THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY IN RELIGION 1ST BAT
Religion, Morality and Life:We all make moral decisions.Believers base their moralityupon the faith they follow.
Religion & Technology look at these key areas: Animals In Medical Research Cloning Fertility Treatment Contraceptive Methods Abortion Transplant Surgery Euthanasia
ANIMALS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH Definition.- It’s the use of animals in experiments and development projects usually to determine toxicity, dosing and efficacy of test drugs before deciding to apply them on humans.
Do animals have rights?In the wild, animals behaveinstinctively.In the animal kingdomthey do not have any rights.Animal rights have come aboutslowly throughout history. Animalsare vulnerable, defenseless andare fully available to humanbeings. Those who harm animalsshould be accused of violatingtheir legal rights. Concepts thatshould underlie the rights ofanimals are, amongothers,individual value, comfort,respect, freedom, equality andcompassion.
Do animals have a soul?What does the Bible say? Animals have a soul in the sense that they possess life. A common Hebrew word translated life (soul) is nephesh. Nephesh is used for the life or breath of both animals and man (Gen. 1: 20, 30; 19: 17). Life is that state that is the opposite of death. It is a state of animation, breathing, and awareness. Men and animals alike possess a soul in the sense of breath (nephesh). However, in the sense of possessing a part or element that lives forever, as man possesses, animals do not possess an eternal spirit (cp. Matt. 25: 46). The animal simply and totally returns to the dust, the spirit of man continues to exist (Eccl. 3: 21, cp. 12: 7). The fact that animals do not possess an eternal soul in the sense that man does, does not de-emphasize their value as companions to man. Pets can and do become an important part in the lives of millions. Also, in mans charge over the animal kingdom, it behooves man to protect and not abuse the animals (Gen. 1: 26-28).
Christian attitudes towards Animal Testing For most of history Christians largely ignored animal suffering. The growth of the environmental movement has also radically changed Christian ideas about the role human beings play in relation to nature. Few Christians nowadays think that nature exists to serve humanity, and there is a general acceptance that human dominion over nature should be seen as stewardship and partnership rather than domination and exploitation.
CLONING Definition.- Cloning can be defined as the process by which there are obtained genetically identical copies of an organism, cell or molecule already developed of asexual form. Types of Cloning: -“Therapeutic Cloning”.- for the purpose of creating replacement organs for people in need of transplants who can not find a suitable donor. - “Reproductive Cloning”.- An identical copy of an animal, plant or even huma, however it is ILLEGAL to clone humans. The most famous clone was Dolly the sheep.
What does the Bible What do Christianssay? say? There is no direct teaching about cloning in the Bible Christians believe that human beings are created in the image of God, and therefore, are unique and should not be copied. Human life is something to be valued and not treated like a commodity to be bought and sold. The more liberal Christian churches believe and accept that medical research is important and experimentation should be allowed. They follow the idea that Jesus himself was a healer.
CONTRACEPTION Definition.- A contraceptive is the use of various devices, sexual practices, chemicals, drugs, or surgical procedures. This means that something becomes a contraceptive if its purpose is to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant. There are several types of contraceptives that have been officially labeled as such because they have shown reliability in preventing conception from occurring.
Contraceptive Methods Daily contraceptive tablets The contraceptive tablet is also known as " the pill" is a type of contraception in the shape of small tablets that one takes every day. The majority of the pills contain two types of feminine synthetic hormones, which are elaborated in a laboratory and are similar to the ones normally secreted from the ovary. They are oestrogen and progesterone and mixed are called oral contraceptives. There are different types of oral combined contraceptives. The oestrogen and the progesterone prevent the pregnancy, stopping the secretion of the hypophysis gland , which stops ovulation and retains the ovum in the ovary. That is to say ovulation does not take place (is not produced). Progesterone also prevents the sperm from reaching the ovum, by means of a double mechanism: 1) altering the cervical mucus 2) modifying the endometrium of the uterus. A type of pill contains a single type of hormone,progesterone, and is called " mini-pill. " It disables ovulation and prevents the sperm from fertilizing the ovum.
Precaution Contraceptive tablets do not prevent sexually transmitted diseases! Condoms must always be used. Side effects: The different contraceptive tablets can affect every woman in a different way. In some women they produce nauseas,headache, changes of humor or often the tablets help to improve acne. The effects go away after the first three or four cycles.
The Patch It is a thin sheet of color beige that contains an adhesive that allows its permanency on the skin for one week. The patch has been designed in order that you can carry out normal activities like baths, showers and exercises. It is recommended that you should verify that the patch does not become detached after each of these activities. The efficiency of the contraceptive patch is comparable to the rest of hormonal contraceptives.
Female Condom (also known as a femidom) It is a device that is used during sexual intercourse as a barrier contraceptive and to reduce the risk of sexually transmited diseases. The female condom is a thin, soft, loose-fitting sheath placed in the vagina to prevent errant sperm from bypassing the condom
Intrauterine Device (IUD) The intrauterine device is a T-shaped piece of plastic about the size of a fifty cent coin that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They are two types of IUDs available: One is covered with copper, the other releases the hormone progesterone.
Male ContraceptionCondom.- is a thin and elastic Vasectomy.- is a surgicalcase to cover the penis during procedure for malethe coitus, in order to avoid the sterilisation and/orfertilization - acting as permanent birth control.contraceptive method - and thepossible contagion of sexually During the procedure, thetransmitted diseases. vasa diferentia of a man are cut, and then tied/sealed in a manner to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate).
What does the Bible say about Pre- Marital Sex? ”Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body”. Paul to the Corinthians Conservative Christians do not agree with any sex before a person is married St. Paul said in the Bible that you should devote yourself to God and not have sex, but if you can not do that, then the only right way to have sex is in marriage where the holy union is blessed by God. Christians do not believe in FORNICATION which is sex only for pleasure but they believe in procreation.
What do the Christians say about Contraception?Conservative Christians believe thatcontraception interferes with the will of God.God said to Adam, “be fruitful and multiply”.Christians do not need contraception as theyare having sex to procreate and they areonly having sex within marriage. Each and everysexual act must be open to the possibility ofpregnancy.
ABORTIONWhat is an abortion?.-An abortion is the termination ofpregnancy by the removal orexpulsion from the uterus of a foetusor embryo prior to viability. When anabortion occurs spontaneously iscalled a miscarriage, an it can also bepurposely induced.
When does human life begin?There are different perspectivesabout this issue.While some people say that lifebegins when the unborn childreaches “viability”, the pointwhere he or she can surviveoutside the womb. (Viability isnow 20 weeks into pregnancy)Pro-life associations defend thathuman life begins at conception:“The life of a baby begins longbefore he or she is born. A newindividual human being begins atfertilization, when the sperm andovum meet to form a single cell.”
What does the Bible say about abortion?The Bible does not talk about You are the one who put me “abortion but some Bible together inside my mother’s body, extracts and I praise you because of thesay: wonderful way you created me.Before I formed you in“ Everything you do is marvelous! Of this I have no doubt.the womb I knew you, Nothing about me is hidden from you!before you were born I I was secretly woven together deepset you apart.” in the earth below, but with your own Jeremiah 1.5 eyes you saw my body being formed. Even before I was born, you had written in your book everything I would do.” PSALM 139
Different Christian beliefs about abortion?For Christians, abortion is not a matter of choice forwomen’s rights. It’s a matter of life or death of a humanbeing made in the image ofGod. The Church has alwaysproclaimed that human life is sacred from the moment ofconception. But like society, which is split over pro-life andpro-choice abortion positions, so too is the Christianchurch. Not all Christians think the same thing, and so notall Christians agree or disagree with abortion.
Do Christians consider any exceptions?While for Catholics abortion is ALWAYSwrong, for other faiths such as Protestants itcan be allowed in some circumstances: arape, abuse or incest, if the mother’s lifewould be in danger, disabled baby.
Abortion Law in Spain The strengths of this law are:- Abortion allowed under any circumstances at up to 14 weeks’ gestation and declares the procedure a woman’s right.- Abortion up to 22 weeks if certified by 2 doctors that the pregnancy poses a serious threat to the woman’s life or health, as well as in cases of fetal impairment and beyond 22 weeks in cases of severe fetal impairment.- It also grants 16- and17-year-olds abortion access, provided that they notify at least one parent or legal guardian. Notification is not required if the teen believes it would result in “domestic violence, threats, coercion, abuse..”
TRANSPLANT SURGERYDefinition and Types.- It is the replacing ofan organ that is no longer functioning withan organ from a donor that does function.Organs are donated by living and deceaseddonors in order to save the life of a recipient.
Types of transplants- Autograft.- Transplant of tissue to the same person.- Allograft and allotransplantation.- An allograft is a transplant of an organ or tissue between two genetically non-identical members of the same species.- Isograft.- A subset of allografts in which organs or tissues are transplanted from a donor to a genetically identical recipient (such as an identical twin).- Xenograft and xenotransplantation.- A transplant of organs or tissue from one species to another. (e.g. a porcine heart valve transplant)- Split transplants.- Sometimes a deceased-donor organ, usually a liver, may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and a child.- Domino transplants.- In patients with cystic fibrosis, where both lungs need to be replaced, it is a technically easier operation with a higher rate of success to replace both the heart and lungs of the recipient with those of the donor. As the recipients original heart is usually healthy, it can then be transplanted into a second recipient in need of a heart transplant.
What does the Bible say about organ donation?The Bible does not specifically address the issue of organtransplantation. Obviously, organ transplants would havebeen unknown in Bible times.One of the most compelling arguments for organ donationis the love and compassion such an act demonstratestoward others. The mandate to "love your neighbor" wasstated by Jesus (Matthew 5:43).From the earliest days in the Old Testament, Gods peoplewere commanded to demonstrate a love for God as well asfor their neighbors. Being willing to donate an organ fromour own bodies would seem to be an extreme example ofselfless sacrifice for another.
Describe the different Christian attitudes towards transplant surgerySome people view organ donation as the ultimate form of mutilating the humanbody. As stewards of Gods creation, we should treat our bodies with respect,and abstain from whatever is deleterious to them.One of the biggest concerns among Christians is the concept that the entirebody needs to be present and preserved in some fashion for the resurrection.Therefore, many Christians are reluctant to donate organs because theybelieve that resurrection itself requires a "complete" body. However, when Godwas handing out punishments at the Garden of Eden, He told Adam, "By thesweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground,since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return“(Genesis 3:19). Thus, God said that one day our earthly bodies would return tothe soil.Paul, in writing to the Corinthians, provided some insight as to the differencebetween the physical body at death (which may be disposed of in a variety ofways), and the spiritual body of the resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:35-49).He then went on to comment: "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritualbody. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body" (v. 44). If webased on these facts, Christians should not fear or reject organ donationmerely in an attempt to keep the physical body intact for the resurrection.
EUTHANASIA or MERCY KILLINGDefinition.- The word "euthanasia" comes straight out of the Greek –"eu", goodly or well + "thanatos", death = the good death. Theintentional killing by act or omission of a dependent human being for hisor her alleged benefit. (The key word here is "intentional". If death is notintended, it is not an act of euthanasia) A good and easy death.Types of Euthanasia.-- Voluntary euthanasia.- The person requests the death because he/she doesn´t want to continue living- Involuntary euthanasia.- When a person is unable to ask to die because they are in coma or PVS (persistent vegetative state). Others must make their decision for them. The person is killed against his/her will.- Non-voluntary.- The person is unaware of what is happening- Active.- when a specific action is undertaken to bring life to an end (e.g.: a person ending his/her own life)- Passive.- when a person refuses to have any more treatment or operations and to live the rest of his/her life to the full. They are aware that refusing treatment will shorten or end their life.
What does the Bible say about it?Christians believe that life is a special gift from God, and this affects alltheir beliefs about the body and the care it should receive. As a gift itshould be treated with respect and dignity, since it is unique and sacred(“the Sanctity of Life”). Through his actions and teaching, Jesus made itclear that everyone is valuable in the eyes of God. Death is seen as astage in life, not necessarily the end of life, and to end it prematurely isagainst God’s plan.The following are passages from the Bible:“Surely you know that you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit lives in you! So if anyone destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him. For God’s temple is holy, and you yourselves are his temple.” Corinthians 3:16-17“Do not commit murder” Exodus 20:13
What do Christians say?Christians believe in the sanctity of life from the moment ofthe birth until natural death. Christians believe life is a giftof God, and therefore is sacred. It is not ours to dispose ofat will. Therefore, as it’s believed to be sacred, we do nothave the moral right to end it unless it is God´s will.There are many different opinions on whether an individualhas the right to end their own life, or whether people aremerely “stewards” of their own lives and their life is reallysomething that belongs to God.The mainstream Catholic view is that euthanasia is alwayswrong. But for other faiths euthanasia is not somethingwhich is desirable. It is the last option when life is so painfulthat there is little quality left.
ConclusionMorality, Ethics, the Sanctity of Life, theValue of Life and the Quality of Life arecontroversial issues. These are such vastareas for thought and deliberation andfinding a just conclusion seems impossible.