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  1. 1. A Brief Review of Document Design<br />Based on an original presentation by AbiolaFarinde<br />
  2. 2. “Technical communication is not meant to express a writer’s creativity or to entertain readers; it is intended to help readers learn or do something.” <br />(Michael Markel, Technical Communication, 7th ed. p. 7).<br />
  3. 3. Basic Elements<br />White space<br />Lists<br />Indents<br />Headings<br />Underlining, Italics, Bold<br />Fonts<br />Visuals<br />
  4. 4. WHITE SPACE<br />White space is empty<br />space on a page. It doesn’t have to be white. White space emphasizes elements on the page by making them stand apart.<br />
  5. 5. Effective Use of White Space<br />Respect standard margins<br />White space should not dominate the page<br />Nothing should be crowded together too closely<br />
  6. 6. Chunking<br />When you arrange elements on a page (paragraphs, sections, visuals), decide what goes together best and what can be separate.<br />Use grid lines (View&gt;Gridlines) to arrange elements more accurately. <br />Consider reading patterns (top to bottom, left to right) in deciding where to place text or graphics.<br />
  7. 7. Indents<br />Hanging indentation – Hanging indentation helps the reader see the organization of the passage. Align turnovers (the second and subsequent lines of any item) under the first letter of the first line (not under the bullet!).<br />Indentations are less attractive when they are improperly aligned.<br />
  8. 8. Paragraph Indents<br />¶<br />¶<br />There are two common styles for indicating the start of a paragraph:<br />Indent first line—no space needed between paragraphs<br />Block style (no indentation)—separate paragraphs with a space<br />
  9. 9. Lists…<br /><ul><li>make information easier to read and are often less intimidating than a lengthy paragraph
  10. 10. should always be parallel</li></li></ul><li>Making a List<br />Set off each listed item with a number (suggests sequence) or bullet (avoids priority).<br />Punctuation is not needed after each list item unless the item is a sentence.<br />Make lists within a text by using parentheses like this: (1) item one, (2) item two, and (3) item three.<br />
  11. 11. Headings<br /><ul><li>Introduce the sections of a document
  12. 12. Use levels to indicate the importance of the text contained in a section
  13. 13. Are distinguished by size variation, boldface, italics, capitalization, indentation, and white space between heading and text </li></li></ul><li>Underline<br />Italics<br />BOLDFACE<br />Create “mechanical emphasis”<br />Should be used sparingly but consistently; for example, to call attention to a text element such as a heading or subheading<br />
  14. 14. Fonts and Text Size<br />Consistency within a document is crucial.<br />Keep it simple with no more than two fonts or fonts sizes per document.<br />Sans serif fonts are often recommended for headings and serif fonts for text, based on the theory that serif fonts are more readable. (No evidence supports this.)<br />AaBbCcDdEeFfGgH<br />
  15. 15. Visuals<br />Graphs, charts, drawings, photographs, and other visual elements can add interest to a document design.<br />In formal writing, visuals should support the main point or argument and should be labeled with a caption.<br />Provide sources where appropriate.<br />
  16. 16. Informal Writing<br />Callouts are those text boxes used to highlight a quote or fact.<br />Color and texture can be used but should not distract from the text. <br />Columns are effective for newsletters, brochures, web pages, and periodicals.<br />