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Data Center Free Cooling in the Middle East

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Analysis of the options to provide cost effective data cooling in Middle East countries.
By Noriel Ong, ASEAN Eng., MIET, PMP, PQP, ATD; Syska Hennessy Group.

Published in: Business
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Data Center Free Cooling in the Middle East

  1. 1. Can Data Center Free Cooling Be Utilized in the Middle East? Prepared by: Noriel Ong, ASEAN Eng., MIET, PMP, PQP, ATD 3/21/2017
  2. 2. 3/21/2017 Syska Hennessy Group / 2 Objective • Learning the types of air economizers • Understanding the typical air economizers configuration • Learning the advantages and disadvantages of each type of air economizer system • Understanding of the energy and water cost impacts of indirect evaporative cooling system.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONDATA CENTER AIR ECONOMIZERS, CONFIGURATION AND EXAMPLE PROJECTS
  4. 4. 3/21/2017 4 AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER Syska Hennessy Group / AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER is “a system that has been designed to used outdoor air for cooling – partially or fully – when outdoor air meets certain criteria” (ASHRAE). • DIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZERS – the outside air is directly supplied into the white space – the exhaust heat is reject fully or partially recirculated back – The outside air could also be cooled by means adiabatic cooling (aka DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING). • INDIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZERS – The outdoor air does not enter the white space. – Data center (primary air) is cooled indirectly by the outside air via heat exchanger. – The primary air/heat exchanger (cold side) could also be cooled by means adiabatic cooling. (aka INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING).
  5. 5. DIRECTAIR ECONOMIZERS
  6. 6. 3/21/2017 6 DIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER Syska Hennessy Group /
  7. 7. 3/21/2017 7 DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING Syska Hennessy Group /
  8. 8. 3/21/2017 8 DIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER (config.) Syska Hennessy Group / Fan Walls CRAC/H or AHU
  9. 9. 3/21/2017 9 DIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER (EXAMPLE) Syska Hennessy Group / CONFIDENTIAL MULTINATIONAL TECHNOLOGY COMPANY DATA CENTER PHASE 2 EXPANSION Project Features • Tier 2 electrical design • Tier 2 mechanical design • Modular design • Scalable design • Greenfield site • 2 data halls, expandable to 5 • Each data hall scalable to 3.6mW of critical load • Adiabatic cooling to provide annual average 1.08 PUE Size • 186,000sf L O C K P O R T , N Y Services Provided • Mechanical • Electrical • Plumbing • Fire protection • Fuel Oil Completion Date • 2014
  10. 10. INDIRECTAIR ECONOMIZERS
  11. 11. 3/21/2017 11 AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER Syska Hennessy Group / INDIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER Primary Return Air Primary Supply Air Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger Scavenger (Exhaust) Air Scavenger (Outside) Air Scavenger Fans Primary Fans Air Filter Cooling Coil Air Filter
  12. 12. 3/21/2017 12 AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER Syska Hennessy Group / INDIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER (INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING)
  13. 13. 3/21/2017 13 INDIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER (config.) Syska Hennessy Group / Perimeter Configuration Roof Configuration
  14. 14. 3/21/2017 14 INDIRECT AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZER (EXAMPLE) Syska Hennessy Group / T5 - EL SEGUNDO DATA CENTER CALIFORNIA Project Features • Day 1: • 5.5MW critical load • 85,000 s.f. white space • Day 2 (ultimate): • 2.95MW critical load • 110,500 s.f. white space • Brownfield site • PUE goal: 1.3 • Rooftop Indirect Evaporative Cooling Units (no chiller plant) • Diesel Generators • Goal of achieving LEED Gold • 36” Raised Floors
  15. 15. PROS AND CONSOF DATA CENTER AIR ECONOMIZERS
  16. 16. 3/21/2017 16 Risks Summary Syska Hennessy Group / Direct Air-Side Economizers Direct Evaporative Cooling Indirect Air-Side Economizers Indirect Evaporative Cooling Energy Consumption Low Medium Water Consumption None Medium None Medium Temperature Variations High Medium Low Humidity Variations High Low Air Quality Issues High None Water Quality Issues None Medium None Medium Complexity High Medium Regional Support/Experience High High Low
  17. 17. CASE STUDY1MW DATA CENTER MODEL
  18. 18. 3/21/2017 18 ASSUMPTIONS Syska Hennessy Group, MENA / • 1MW data center critical (IT) load. Fully loaded at static conditions. • Based comparison with Air-cooled chilled water system with variable primary system and Computer Room Air Handlers (CRAH). • Data center cabinets are in hot and cold aisle configuration with containment system. • White Space Supply/Return Air Temp (SAT/RAT) • 77°F [25°C]/100°F [38°C] • Power and Water Tariffs are based on the local utility slabs. • DEWA, ADDC, Qatar KAHRAMAA, Oman MEDC & PAEW, KSA SEC& NWC, Bahrain EWA, and Kuwait MEW. • Weather Bin Data based on IWEC 2. • IDEC Wet Bulb Depression Efficiency =60% • IDEC Air to Air Heat Exchange Efficiency = 45% • IDEC primary and secondary(scavenger) fans speed are constant. • IDEC Dry Operations: =/< 48°F [9°C] DBT OA • IDEC Wet Operations: > 48°F [9°C] DBT and < 61°F [16°C] WBT OA • IDEC Partial Free Cooling: > 61°F [16°C] OA • Both the data center is pressurized by a DOAS • Analysis focus on white space only.
  19. 19. 3/21/2017 19Syska Hennessy Group, MENA / AVAILABLE FREE COOLING - HOURS Kuwait KSA, Riyadh KSA, Dhahran UAE, Dubai UAE, Abu Dhabi Qatar, Doha Bahrain Oman, Muscat Dry Operation 379 273 80 0 2 3 0 0 Wet Operation 3771 6913 2682 1631 1784 1927 1946 1018 Partial Free Cooling (Wet + Mechanical Operations) 4610 1574 5998 7129 6974 6830 6814 7742 0 876 1752 2628 3504 4380 5256 6132 7008 7884 8760 HOURS AVAILABLE FREE COOLING HOURS Partial Free Cooling (Wet + Mechanical Operations) Wet Operation Dry Operation
  20. 20. 3/21/2017 20Syska Hennessy Group, MENA / FINANCIAL IMPACTS Kuwait KSA, Riyadh KSA, Dhahran UAE, Dubai UAE, Abu Dhabi Qatar, Doha Bahrain Oman, Muscat Electricity Cost Savings -58% -64% -55% -52% -52% -53% -53% -51% Water Cost 16% 14% 14% 19% 16% 28% 16% 25% Ops Utility Cost Savings -42% -50% -41% -33% -37% -25% -37% -26% -100% -80% -60% -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% OPERATIONCOST Financial Impacts
  21. 21. 3/21/2017 Syska Hennessy Group, MENA / 21 CONCLUSIONS • The case study revealed that Riyadh, Dhahran and Kuwait has the most free cooling hours among other places in GCC countries that were evaluated. • Although the analysis for UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman showed very limited free cooling hours, savings can still be achieved through partial free cooling. • IDEC full and partial free cooling will reduce data center mechanical energy or overall utility cost. • More operation cost savings could be realized if the modulation of secondary(scavenger) fans are accounted for, which is usually the case. • Increasing the target supply air temperature limit will increase the number of full or partial free cooling hours. • Selecting a higher supply air temperature, i.e. 77°F (25°C), will improve the economics of the economizer without even considering the option of using the allowable range.
  22. 22. 3/21/2017 Syska Hennessy Group, MENA / 22 CONCLUSIONS • Although the results seem favorable, there are also other considerations that need to be examined. • Water scarcity and storage. • System operation during dust/sand storms. • Although no known cases of Legionella were recorded, water treatment may be required. • Regular maintenance of heat exchangers to mitigate fouling. • Indirect airside economizer could be an alternative cooling solution in lieu with IDEC provided that local support will be present in the region.
  23. 23. Thank you Any questions?

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