3 CelebratingCommemorative Brochure 100 1906 2006 YearsThe School of Process, Environmental and MaterialsEngineering (SPEME) has come a long way in the last100 years and is now one of the largest integratedmultidisciplinary engineering schools in Europe.So, to mark our centenary, we have compiled this shortcommemorative brochure which looks back over ourhistory and then moves forward to the future.We may be more familiar to you as the Energy Resources Research InstituteHouldsworth School of Applied Science, or (ERRI), the Institute for Materials Researchyou may go back even further to the (IMR) and the Institute of Particle ScienceDepartment of Coal Gas and Fuel & Engineering (IPSE). We are also involvedIndustries (with Metallurgy). Whatever your in multi-disciplinary and collaborativeexperience we hope you enjoy reading this teaching and research; the Centre forbrochure. Computational Fluid Dynamics and the Particles Centre of Industrial CollaborationBefore we start our historical tour it is (ParticlesCIC) also sit within the School asuseful to take a few moments to describe multidisciplinary centres.the key features of the School today.Housed in the Houldsworth Building the In the last Government ResearchSchool forms part of the Engineering Assessment Exercise (RAE) staff in the IN THE LASTquadrant of the University campus. With awide range of undergraduate degrees and School achieved one of the highest ratings of 5, confirming our status as one of the “ GOVERNMENTtaught masters and research degree leading international centres for integrated RESEARCHprogrammes, world class research from process, environmental and materials ASSESSMENT EXERCISEthree research institutes, plus extensive engineering. Our three world-leading (RAE) STAFF IN THEindustrially-targeted short courses, this is research institutes generate a substantial SCHOOL ACHIEVEDtruly a place where cutting-edge research proportion of the University’s research ONE OF THE HIGHESTbrings the frontiers of science to generated income by forging strong, long-undergraduate and postgraduate students term collaborative links with both national RATINGS OF 5,and to scientific communities and industry and multinational blue chip corporations CONFIRMING OURthrough our publications and knowledge and other funding bodies. STATUS AS ONE OF THEtransfer activities. LEADING This excellence in research, and our strong INTERNATIONALOur activities cover the broad disciplines links with industry, ensures that our courses CENTRES FORof aviation, energy and environment, are relevant, topical and of high quality,materials science and process engineering enabling our graduates to embark on INTEGRATED PROCESS,with our research organised in three enhanced career paths within organisations ENVIRONMENT ANDworld-leading research institutes: the all around the world. MATERIALS ENGINEERING.
4 Our heritage – Looking back, the first 50 years The roots of our pedigree go back a long way, and in fact pre-date 1906, as we have links to the founding of the Yorkshire College of Science in 1874. However, it is from 1906, and the formation of the Department of Coal Gas and Fuel Industries (with Metallurgy), that we really mark our creation. This new department was created as a expansion of the Department. During direct result of the proposal by the this time HJ Hodsman was also Professor of Mining, GR Thomson, that appointed as lecturer, becoming a long- the teaching of fuel and metallurgy serving and much appreciated member of should be added to that of mining, and staff who is commemorated by a plaque was strongly supported by the Professor in the School foyer. Other early members of Chemistry, A Smithells. The of staff were HS Houldsworth who was Department was housed in a new appointed in 1917 (more about building to the rear of Colour Chemistry Houldsworth later) and GB Howarth on the University campus (now the who left a legacy to the department, the W A Bone: First Professor Estates Office Building) where it income from which is still used as a remained until 1958. The Department hardship fund for students in ERRI. was highly innovative and modelled on AL Roberts was appointed in 1928 and the German Schools of Applied Science, became the fourth Livesey Professor in with an emphasis on achieving enhanced 1946. practical engineering excellence. In 1910, the fledgling department was “ THE DEPARTMENT WAS HIGHLY endowed by the Institution of Gas Engineers with a Professorship in INNOVATIVE AND memory of Sir George Livesey, past MODELLED ON THE President of the Institute. WA Bone, who GERMAN SCHOOLS became the first Livesey Professor, left OF APPLIED SCIENCE, Leeds in 1912 to found the new WITH AN EMPHASIS Department of Chemical Engineering at ON ACHIEVING Imperial. ENHANCED PRACTICAL Bone’s replacement as Livesey Chair and ENGINEERING Head of Department, JW Cobb, was then A L Roberts EXCELLENCE instrumental in the subsequent rapid
5 Celebrating 100 1906 2006 Years A L RobertsChemical Engineering, a core activitywithin SPEME, had evolved into anationally strategic discipline during theearly part of the twentieth century, but itwas not until 1942 that the first ChemicalEngineering degree course was developed,during the tenure of the third LiveseyProfessor DTA Townend. Strong practicalsupport for this came from the Institutionof Gas Engineers, the National GasCouncil, the British Commercial GasAssociation and Dr Charles RatcliffeBrotherton (the nephew of LordBrotherton). Lord Brotherton, the chemicalcompany owner, provided substantialendowments to the University, notably theBrotherton Library and collection.The creation of a Chemical Engineeringdegree had been recommended by asub-committee of the Livesey AdvisoryCommittee set up in 1941 to consideralterations to the degree structure. Inaddition to Chemical Engineering, thecommittee recommended degrees in:Gas Engineering, Metallurgy, and FuelScience. In 1946 the Charles BrothertonChemical Engineering Laboratory wasopened marking the launch of the newChemical Engineering degree.
6 IN 1955 CONSTRUCTION “ BEGAN ON WHAT WAS TO BECOME THE HOULDSWORTH BUILDING OF TODAY – WITH A TOTAL BUILD COST OF £900,000, IT ALSO INVOLVED THE DEMOLITION OF TWO PUBS!
7 Celebrating 100 1906 2006 YearsIn 1944, due to the growth in staffnumbers (nine academic staff and sixresearch staff) and the expansion ofundergraduate provision, the Departmentwas split into three divisions: Gas andChemical Engineering, Metallurgy andCeramics and Refractory Materials.A separate degree in Ceramics wasestablished in 1950, the first of its kindin the UK.In 1944 Dr Brotherton endowed theBrotherton lectureship and researchassistantship in chemical engineering anddonated £55,000 for the erection of anew building, which was the genesis ofthe Houldsworth building.With ever increasing numbers of staffand students, the original VictorianTerraces and other buildings had provedinsufficient, and the need for newer,more commodious accommodationbecame increasingly self-evident.In 1955, using the Brotherton donationalong with other funds from HEFCE andindustry, construction began on what wasto become the Houldsworth Building oftoday – with a total build cost of£900,000, it also involved the demolitionof two pubs!
8 Moving on – The later years, 50 to 100 years In 1956 and before the new building was completed, the Houldsworth School of Applied Science was founded. The building commemorates Sir Hubert Houldsworth who was first appointed to the staff of the University in 1917, was the first Chairman of the National Coal Board in 1947, and served the University as Pro-chancellor from 1949 to 1956. The aim of the School’s foundation was to in a different physical location until 1997. establish departments for each disciplinary constituent, each with their own Professor. All of these structural changes, along with AL Roberts became the first Head of the changes in name, curriculum, and research Department of Gas Engineering and activities were made as a direct response to General Fuel Science. The Department of the changing societal and industrial Metallurgy was instituted immediately environment, a forward-looking core with Norman Petch as its first Professor tradition that continues today. and Head. Chemical Engineering followed in 1958, with its first Brotherton Professor Control, organisation and strategic and Head, Geoffrey Haselden, being direction of the School was through appointed in 1966. committee, with AL Roberts as its first chairman. The practical work of allocating Ceramics remained a part of Gas lecture theatres, negotiating with Estates Engineering and Fuel Science until 1965 and the day-to-day running of the school when it became a department with Pat fell to one man, Alan Pollard ‘Mr Roberts as its first Professor. He was Houldsworth School’, never seen without succeeded in 1974 by Richard Brook. his pipe! In 1964 the Department of Mining was re- In 1971, on Professor Roberts’ retirement, Richard Brook: Professor of Ceramics 1974 organised as the Department of Applied Gas Engineering and General Fuel Science Mineral Sciences and shortly after (under became the Department of Fuel and its Head Professor HJ King) elected to Combustion Science, with the new Livesey become a fifth Department within the Professor Alan Williams as its first Head Houldsworth School, although it remained of Department.
9Sir HubertHouldsworth “ THE GUIDING PRINCIPLE OF THE SCHOOL’S FOUNDATION WAS TO ESTABLISH DEPARTMENTS FOR The ‘cafe’ EACH DISCIPLINARY CONSTITUENT, EACH WITH THEIR OWN PROFESSOR. Alan Pollard
10 IN 1968 AND 1972 THE FIRST “ MSC COURSES WERE LAUNCHED IN COMBUSTION AND ENERGY (JOINT WITH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND CHEMISTRY) AND IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL (THE FIRST SUCH DEGREE IN THE WORLD) Final year students measuring the creep of refractories at high temperature In 1968 the first MSc courses were Environment and in Fire Engineering. launched in Combustion and Energy (joint with Mechanical Engineering and In 1997, as part of a general trend of Chemistry) and in Environmental universities throughout the UK towards Pollution Control (the first such degree in having a smaller number of larger schools the World). These MSc developments of study, the four remaining Houldsworth were very successful and have been joined departments were combined, under the by a wide variety of other MSc courses leadership of Professor PA Dowd, the spanning all of our main research areas. Professor of Mining Engineering, into a single School of Process, Environmental Chemical Engineering prospered and and Materials Engineering (SPEME) and grew through the 60s and 70s expanding co-located within the Houldsworth its research into the new areas of building. This, together with substantial computational process systems university investments in the new school, engineering via the appointments during led to the appointments of Richard this time of Colin McGreavy and John Williams as Professor of Mineral and Pilot Plant 1955 Flower. In 1964 the department became Process Engineering in 1999 and Kevin the first to purchase its own research Roberts as the second Brotherton computer, an analogue Solartron 24 Professor of Chemical Engineering in costing £326,000 with the computational 2001. Through this, activities and synergy capabilities of a modern desk-top between minerals and chemical calculator and, later in 1967, its first engineering (previously in separate digital computer a 16K IBM 1130. buildings) were brought together for the Professor McGreavy became head in first time. Substantial endowment from 1977, leading the department through the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd in the emerging next two decades with strong student area of particle technology followed, recruitment into the department. leading to the subsequent appointments of Mojtaba Ghadiri and Simon Biggs to There were many changes in name among additional chairs in the School. the five Departments up to the late 1990s. Fuel and Combustion became Fuel Due to the modular approach to degree and Energy, Applied Mineral Science programmes already established by the became Mining and Mineral Engineering University, a wide range of both single and the Departments of Metallurgy and discipline and increasingly Ceramics amalgamated to form the interdisciplinary degree courses could be School of Materials with Dr Geoffrey offered. The flexibility of degree Pollard as its first Head. Throughout this programme construction meant that the period the University grew rapidly with School and University could be more New IBM 1130 the Houldsworth School contributing to responsive to market demand (student Computer this with new degrees in Energy and the and industry) with wider options of study
11 CelebratingFuel science teaching laboratory 100 1906 2006 Yearsavailable than could be provided in a the frontiers of scientific discovery.fixed programme regime. From the Indeed, research activity influenced byestablishment of a single department in industrial collaboration with real world1906 which expanded to teach several commercial considerations reiterated thisdisciplines, to the evolution of separate requirement.defined departments we have now comefull circle to a unified and versatile So, alongside the fusing of the oldSchool. separate departments into one interdisciplinary School for teaching cameIn 2003, under Professor Mohammed the creation of three new interdisciplinaryPourkashanian as the new Head of research institutes: the Energy andSPEME, teaching in the School was Resources Research Institute; the Institutere-organised into three broad discipline for Materials Research; the Institute ofareas; Aviation, Materials and Process Particle Science and Engineering.Engineering. The materials programme is Research within the Houldsworth Schoollargely a continuation of the materials had always been strong and of world-programme of the School of Materials, class standard, and with the creation ofbut the re-organisation of the the three new Institutes, this tradition ofprogrammes in Fuel and Energy, excellence and industrial involvementChemical Engineering and Mining and became even stronger, drawing on the The Duchess of KentMineral Engineering into Process considerable international renown and visits the Brotherton laboratoryEngineering was much more radical, expertise of the academic members.designed to facilitate efficiency in deliveryand to enhance interdisciplinary teaching.The Aviation degree, the first of its kind,was introduced in 2003 and is one of themost successful undergraduateprogrammes in the University. It wasPeter Dowd’s enthusiasm that helped thedegree to evolve into a practical degreewith flying instruction, very much the keyto its popularity with students.With the disappearance of separatedepartments, separate discipline researchalso came to an end. This was necessaryto take advantage of the benefits of amultidisciplinary approach demanded bythe research that was being undertaken at Graduation
12 Today and into the future – 2006 and beyond In 2006 the School is financially sound, The Energy & Resources Research total student numbers are healthy and Institute (ERRI) Under the direction of Professor Paul Williams, ERRI maintains research income is at an all time high and a thriving cutting-edge research culture, supported by state-of- represents a major proportion of the Faculty the-art research facilities, which provides a vibrant research of Engineering income. The outlook for the environment. The ERRI team comprises six Professors, four Readers, three Senior Lecturers and two Lecturers with 25 next 100 years is looking great... Post-doctoral Fellows and 40 PhD students. Education The group is well established and internationally recognised. The modular nature of our teaching has ensured that common There are five main research areas within the Institute: subjects between the programmes in Aviation, Materials and • Combustion, flames, fire and explosion; Process Engineering teaching can be used across the school • Advanced energy engineering; providing efficiencies in the delivery of teaching. • Environmental pollution control, monitoring and modelling; • Renewable energy systems and future fuels; The advent of Aviation Technology degrees has resulted in a • Sustainable management of resources. number of changes to the curriculum available within the School as well as giving us new aircraft simulator facilities. Our vision is: To be recognised for internationally leading These state-of-the art facilities are providing students with an research in the sustainable development of natural resources, exciting new range of projects which are taken as a part of the sustainable use of fossil fuels and the development of these courses. renewable and future fuels. Materials teaching has also undergone significant change both Our strategy includes measures to increase our international in programmes and modules as a result of changing student links through visits and hosting researchers so that existing demand. Traditional programmes in Materials and Metallurgy collaborations will be strengthened and new international links have been replaced with a general Materials Science and fostered. Research grant funding will be used to support the Engineering degree having variants in Sports Materials and development of our research equipment infrastructure. The Biomaterials. Recent improvements have included a change to range of research reactors and equipment, advanced analytical more problem-based learning within modules and an increased and diagnostic instruments that we build and expand will emphasis on practical skills. vastly improve the physical infrastructure for our research and contributes to our aim to be a world-class centre for research in Within Process Engineering, there is now a largely common energy and resources. first three semesters and the individual character of the constituent subjects starts to develop in the latter half of the Energy and resource management is a major strategic research second year. The third and fourth years are then spent mostly area for the UK, requiring integration and collaboration on specific material of relevance to the degree course chosen by between the different science areas as well as recognition of the each student. associated socio-economic and cultural changes that will ensue. Postgraduate provision is also developing and, as is the case We are leading interdisciplinary research via the University of with undergraduate provision, is reflecting changing trends, Leeds Interdisciplinary Institute in Earth, Energy & demands and a changing landscape. New and innovative Environment. The Institute actively promotes knowledge approaches to teaching and learning and developments to transfer to industry and other stakeholders with more than 20 enhance the student experience are at the heart of our thinking. industrially focused short courses, an activity which the
13SPEME senior management team 2006 Institute plans to sustain and strengthen in the photonics and sensors; future. The Institute combines expertise in the • Metallurgy – steel, non-equilibrium processing; areas of environmental impact, socio-economics • Characterization and modelling – electron and public perception with the traditional areas of microscopy and spectroscopy, ab initio and engineering and physical sciences. thermodynamic modelling. Such cross-university collaboration will be Our vision is: To undertake internationally enhanced by the award of six Research Council leading research and postgraduate training in UK (Roberts) Fellowships to the University of selected fields within materials science & Leeds to create a frontline interdisciplinary engineering, serving the future needs of industry research programme in the strategic area of and society. Future Energy Scenarios. Six priority areas for the recruitment of high quality Fellows have been The development of new areas related to the key identified: carbon capture; CO2 sequestration & interdisciplinary themes of energy, the utilization; biofuels, transport, engine efficiency, environment and health is high on our agenda emissions and health; carbon abatement and clean and already new work in environmentally- fuel technologies; public awareness, infrastructure, friendly extractive metallurgy, smart materials for and uptake of low carbon culture; the role of low-carbon aviation and nano-biomaterials is multinational enterprises in the migration to clean making an international impact. future energies. Our research is supported by a range of sponsors. The Institute for Materials EPSRC awards include two prestigious Platform Research (IMR) Grants and a Basic Technologies programme. Under the direction of Professor Andrew Bell, However, an increasing percentage of work is IMR aims to undertake applications-driven industry funded, either directly or through DTI research on a distinctive range of engineering consortia; interaction through Knowledge materials, strongly supported by research into Transfer Partnerships is also proving to be a microstructural and nanochemical particularly effective method for influencing characterization techniques. It embraces all industrial practice. approaches to materials science & engineering, IMR UNDERTAKE from fundamental studies and modelling through The currency of our research is witnessed by the “ INTERNATIONALLY to device fabrication, underpinned by the classical number of funded research collaborations, for process-structure-properties paradigm. example through international programmes with LEADING RESEARCH the US, Germany, India, China and Singapore, or AND POSTGRADUATE The IMR team comprises five Professors, two in leading the 80 member UK Ferroelectrics TRAINING IN Readers, two Senior Lecturers, two Senior Network. On average we welcome six SELECTED FIELDS Research Fellows and three Experimental Officers international visitors a year who spend between WITHIN MATERIALS with over 20 Post-doctoral Fellows and 25 PhD one and 12 months in the Institute to carry out SCIENCE & students. collaborative research activities. ENGINEERING, Research activities cover three main established The Institute has benefited from substantial SERVING THE FUTURE areas: infrastructure investment over recent years, not NEEDS OF INDUSTRY • Functional materials – carbon, ferroelectrics, only to establish a pleasant, modern environment AND SOCIETY.
14 “ IPSE HAS AN INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION FOR ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE, SUPPORTED BY A LARGE TEAM OF WORLD- RENOWNED STAFF AND SIGNIFICANT INDUSTRIAL SUPPORT AND SPONSORSHIP. for our researchers, but to provide unique, world Engineering, and has expanded rapidly in leading facilities particularly in electron Pharmaceutical Chemical Engineering and the microscopy, laser processing of materials, crystal emerging area of Nano-Manufacturing, growth, mesophase carbon processing and rapid addressing the following general themes: solidification of alloys. The Institute is also one of • Colloid and Interfacial Engineering; the founding partners in the SuperSTEM • Multiscale and Systems Modelling; collaboration, a unique, aberration corrected • Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemicals Processing; transmission electron microscopy facility based at • Mineral and Waste Processing; the Daresbury Laboratories, with chemical • Powder and Formulation Engineering; characterisation capabilities of spatial resolution • In-Process Measurement and Control of Process approaching 1Å. Systems. The Institute of Particle Science Research is strategically focused on three main and Engineering (IPSE) technological domain areas: health and Under the direction of Professor Mojtaba Ghadiri, pharmaceuticals; household and personal IPSE has developed an international reputation for products; nuclear waste processing. Our industrial academic excellence, supported by a large team of links are co-ordinated by three managers. The world-renowned staff and significant industrial dynamic nature of our research is demonstrated support and sponsorship. by the formation of eight spin-out companies, together with the operation of a number of large The IPSE team comprises six Professors, two research consortia with strong participation from Readers, two Senior Lecturers and three Lecturers, over 29 industrial organizations as well as 13 with 30 Post-doctoral Fellows, and 60 PhD academic institutions worldwide. students. Approximately half of the Institute staff are Research activities address the fundamental Visiting Professors to International universities engineering science of particulate, multiphase and and IPSE itself has a large group of 24 Visiting structured materials systems, together with their Professors. These are strategically appointed to direct impact on modern societal need. We have a reinforce our international links and to provide an group of about ten international visitors whose advisory contribution in emerging research areas. work is targeted towards a number of key industrial sectors with our primary methodologies As we move forward we will further enhance being based on our unique breadth of expertise in our current capabilities in molecular engineering, measurement, modelling and manufacture. nanotechnology and process analytical technologies. This will be achieved via the Our vision is: To be the world-leading centre in recruitment of senior academics through particle science and engineering, and to be industrially-sponsored chairs. A number of our recognised as such by our students and research seeding activities have been very successful and sponsors while achieving sustainable growth in have already had technological and scholarly order to address future societal needs. impacts, namely nanofluids, electroacoustic tomography, and statistical methods applied to IPSE is based on the traditional disciplines of process analytic techniques and sensor data Chemical Engineering and Mineral Process processing.
And finallyAs we celebrate our centenary, we reflect on pastcharacters, their achievements, and their legacies.We can understand the changing circumstances of theworld in which they and the various evolutionary stagesof the constituents of SPEME found themselves.The strategies which evolved and decisions which were Through our establishment of responsive undergraduatemade, inform and influence our present circumstances. and postgraduate degree programmes, we are in aUnderpinned by a tradition of excellence and world prime position to meet the needs of the higherclass academic achievement, we find ourselves in a education market place, endowing our graduates withstrong position to push forward the frontiers of science transferable skills which contemporary industry andand engineering. business demands.Significant research and teaching links with industry Our three world-class research institutes continue thehave been a key part of our history and of our current tradition of their predecessors in developing newresearch and teaching. It was most unusual 100 years technologies, enabling new products, and reaching forago for universities to have such strong industrial links, new horizons. With industrial involvement andbut this has been a recurrent feature in many disciplines collaboration at levels envied by others, our future looksat the University of Leeds, and the Houldsworth School bright and full of opportunity.(now SPEME) led the way. Celebrating 100 1906 2006 Years
Celebrating 100 1906 2006 Years The School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK t +44 (0)113 343 2444ISBN: 9 780 85316 255 1 w www.engineering.leeds.ac.uk/speme