1029 JEEVIKA What is System of Wheat Intensification (SWI)

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1029 JEEVIKA What is System of Wheat Intensification (SWI)

  1. 1. JEEV i KA WHAT IS SWI ? <ul><li>A project of Govt. of Bihar assisted by the World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Objective – social & economic empowerment of rural poor through community institutions such as self-help groups (SHGs) & their federations </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural intervention is one of the focus areas under the Livelihoods component </li></ul><ul><li>Rural poverty can be reduced in a big way enhancing agricultural productivity of the important crops </li></ul><ul><li>Piloted and scaled up SRI among 8,500 farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Piloted SWI in 2008-09 with 415 farmers </li></ul><ul><li>SWI is being scaled up with nearly 30,000 farmers in 2009-10 </li></ul>10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  2. 2. WHAT IS SWI ? 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>A SET OF AGRONOMIC PRACTICES: </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower seed rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sowing of seeds at proper spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of water in the crop field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeding / hoeing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs / Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher ratio of tillers to mother seedlings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased number of effective tillers / hill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced panicle length & bolder grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced yield </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL WHEAT CULTIVATION & SWI 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Particulars Traditional wheat cultivation System of Wheat Intensification Seed rate 100-125 kg / ha 20-30 kg / ha Seed treatment Not done Provided with cow urine & fungicide Sowing Broadcasting Line sowing Spacing No spacing regulation 8 inch x 8 inch Weeding / Hoeing Not done 3 times Yield 1-2 tons / hectare 3-4 tons / hectare
  4. 4. SEED TREATMENT 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Required inputs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 kg improved seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm water: 20 litres (60 o Celsius) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermi-compost: 5 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gur: 4 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow urine: 4 litres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bavistin: 20 grams </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SEED TREATMENT PROCESS 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Steps to be followed sequentially: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate foreign materials from 10 kg seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make 20 liters of water warm, up to 60 o C in a vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the seed in the warm water in the vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the floating seeds from the warm water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 5 kg vermi-compost, 4 kg gur & 4 litres of cow urine, and keep for 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate the seed mixture from the solution, sieving it through a cotton cloth after 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 20 grams Bavistin to the seed mixture and keep this for 12 hours in a wet jute bag for germination & for further sowing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. LAND PREPARATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Land preparation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 quintals FYM or 4 quintals of vermi-compost per acre of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the soil does not have appropriate moisture, irrigate before ploughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the last ploughing, broadcast 27 kg DAP & 13.5 kg potash on one acre of land </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. SEED SOWING 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Seed sowing process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture availability in soil is required when the germinated seeds are sown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 seeds per hill are sown & spacing is maintained at 8” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To guide and maintain line sowing at 8”, strings or ropes are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap filling is done after 7 days, wherever the seed has not germinated </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IRRIGATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Phase-wise irrigation management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First irrigation is done 15 days after sowing, as root initiation starts during this time. Unavailability of moisture in soil will prevent root initiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second irrigation is given 25 days after sowing, as the number of tillers start emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third irrigation is given 35-40 days after sowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsequent irrigations are given at 60, 80 & 100 days after sowing, depending on soil & climatic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the flowering and grain-filling stage, appropriate moisture should be available in the soil </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MANURE & FERTILIZER APPLICATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Phase-wise manure & fertilizer application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the first and third irrigation, manure & fertilizer are applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the first irrigation, 4 quintals of vermi-compost and 40 kg of urea are applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the third irrigation, 15 kg urea & 13 kg potash are applied </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. WEEDING 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Phase-wise weeding requirement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeding is first done 2-3 days after irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the first, second & third irrigations, hoeing and weeding should be done -- to loosen the soil and to make the wheat field weed-free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The loosening of soil results in better aeration for the root zone and increases the root length by letting them take more moisture & nutrient from the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helps in bringing forth more tillers in the plant with more vigor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ACTION RESEARCH ON SWI in JEEViKA (2008-09) 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Three kinds of research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First research: Row to row & plant to plant spacing is 6 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second research: Row to row & plant to plant spacing is 8 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third research : PVSP as a complement to SWI with 7 wheat varieties (GW-273, UP-2565, UP-2526, HD-2733, PBW-343, HP-1761, HI-1531) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action research was undertaken with 140 farmers in Purnea, 150 farmers in Gaya, and 125 farmers in Nalanda (415 farmers in all) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Yield Differences per hectare 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Traditional SWI Purnea : 1.6 tonnes (PBW-343, UP-262) Gaya : 1.2 tonnes (PBW-343) Nalanda : 1.4 tonnes (PBW-343) Purnea : 4.8 tonnes (GW-273, UP-2565, UP-2526) Highest : 8.4 ton / ha Gaya : 3.2 tonnes (PBW-343) Highest : 6.92 ton / ha Nalanda : 3.8 tonnes (PBW-343, GW-273, HD 2733, LOK-1) Highest : 7.92 ton / ha
  13. 13. Difference in tillers & root between SWI & traditional practices 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  14. 14. 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Certification by Dr. M. C. Diwakar, Director, Rice Development, GoI
  15. 15. Progress of SWI in the Ongoing Winter Season 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) <ul><li>Rabi 2009-2010 in JEEViKA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with around 30,000 farmers in around 5,000 acres of land in 18 blocks of 6 districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is carried out with support from the local resources called Village Resource Persons (VRPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 500 Village Resource Persons (VRPs) were identified from the villages and trained to guide the 30,000 farmers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Role of Village Resource Persons (VRPs) <ul><li>Generating awareness of SWI methodology in SHGs & at VO meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Training of farmers in the classroom & field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWI training manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio –visual materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field exposure (internal & external) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guiding farmers in sowing and intercultural operations </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly SWI plot visits to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting focus-group discussions with farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct scientific yield assessments as trained by agriculture scientists (cross-verification method) </li></ul>10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  17. 17. Designing of Honorarium for Village Resource Persons (VRPs) <ul><li>SC/ST HHs + Lease Land = 35/- per HH per month </li></ul><ul><li>SC/ST HHs + Own Land = 30/- per HH per month </li></ul><ul><li>BC/EBC HHs+Lease/Own Land=25/- per HH per m </li></ul><ul><li>GC HHs + Lease / Own Land = 20/- per HH per m </li></ul><ul><li>HONORARIUM DESIGN OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>To cover a greater number of landless farmers who lease land & improve productivity so as to attain food security & bring more land under the fold of SWI/SRI to improve productivity </li></ul><ul><li>In the current Rabi season, 18 VRPs imparted training to farmers, agriculture officers & KVK-ATMA officials to help them pilot SWI in 38 districts </li></ul>10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  18. 18. OBSERVATIONS / LEARNING <ul><li>Under water-stressed conditions (drought), crops with SRI/SWI methodology cope with pressures better than crops of traditional cultivation practices </li></ul><ul><li>For bringing about sustained change in agricultural and behavioural practices, very close guidance is needed for at least 2-3 years </li></ul><ul><li>More number of small & marginal farmers have taken up SRI/SWI on more acres of land in subsequent years </li></ul><ul><li>The SWI/SRI methodology spreads much faster from the small farmers to the large farmers </li></ul>10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  19. 19. OUR EXPECTATIONS <ul><li>Scaling up of SWI across various parts of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) under the National Food Security Mission (NFSM) for attaining better food security for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Research to develop seed drill for sowing of wheat seeds on large scale, and other equipment such as weeders, power weeders, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of VRP model for more effective extension of agricultural practices </li></ul>10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)

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