illegally copied (Sabbagh, 2006, p. 25). 31 Paraphrasing
    29. 29. Paraphrase Exercise Original Source Childhood lead poisoning has declined steadily since the 1970s, when cars stopped spewing leaded exhaust into the environment and lead paint was formally banned. Yet 40 percent of the nation’s homes still contain lead paint from the first half of the 20th century, and 25 percent still pose significant health hazards. Cowley, Geoffrey. 2003. “Getting the Lead Out.” Newsweek, February , 54-56. Paraphrase 1: Lead poisoning in children has been in decline since 1970 because cars stopped using leaded gas, and lead paint was no longer allowed; still, 40 percent of American homes contain lead, and 25 percent are still dangerous (Cowley, 2003, p. 55). Paraphrase 2: Although, according to Cowley (2003, p. 55), there has been a decline in lead poisoning in children since 1970, dangers remain. Even now, 25 percent of American homes contain enough lead to threaten the health of their occupants. 34
    30. 30. Direct Quotations Should be used sparingly Are always introduced by a “tag phrase” or smoothly integrated into your own sentence Should include follow-up commentary to explain the quote, if necessary 37 REMEMBER: Include a citation when quoting!
    31. 31. Short Quotations As Easterly (2003) argues, “the goal of having the high-income people make some kind of transfer to very poor people remains a worthy one, despite the disappointments of the past” (p. 40). Despite the enduring controversy over both the purpose and the efficacy of foreign aid, its “goal of having the high-income people make some kind of transfer to very poor people remains a worthy one” (Easterly, 2003, p. 40). 38
    32. 32. Long Quotations Easterly (2003) discusses one of the long-standing controversies in U.S. foreign aid: If some of the flaws noted in this article can be corrected, the international aid agencies could evolve into more effective and more accountable agencies, much as national governments in the now-rich countries gradually evolved from gangs of venal scoundrels to somewhat more effective and accountable civil servants (with plenty of further evolution still desirable in both cases!). In any case, improving quality of aid should come before increasing quantity. This step is difficult but not impossible. (p. 40) 41
    33. 33. Is this Plagiarism? 44
    34. 34. Sample of Student WorkOriginal From its humble origins some 30 years ago in New York's bombed-out, poverty-ravaged South Bronx, hip-hop has risen to become a dominant cultural force both here and abroad. Strictly defined, the term refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in the United States. Strictly defined, the term refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in the United States. 45
    35. 35. From its humble origins some 30 years ago in New York's bombed-out, poverty-ravaged South Bronx, hip-hop has risen to become a dominant cultural force both here and abroad. Strictly defined, the term refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in the United States. Piekarski (2004) believes that hip-hop “refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in the United States”(p. 47). Though Piekarski makes an important point, he fails to explain what this culture consists of. 46 Original Sample of Student Work
    36. 36. From its humble origins some 30 years ago in New York's bombed-out, poverty-ravaged South Bronx, hip-hop has risen to become a dominant cultural force both here and abroad. Strictly defined, the term refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in the United States. Piekarski (2004, p. 47) argues that hip-hop encompasses more than just rap music; he argues instead that hip-hop is better defined by the culture that surrounds it. 49 Sample of Student WorkOriginal
    37. 37. Ask Yourself… Where did I find this information? Who is the audience? Have I used the proper citation style? When in doubt…CITE! 52
    38. 38. Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism When writing… 53 • READ and fully understand any text you want to cite. • Take detailed, accurate notes. Label whether you’ve summarized, paraphrased, or quoted. • Write down all citation information when you first decide to use a source. • Color code your sources in the text.
    39. 39. Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism When the paper is finished… 54 • Read your paper aloud. • Double check your paraphrasing/summarizing against the sources. • Make sure that every in-text citation has a full citation in your reference list. • Consider using a resource like turnitin.com.
    40. 40. For More Help… Visit our website or call us to schedule an appointment. We can help you find answers to your plagiarism and citation questions. 55
    41. 41. 214 Evans Library | 205 West Campus Library writingcenter.tamu.edu | 979-458-1455 We’ll help you find the write words. U N I V E R S I T Y J X I G Z P O E N H B W D E T L Q I L R D R C K K K P P T R T I V R M X S T X J P T B C Z P B Y O U C I S K E W V J D A E N S I N N Q O G P E G I C J C T O B Y P X E G K G V E F G B S R M C E V Q R M Check us out on…

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