20130723 research accomplishment_ud

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20130723 research accomplishment_ud

  1. 1. Research accomplishment (2003 ~ ) Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INovation Technology research center Taejong Baek Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Graduate School Dongguk University Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  2. 2. Research field 1 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  3. 3. ■ What is Millimeter-wave?  Wide bandwidth: high data rate and high speed wireless communication applications  Short wavelength: small-sized and light-weighted circuit systems Frequency (GHz) 30 2 10 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab 3000 Submillimeterwave Millimeter-wave Micro-wave Wave-length (mm) 300 1 Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center 0.1 Dongguk University
  4. 4. ■ Advantages of Millimeter-wave 1. Large spectrum availability ⇒ Broadband system ⇒ Unused frequency bands 2. High reuse potential of frequency ⇒ Short range communications from a few meters up to few kilometers 3. Small antenna and system size ⇒ Very short wavelength 3 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  5. 5. ■ Examples of Millimeter-wave applications ITS Military Medical Millimeter-wave Applications Imaging WLAN system Requirement of Millimeter-wave Monolithic integrated Circuits 4 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  6. 6.  Thermal Evaporator / ULVAC EBV-10  Rapid Thermal Process System (RTP) / KVR-020  Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) JCSS-41MR  O2 Plasma Asher / Oxford plasma lab 80 plus  Mask Aligner / Karl Suss MA6  Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE) / KVICP-T4083  E-Beam Evaporator System / KVE-T5560  E-Beam Lithography System / Leica EBPG-4HR Mask Aligner ICP-Dry etcher FC Bonder Plasma Asher  Au Plating System  Vacuum Dry Oven / SB-CD520  Lapping Machine / Allied MultiPrep TM System  Furnace / Metritherm  Surface Profiler / a-step 200  Thin Film Analyzer / Tyger  Flip Chip Bonder / Laurier M9  Wedge bonder / Hybond 572-A  Ball bonder / Hybond 626  Spectrum & Vector Network Analyzer  Semiconductor Characterization System / Keithley 4200-PCS  Ansys HFSS & Agilent ADS Simulation Program 5 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab E-Beam Lithography Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Furnace Dongguk University
  7. 7. GaAs-based 70 nm MHEMTs 6 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  8. 8. GaAs-based 70 nm MHEMTs ■ Fabricated MHEMT 70 nm <70 µm × 2 MHEMT> 7 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab <Resist profile of gate foot> Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  9. 9. Development of MMIC Libraries ■ 70 nm Gate Metamorphic HEMT Gate length: 70 nm Double exposure method Tri-layer resist stack ▶ ZEP520 : DCB = 1.5 : 1 ▶ PMGI ▶ PMMA950K : MCB = 1 : 1 Gate metal formation SEM view of fabricated 70 nm gate 8 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab ▶ Ti/Au = 500/4500 Å Si3N4 passivation: 800 Å Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  10. 10. GaAs-based 70 nm MHEMTs ■ 70 nm ×140 µm MHEMT (1) DC performance - Drain current density: 607 mA/mm - Transconductance (gm): 1.015 S/mm < I-V characteristics > 9 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab < Transconductance characteristics > Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  11. 11. GaAs-based 70 nm MHEMTs ■ 70 nm ×140 µm MHEMT (2) RF performance - fT: 330 GHz - fmax: 425 GHz 330 GHz 425 GHz < RF characteristics > 10 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  12. 12. GaAs-based 70 nm MHEMTs ■ fT comparison of HEMTs [1] Y. Yamashita et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 573-575, 2002. [2] K. Shinohara et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 241-243, 2004. [3] T. Suemitsu et al., IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, [1] vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1694-1700, 2002. [2] [4] K. Shinohara et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 507-509, 2001. This work [4] [5] K. Shinohara et al., IEEE MTT-S Digest, vol. 3, pp. 2159-2162, 2001. [6] S. Bollaert et al., IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 389-391, 2002. [3] [5] [8] [6] [7] T. Parenty et al., Indium Phosphide and [9] [7] [10] Related Materials, pp. 626-629, 2001. [8] A. Leuther et al., Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, pp. 215-218, 2003. [9] H. Wang et al., IEEE IEDM Digest, pp. 239-242, 1993. [10] Y. C. Lien et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 348-350, 2004. This work: Sung Chan Kim et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 28-30, 2006. 11 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  13. 13. DAML (Dielectric-supported Air-gapped Microstrip Line) 12 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  14. 14. Motivation of DAML ■ Motivation of DAML (1) Conventional transmission lines Microstrip line CPW line Substrate Substrate Substrate loss Transmission line  Basic elements  Major cause of device loss 13 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Demand of MEMS technology Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  15. 15. Motivation of DAML ■ Motivation of DAML (2) Shielded Membrane Microstrip (1) Substrate 1 (2) Substrate 2 (3)  Complex processes Substrate  Difficulty of integration with MMIC/MIMIC Shielded Membrane Microstrip (1) Shield cover : 2 Masks (2) Membrane plane : 3 Masks DAML technology (3) Ground plane : 1 Masks Reference: S.V. Robertson et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 46, no. 11, 1998, pp. 1845-1849, 1998. 14 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  16. 16. DAML ■ DAML: Dielectric-supported Air-gapped Microstrip Line  Surface micromachined transmission line  Reduced substrate loss due to elevated signal line  Simple process: Compatibility with standard MMIC/MIMIC fabrication ▶ Photo-lithography and low-temperature process ▶ Easily integrated with MMIC/MIMIC (3 additional masks required) ▶ Dielectric post used for mechanical stability (1 post/1 mm)  Possibility of vertical integration (3-D integration) Signal line Dielectric post Ground S.I. GaAs substrate 15 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  17. 17. DAML ■ Formula for Effective Dielectric Constant in Partial Dielectric Layer  h : Dielectric post height (µm)  w : Signal line width (µm)  g : Dielectric post gap (µm)  d : Dielectric post size (µm)  3hⅹ2 + w : Field area (by Ansoft HFSS) g d d2  r  1   polyimide  g (3h  2  w) Dielectric constant of DAML-Substrate is 1.108 by calculation. w h  eff 3h ⅹ2 + w   d2  d2  1   polyimide    1 1      1 polyimide    g (3h  2  w)  g (3h  2  w)  1      2 2 h  1 12  w           The effective dielectric constant εe ff is 1.086 by calculation. (Where, g = 500 µm, h = 10 µm, w = 44 µm, d = 40 µm) 16 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  18. 18. Process flow of the DAML ■ Process flow of the DAML  Ground metal (Ti/Au) and dielectric post (polyimide) formation  Sacrificial layer (AZ4903) patterning  Seed metal (Ti/Au) evaporation and Electro-molding (AZ4903) formation  Signal line (Au) formation and sacrificial layer removal Semi-insulating GaAs substrate Semi-insulating GaAs substrate Semi-insulating GaAs substrate Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 17 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  19. 19. Fabricated DAML ■ Dielectric Post 18 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  20. 20. Fabricated DAML ■ Sacrificial Layer Reflow the photoresist for smooth metal overlay 19 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  21. 21. Fabricated DAML ■ Fabricated DAML 20 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  22. 22. DAML Characteristic ■ Comparison of transmission lines [1] K. Nishikawa et al., IEEE MTT-S Digest, vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1881-1884. [2] G.E. Ponchak et al., IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology-B, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 171-176, 1998. [3] Suidong Yang et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 623-631, 1998. [4] Y.C. Shih et al., Microwave Journal, pp. 95-105, 1991. [5] Youngwoo Kwon et al., IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 59-61, 2001. [6] S.V. Robertson et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 46, no. 11, 1998, pp. 1845-1849, 1998. This work: H. S. Lee et al., IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1827-1828, 2003. This work: Sung-Chan Kim et al., IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 652-654, 2005. 21 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  23. 23. SDAML ■ Shielded DAML using Flip chip technique  Ultra low loss: extended height (10 µm → 17 µm)  Shielding effect - Radiation, electromagnetic and environmental interference are avoided by enclosing microstrip circuitry in a shielding cavity  Simple process: not bulk micromachining (using flip-chip technique) Connected Ground using Flip chip Stud Upper Ground Plane Polyimide Dielectric post  h : Dielectric post height  w : Signal line width  g : Dielectric post gap Air-bridged Signal line  d : Dielectric post size Lower Ground Plane 22 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  24. 24. Fabricated DAML ■ Fabricated DAML (height = 17 µm) 23 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  25. 25. DAML Characteristic (Measurement) ■ Insertion loss versus Signal line height Signal line width: 44 µm, (dB/cm) Simulation 80 (GHz) 1.85 1.89 1.53 110 (GHz) Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab 1.63 94 (GHz) 24 Measurement 2.22 2.13 Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  26. 26. SDAML Characteristic ■ Comparison of original DAML 4.0 DAML (h = 10 m) DAML (h = 17 m ) SDAML (h = 17 m) 60 (GHz) 94 (GHz) 120 (GHz) DAML (10 µm) 1.87 2.56 3.1 DAML (17 µm) 1.27 1.89 2.42 SDAML (17 µm) 3.5 1.07 1.41 1.67 Insertion loss [dB/cm] 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Frequency [GHz] 25 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  27. 27. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Comparison of electrical length λg / 4 @ 94 GHz Electrical length (λg / 4 @ 94 GHz ) CPW Microstrip DAML Reduced Size DAML 26 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab 304 µm Microstrip CPW 266 µm DAML 792 µm RS-DAML 478 µm Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  28. 28. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ W-band Reduced Size branch-line coupler Total Size : 604 µm × 520 µm 27 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  29. 29. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Measurement result of W-band Reduced branch-line coupler Coupling loss: 3.61 dB Transmission loss: 4.25 dB Isolation: -35.5 dB Return loss: -36.9 dB 28 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  30. 30. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Comparison of W-band branch line coupler Case Coupling loss (dB) Return loss (dB) Chip size (mm2) Center frequency (GHz) 1 (CPW) About -3.5 About -20 0.5 ⅹ0.5 90 RSC DAML -3.61 -36.9 0.6ⅹ0.52 94 Reference 1: M. Schlechtweg et al, GaAs IC Symposium, 1995. Technical Digest 1995, 17th Annual IEEE, 29 Oct.-1 Nov. 1995 Page(s):214 - 217 29 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  31. 31. W-band Hybrid Ring Coupler ■ Fabricated W-band hybrid ring coupler 10 µm 50 Ω termination  Coupler size: 1.46 mm (diameter) 30 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  32. 32. W-band Hybrid Ring Coupler ■ S-parameters of W-band hybrid ring coupler  Transmission loss: 3.80 ± 0.08 dB  Coupling loss: 3.57 ± 0.22 dB (@ 85-105 GHz) 31 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  33. 33. Hybrid Ring Coupler ■ Comparison of W-band hybrid ring coupler Case Transmission Coupling loss loss (dB) (dB) Isolation (dB) Center frequency (GHz) 1 (CPW) About -5.5 About -4.7 About -30 94 This work -3.72 -3.35 -34 94 Reference 1: Hiroyuki Matsuura et al, IEEE MTT-S Digest, 1996, pp. 389-392 This work: Sung-Chan Kim et al, IEEE MWCL, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 652-654, 2005. 32 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  34. 34. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ W-band reduced ring hybrid coupler Diameter : 0.888 mm 33 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  35. 35. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Comparison of coupler sizes Reduced to 63 % in area Conventional Coupler Diameter : 1.460 mm 34 Reduced Coupler Diameter : 0.888 mm Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  36. 36. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Measurement result of W-band reduced ring hybrid coupler 0 0 -10 S-parameter [dB] S-parameter [dB] -20 -30 -40 -50 S21Thru S31coupling S23Isolation -60 75 80 85 -10 -20 -30 S11 S22 S33 -40 90 95 100 105 Frequency [GHz] Insertion loss 110 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 115 Frequency [GHz] Return loss Coupling loss: 4.35 dB Isolation: -48.23 dB Transmission loss: 4.44 dB 35 110 Return loss: below -25 dB (all port) Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  37. 37. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Comparison of W-band hybrid ring coupler Case Transmission loss (dB) Coupling loss (dB) Isolation (dB) Diameter (mm) Center frequency (GHz) 1 (CPW) About -5.5 About -4.7 About -30 About 0.7 94 DAML -3.72 -3.35 -34 1.46 94 RSC DAML -4.44 -4.35 -48.23 0.88 94 Reference 1: Hiroyuki Matsuura et al, IEEE MTT-S Digest, 1996, pp. 389-392 36 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  38. 38. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Novel W-Band Dual Mode Stepped Impedance Resonator BPF Using DAML Technology (b) (a) (a) Fabricated BPF (b) (a) MIM coupling capacitor (b) Stepped Impedance Perturbation **Journal of the Korean Physical Society., vol. 51, no. 10, pp. S280-S283, December, 2007 37 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  39. 39. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Measured Result of W-band BPF 5 0 Insertion Loss (dB) -5 -10 -15 -20 S11 -25 S22 -30 -35 ▶ Step Impedance Ratio: 0.5 S21 S12 -40 60 ▶ Perturbation Length: 275 µm Simulation 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 ▶ MIM Capacitor Size: 75 µm2 100 105 110 115 120 Frequency (GHz) - Insertion Loss: 2.65 dB @ 97 GHz - Relative Bandwidth: 12 % 38 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center 38 Dongguk University
  40. 40. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ 60-GHz CPW-fed Dielectric-Resonator-Above-Patch Antenna for Broadband WLAN Applications Using DAML Technology **Microwave and Optical Technology Letters., vol. 49, Issue. 8, pp. 1859-1861, 2005 39 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  41. 41. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Fabricated Antenna (a) Fabricated patch using DAML (b) 60 GHz RDRA (c) Proposed antenna (d) Antenna integrated by 60 GHz VCO 40 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  42. 42. Passive Device using DAML Technology ■ Measured Results 41 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  43. 43. 3-D W-band Single Balanced Active Mixer 42 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  44. 44. Mixer with DAML coupler Design strategy  MEMS coupler ► MEMS library  Diode & CPW lines ► MMIC library Schematic 43 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  45. 45. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Layout RF 70 nm gate MHEMT Dielectric post IF1 LO IF2 Ring coupler based on DAML 44 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  46. 46. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Interference of DAML and CPW lines DAML  For the lowest reflection of DAML ► Distance of Airbridge to DAML : 90 ~ 150 µm 45 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  47. 47. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Process flow of the single balanced mixer GaAs epi-wafer Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 46 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  48. 48. Single Balanced Active Mixer Mesa etching MHEMT Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 47 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  49. 49. Single Balanced Active Mixer Ohmic contact formation MHEMT Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 48 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  50. 50. Single Balanced Active Mixer Resistor formation MHEMT Resistor Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 49 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  51. 51. Single Balanced Active Mixer 70 nm gate patterning, narrow recess, and gate metalization MHEMT Resistor Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 50 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  52. 52. Single Balanced Active Mixer First metal formation Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 51 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  53. 53. Single Balanced Active Mixer Dielectric (Si3N4) deposition Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 52 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  54. 54. Single Balanced Active Mixer Dielectric (Si3N4) RIE Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 53 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  55. 55. Single Balanced Active Mixer Second metal (air-bridge) formation Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 54 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  56. 56. Single Balanced Active Mixer Dielectric (polyimide) post formation Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 55 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  57. 57. Single Balanced Active Mixer DAML formation Hybrid ring coupler based on DAML Ground MHEMT Resistor Capacitor CPW Ground Semi-insulating GaAs substrate 56 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  58. 58. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Fabricated single balanced mixer IF1 IF2  External balun for IF’s 70 nm MHEMT RF  W-band coupler size : 1.46 mm (diameter)  Chip size : Hybrid ring coupler 1.8 mm × 2.1 mm LO 57 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  59. 59. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Conversion loss vs. LO input power  Conversion loss: 2.5 dB - RF frequency: 94 GHz - RF power: -10 dBm - LO frequency: 94.2 GHz - LO power: 6 dBm 58 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  60. 60. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ LO-to-RF isolation  LO-to-RF isolation: < -30 dB - LO freq.: 93.65-94.25 GHz - LO power: 0 dBm 59 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  61. 61. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Comparison of W-band mixers (1) LO RF RF-LO Frequency Frequency Isolation (GHz) (GHz) (dB) Case Mixer Design Features Conversion Gain (dB) Device Technology 1 S.E. active mixer 0.8 0.1 µm InP HEMT 94 94.5 - 2 S.B. resistive mixer -8 0.1 µm InP HEMT 83 94 -27 3 S.B. resistive mixer -12.8 0.1 µm GaAs PHEMT 93 93.2 - 4 S.B. diode mixer -7.5 0.1 µm GaAs PHEMT 93 94 -18 5 S.B. diode mixer -9 0.1 µm GaAs PHEMT 94 95 - 6 S.B. diode mixer -10 0.1 µm InP HEMT 94 94.5 - This work S.B. active mixer -2.5 70 nm GaAs MHEMT 94.2 94 -33 ( S.E. : Single Ended, S.B. : Single Balanced ) 60 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  62. 62. Single Balanced Active Mixer ■ Comparison of W-band mixers (2) Single balanced active mixer: Low conversion loss: high-performance 70 nm MHEMTs High isolation: hybrid ring coupler based on DAML - References [1] Robinder S. Virk et al., IEEE MTT-S Digest, 1997, pp. 435-438. [2] A. R. Barnes et al., IEEE MTT-S Digest, 2002, pp. 1867-1870. [3] K. W. Chang et al., IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 301-302, 1994. [4] K. W. Chang et al., IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1972-1979, 1991. [5] K. W. Chang et al., Proc. IEEE Microwave and Millimeter-wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium, 1993, pp. 41-44. [6] Robinder S. Virk et al., IEEE MTT-S Digest, 1997, pp. 435-438. This work: Sung Chan Kim et al., IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 28-30, 2006. 61 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  63. 63. A transceiver module for FM-CW radar sensors using 94 GHz dot-type Schottky diode mixer Taejong Baek Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Graduate School Dongguk University Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  64. 64. Introduction 63 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  65. 65. Introduction 64 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Motivation Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  66. 66. Introduction Passive & Active Objects also reflect the radiation emanating from the environment to a degree of reflectivity which is the complement of their emissivity; the sum of the emissivity and the reflectivity is 1. Passive system concept High Sensitivity receivers are required Thermal noise Antenna aperture affects resolution and SNR Object Direct measure of temperature (sub K accuracy) Can detect objects through differences in emissivity T Emissivity = radiation + reflectivity (from the natural background radiation) Active system concept Also known as a radar (using oscillator) Received Transmit a signal and receive scattered waveform Object Detected unwanted objects Transmitted T Need to large computational resources Emissivity = radiation + reflectivity (from the signal source) 65 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  67. 67. InP Gunn Diode 66 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  68. 68. InP Gunn diode Epi structure Epi structure of InP Gunn diode 67 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  69. 69. InP Gunn diode 1. Wafer Cleaning Process flow 1~2 1) Initial cleaning TCE Acetone IPA D.I. water rinse 1)Photo resist (PR) coating 2. Formation of top side trench 2)Soft baking 3)Alignment & Exposure 4)Development 5)Post baking 6)Wet etching 7)PR strip 68 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  70. 70. InP Gunn diode 3. Cathode ohmic metalization Process flow 3~4 1)Cleaning 2)Oxide etching 3)Metal evaporation 4)Protection layer 4. Integral heat sink (IHS) patterning lithography 1) Cleaning 2) Photo resist (PR) coating 3) Soft baking 4) Alignment & Exposure 5) Post Expose Baking 6) Development 69 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  71. 71. InP Gunn diode Process flow 5~6 5. 2nd seed evaporation 1)Cleaning 2)2nd seed evaporation 6. 2nd plating (formation of support layer) 1) Au plating 70 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  72. 72. InP Gunn diode Process flow 7~8 7. Wafer thinning (lapping & polishing) 1) Wafer mount 2) Lapping 640 um lapping 3) Wafer de-mount 4) Cleaning 1)Cleaning 2)Photo resist (PR) coating 8. Anode ohmic metalization 3)Soft baking 4)Alignment & Exposure 5)Reverse baking 6)Flood exposure 7)Development 8)Oxide etching 9)Metal evaporation 10)Lift-off 71 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  73. 73. InP Gunn diode 9. Overlay metallization Process flow 9~10 1)Seed evaporation 2)Photo resist (PR) coating 3) Soft baking 4) Alignment & Pre-exposure 5) Development 6) Oxide etching 7) Au plating 8) PR strip 9) Seed etching 1)Cleaning 10. MESA etching 2)Photo resist (PR) coating 3)Soft baking 4)Alignment & Exposure 5)PEB (post exposure bake) 6)Development 7)Hard baking 8)Dry etching 9)PR strip 72 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  74. 74. InP Gunn diode Process flow 11 11. Gold & 2nd seed etching 1) 2) Cleaning Oxide etching 3) Au etching (Cathode) anode InP Fabricated InP Gunn diode 73 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  75. 75. Packaged Diode 74 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  76. 76. InP Gunn diode Packaging Package element Lid AgSn solder Au wire Gunn diode chip Ceramic ring AuSn solder Stud 3-48 UNC-2A THREAD 75 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  77. 77. InP Gunn diode Package process 1~2 1. Ceramic ring junction Ceramic ring Stud (3-48 UNC-2A THREAD) 2. Die attach Chip 76 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  78. 78. InP Gunn diode Package process 3~4 3. Maltese Cross Bonding Maltese Cross 4. Lid junction Lid 77 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  79. 79. InP Gunn diode X-ray image of InP Gunn diode 78 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Packaged Diode Packaged InP Gunn diode Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  80. 80. InP Gunn diode DC characteristic DC I-V measurement result InP Gunn diode chip 79 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Packaged InP Gunn diode Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  81. 81. InP Gunn diode RF characteristic Measurement results of packaged InP Gunn diode Chip number Voltage [V] Current [mA] Oscillation frequency [GHz] Output Power [dBm] 1 12.4 299 94 17.8 2 11.7 260 93.98 16 3 9.7 299 94.25 15.6 4 10.9 349 93.9 16.6 5 9.3 349 93.8 16.4 Oscillation characteristics of fabricated InP Gunn diode 80 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  82. 82. Transceiver 81 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  83. 83. 82 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  84. 84. 83 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  85. 85. 84 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  86. 86. 85 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  87. 87. 86 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  88. 88. 87 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  89. 89. Active Radar Sensor Cross section Flip-chip Top view Flip chip packaging configuration 88 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  90. 90. Active Radar Sensor (a) (b) Flip-chip (a) Gold bumps were then flattened using a flip-chip bonder of model M9 from LaurierTM at a press force of 100 g/bump (b) epoxy can spread out evenly on them. Flattened bump had a typical diameter of 100 μm and a height of 45 μm (c) Silver epoxy was then applied onto the flattened gold bumps using a capillary tool with a 3-mil Au ribbon wire and a manual wire bonder of model 572A-40 from HybondTM . The resulting bump had 23 μm of silver epoxy on top 45 μm of gold. (c) 89 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab (d) (d) MMIC chip and the sapphire substrate were flip-chip bonded with the epoxy in between. The M9 bonder was used with a bonding force of 30 g/bump and a bonding time of 90 second at 110 °C. Silver epoxy was compressed down to 5 μm. Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  91. 91. Active Radar Sensor RF Characteristic 0 S-parameter [dB] -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Insertion loss Return loss -35 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 Frequency [dB] Reference Bump material Bonding condition Loss/frequency [1] Au 350℃, 20 g/pillar 0.2 dB/77 GHz [2] Au 275℃, 230 N/mm2 0.2 dB/NA This work Au / Ag epoxy 110℃, 30g/bump 0.205 dB/94 GHz [1] Aoki, S.; Someta, H.; Yokokawa, S.; Ono, K.; Hirose, T.; Ohashi, Y.;, “A flip chip bonding technology using gold pillars for millimeter-wave applications,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. 1997, vol. 2, pp. 731-734, 1997. [2] Heinrich, W.; Jentzsch, A.; Richter, H.;, “Flip-chip interconnects for frequencies up to W band,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, issue 3, pp. 180-181, 2001. 90 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  92. 92. Active Radar Sensor 91 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Test image Dongguk University
  93. 93. Active Radar Sensor Shear test The shear tests were performed using a model 4000 series shear test machine from DageTM , widely used to measure the interconnection strength between the MMIC chip and the sapphire substrate. The speed of the shear blade was 300 μm/s, with the tip located at 40 μm above the surface of the sapphire substrate. The flip-chip bonded die, which used proposed low-temperature flip-chip bonding method and 20 bumps of 100 μm diameter, was separated at a force of 900 g. Bonding temperature Die shear strength [mg/ ㎛2] 100℃ 1.55 150℃ 2.19 200℃ 4.38 ACP 220℃ 1.05 ACF 220℃ 1.07 [3] CuSn 260℃ 2.17 This work Au/Ag epoxy 110℃ 5.73 Reference [1] Bump material Indium [2] [1] Kun-Mo Chu, Jung-Sub Lee, Han Seo Cho, Hyo-Hoon Park, Duk Young Jeon, “A fluxless flip-chip bonding for VCSEL arrays using silver-coated indium solder bumps,” IEEE Trans. Electronics Packag. Manuf., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 246-253, 2004. [2] Tan Ai Min, Sharon Pei-Siang Lim and Charles Lee, “Development of solder replacement flip chip using anisotropic conductive adhesives,” in Proc. 5 th Electron. Packag. Tech. Conf. 2003, pp. 390-396, 2003. [3] Katsuyuki Sakuma, Jun Mizuno, Noriyasu Nagai, Naoko Unami, and Shuichi Shoji, “Effects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Surface Treatment on the Bonding Interconnections for Flip Chip and 3-D Integration.” IEEE Trans. Electronics Packag. Manuf., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 212-220, 2010. 92 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  94. 94. 93 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  95. 95. 94 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  96. 96. Studies of the Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Sensor and Fabricated Passive Imaging System Taejong Baek Advisor : Jin-Koo Rhee Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Graduate School Dongguk University Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  97. 97. Introduction 96 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  98. 98. Introduction Motivation The increased threats of criminal or terrorist action in recent years have led to the development of many techniques for the detection of concealed weapons, contraband, explosives or other threats. Traditional method Metal detectors X-ray imaging systems Insufficient for modern and health threats! Plastic and liquid explosive Plastic or ceramic guns and knives Ionizing radiation Advanced method Millimeter-wave/terahertz security systems 97 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  99. 99. Introduction 98 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Private issue Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  100. 100. Background and Theory Radiation law Every object generates electromagnetic emissions at all wavelengths with intensity proportional to the product of its physical temperature and its emissivity in accordance with Planck's radiation law. Object radiation Object emissivity + reflectivity (reflect the radiation form the environment) = 1 Radiation = Object reflectivity + Object emissivity Object Emissivity (%) Human skin 65 ~ 95 Plastics 30 ~ 70, depending on type Paper 30 ~ 70, depending on moisture content Ceramics 30 ~ 70 Water 50 Metal ~0 Both the amplitude and the wavelength of the radiation peak are dependent on the temperature of the object. 99 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  101. 101. System Arrangement Target Specification  Real–time (≥ 1 Hz) imaging (82 GHz to 102 GHz )  Spatial resolution (≤ 5 cm2)  1°C temperature resolution at (≥ 1 Hz)  Full–body scanning (3m stand-off ) 100 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  102. 102. System Arrangement NETD Noise equivalent temperature difference (∆ ) The minimum detectable change in signal at the input is equal to the noise power at the output times the reciprocal of the squared response of the system evaluated at Tsys. Sometimes radiometric resolution is referred to as the noise equivalent temperature difference, i.e. “NETD”, or sensitivity. ∆ = ∆ Whole imaging measurement time (t), the number of detector (n), and total number of picture point (m): = number of samplings (sn ), reflector scanning cycle time (rt ): = 101 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab × Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  103. 103. System Arrangement Integration Time Total number of picture point (m): = × = whole imaging measurement time (t): = × = = / × in this case, integration time ( ) is = 102 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab = = . / Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  104. 104. System Arrangement Noise Temperature Radiometer input signal (thermal noise) power: = ( × 1000) + 10 (∆ ) where Δf is the bandwidth in hertz (set 20 GHz) =− + ≈ − Lens concentrate thermal noise ratio (dB) × % = 10 dB Hence, a gain of 70 dB at least is required to provide at the output a detectable signal (≥0 dBm). The total input thermal noise is through the lens is –70 dBm + 10 dB = –60 dBm. Therefore, we need an amplifier of least 60 dB or more gain. 103 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  105. 105. System Requirement Requirements The system noise temperature at the receiver input is Tsys= TA+ Trec ∆ = ∆ where Trec is the noise temperature of the detector, TA is the effective temperature of the antenna, Δf is the RF bandwidth and τ is the post-detection integration time constant. System elements to be considered for high performance: 1. Antenna return loss 2. LNA return loss / noise figure 3. Frequency bandwidth of each element 4. Transition return loss / insertion loss 5. Diode noise temperature Basic radiometer model 104 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  106. 106. System Arrangement Radiometer Type Target Specification System Characteristics superior low noise temperature complicated structure Dicke radiometer Super heterodyne receiver need local oscillator high cost Full power radiometer low noise temperature Direct– detection receiver simple structure low power consumption Component Parameter Target Specification NETD (ΔT) Resolution ≤ 15 dB ≤ 10 dB Gain ≥ 60 dB ≤ – 15 dB Gain ≥ 15 dBi Return loss ≦ – 25 dB VSWR 105 20 GHz Return loss Detector 1 scene/sec Noise figure Antenna Frame Rate Noise figure LNA ≤ 5 cm Bandwidth (Δf) System ≤1K ≦ 1.2 Output voltage range 100 mV ~ 1000 mV Sensitivity > 500 mV/mW (0 dBm) Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  107. 107. Development of Radiometer Receiver 106 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  108. 108. Antenna Gain An antenna with a large aperture has more gain than a smaller on; just as it captures more energy from a passing radio wave, it also radiates more energy in that direction. Gain may be calculated as = with reference to an isotropic radiator; ƞ is the efficiency of the antenna and A is the aperture area. Antenna is designed to have the peak gain of 17.5 dBi at the center frequency of 94 GHz, and the return loss of less than -25 dB in W-band, and the small aperture size of 6 mm × 9 mm for antenna configuration with high resolution. 107 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  109. 109. Antenna Efficiency Return loss is a measure of the reflected power and forward power ratio. =− − + Specification Frequency range (GHz) Waveguide type 75 ~ 110 WR-10 VSWR (max) 1.1 Mid-band Gain (dB Typ) 17.5 Total Length (L) Aperture size (W × H), mm2 108 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center 32 9×6 Dongguk University
  110. 110. Antenna Antenna – array for multi-channel Multi-channel antenna array To obtain high accuracy and resolution, various methods are proposed. Conventional beamforming method is a straight forward method, but its angle resolution is limited by aperture of the antenna array, which implies that the number of antennas should be increased to satisfy resolution requirement. 8 × 2 horn arrays antenna developed for available real-time passive imaging system. 109 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  111. 111. Lens Lens - specification Specifications 89 GHz ~ 99 GHz Frequency (center frequency 94 GHz) Center wavelength 3.191 mm(c=υλ) Diameter ≤ 200 mm Material Teflon Viewing angle ±11.3°(target distance 3m) Optical path and spot-patterns for different incident angles are calculated and compared without or with an extended hemispherical lens by using ray-tracing method. Teflon was the material of the lens, the lens is reflected from the surface of the lens is placed in the hole. In addition, depth of non-reflective layer is 0.66 mm, pitch 0.7 mm, and groove length 0.4 mm. 110 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  112. 112. System Specification 111 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab LNA – Oscillation Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  113. 113. LNA LNA module – 4-stage 80 60 S11 S-Parameter [dB] 40 S21 S12 20 S22 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 80 85 90 95 Frequency [GHz] 100 105 110 4-stage LNA module measured characteristics Average linear gain: 65.8 dB @ 81 ~ 102 GHz 68.2 dB @ 94 GHz 112 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  114. 114. System Specification 113 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Detector – Transition Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  115. 115. System Specification 114 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Detector – Output Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  116. 116. System Specification 115 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Size – Array System Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  117. 117. Radiometer Receiver Radiometer radiometer receiver 16 receivers array multi-channel radiometer 116 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  118. 118. Development of Security Screening System 117 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  119. 119. Security Screening System 118 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab System block diagram Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  120. 120. Security Screening System 15V +V -V FG 12V, 5V 24V LNG Com V2 Com V1 L N +V-V FG ACAC 3.3V Circuit map 3.3V + - G AC + - G AC Power2 Power2 Power2 DirectLine DirectLine (Floating) (Floating) (Floating) (Floating) (Floating) G AC Power part VGA IR Signal NTSC Signal (with Ground) (with Ground) DC 12V DC 12V FG NTSC CAM (with Ground) DC 12V DC FG CAM WiFi Ke yboard ADC Cont. IR CAM1 USB To PC MMW Sensor DC 12V 1~16 Ch. Drain AC G Mouse USB To S ensor Part Gate (with Ground) FAN Shield box CAM2 To S ensor Part (with Ground) Monitor DC 24V G DC 15V DC 5V G G Embedded S ystem Sensor part DC 15V Control signal DC 5V Step motor Driver Ste p PC part Motor Serial to USB RS232 Encoder USB To PC (with Ground) Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  121. 121. Security Screening System Ch-1 Ch-6 Ch-7 Ch-8 Ch-9 Ch-10 Ch-11 Ch-12 Ch-13 Ch-14 Ch-15 Ch-16 IR Ch-4 Ch-5 CCD Ch-2 Ch-3 Measurement S/W 0.6 m (16 pixel) 1.6 m (variable pixel) 120 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  122. 122. Comparison with Commercial MMW Imaging 121 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  123. 123. Name L3 safeview provision 100 Agilent Brijot BIS-WDS ThruVision T4000 This Work Application Portal Portal Portal Stand-off Stand-off 3-10m Stand-off 3-10m Stand-off 3m Active/ Passive Active Active Passive Passive Passive Passive Passive Frequency (Bandwidth) 24-30GHz 24GHz 94GHz (> 10GHz) 76-94GHz 76-94GHz 90GHz (20 GHz) 250GHz 94GHz (10 GHz) Imaging System Source & Receiver array rotates around subject Active antenna array: programm -able fresnel zone-plate Folded Schmidt camera: conical scan, offaxis rotating mirror Mechanical : Tilted rotating mirror Frequency scanned antenna and reflector Phased array of freq scanned antennas 64 24 1 232 Receiver technology InP MMIC InP Direct detection InP HEMT MMIC System NETD 5K 1K 1-3K 6K 0.3degree 10mm 6mrad 0.5Hz Receivers Qinetiq Smiths Tadar Sago Trex ST150 Real Time Imager Stand-off 8 – 30m Portal Stand-off 5m Passive Passive Passive/ Active 35GHz 94GHz base 1 64 Spatial Resolution 0.5cm 0.5cm Refresh rate 2Hz 15Hz 15Hz 10HZ 90cm 80cm 60cm Aperture Dimensions L× W × H 122 0.75cm 2cm SPO 20 150 × 150 90 × 10 × 270 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab × 90 Receiver array of multichannel scanned antennas and reflector 16 16 GaAs Schottky mixer GaAs Direct detection (z-b Schottky diode) 1K 1-1.5K ≤ 2K 6mrad 128×192 pixel 5cm 3cm >4.5 cm 16×128 pixel (variable) 30Hz 4-10Hz 1-3Hz 1Hz 18cm 12cm 20cm 250 × 160 71 × 33 × 220 × 48 Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center 50 × 50 × 110 Dongguk University
  124. 124. Discussion System Noise Temperature Specification Brijot (indoor) This work (indoor) Center Frequency 90 94 Bandwidth (Δf) 20 10 No. of Receiver 16 16 System NETD (ΔT) 1K ≤2K Spatial Resolution 5 cm 5 cm Image Quality clearly noisily Reflesh Rate 4 ~ 10 Hz 1 Hz Brijot ∆ = ∙ × . ∙ ∙ × . ∙ , = × = , = × = Our system ∆ = 123 = × Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab = Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  125. 125. Video Demo 124 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  126. 126. Video Demo 125 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab 2011. 01. 31. Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  127. 127. Conclusion 126 Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University
  128. 128. Conclusion Summary Type : 82~102 GHz Passive imaging (indoor) Bandwidth : 20 GHz Dimension (cm): 50 × 50 × 110 IR and CCD image fusion Spatial resolution : 4.5 cm (16 × 128 pixel) Temperature sensitivity : 2℃ Antenna 127 System Mid-band Gain Return loss Size WR-10 1.1 17.5 dBi < - 25 dB 9 × 6 × 32 mm Frequency Gain (1st) Returen Loss (1st) Gain (4st) Returen Loss (4st) Noise Figure (Chip) 19.6 dB -11 dB 65.8 dB -5.7 dB 4.1 dB Frequency Operation range Output voltage Minimum detectable power Sensitivity (input 0 dBm) -10 ~ 15 dBm 100 ~ 1500 mV -20 dBm 350~400 mV/mW NETD Spatial resolution Refresh rate Reflector Scan angle MMW lens diameter 2K Security screening VSWR (max) 75 ~ 110 GHz Detector module Waveguide type 77 ~ 110 GHz LNA module Frequency 82 ~ 102 GHz Passive Imaging sensor 4cm 1Hz ± 20 ° 20 cm Semiconductor & Integrated Circuit Lab Millimeter-wave INnovation Technology research center Dongguk University

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