COLONIZATION
Why explore? <ul><li>Motives behind exploration:  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  The desire for wealth and power. </li></ul><ul><li...
What is Mercantilism? <ul><li>A system where nations increase their power and status by acquiring gold and silver. </li></ul>
What is a missionary? <ul><li>A  missionary  is a member of a  religious group sent into an area to carry on ministries of...
Effects of Exploration <ul><li>Destruction of the Aztec and Incan Empires. </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbian Exchange </li><...
Question:  How were the Spanish able to defeat the Native tribes of America? <ul><li>Superior military technology such as ...
 
Columbian Exchange Effect in America:  European disease kills millions Settlers bring sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses. Eur...
Columbian Exchange Effect in Europe : ~Native American crops are taken back to Europe. ~Europeans have a more well balance...
Colonial Government <ul><li>Royal Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>Colon...
Northwest Passage <ul><li>What was the Northwest Passage? </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest Passage :  a travel route that would...
<ul><li>Hudson did not find the passage to Asia.  He led a second expedition in 1610.  He sailed through the frozen waters...
The English Arrive <ul><li>The first attempt by the English to settle North America took place when Sir Walter Raleigh spo...
Roanoke <ul><li>The colonists relied to heavily on the Native Americans for food.  </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans real...
Virginia
Joint Stock Company <ul><li>A group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the king. </...
<ul><li>The area around Jamestown took it’s name from the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers were promised the same right...
GRADE CONNECT!!!!!!
<ul><li>May 24, 1607    about 100 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown, along banks of James River </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Jamestown Fort & Settlement  Map
Jamestown Housing
Jamestown Settlement
Jamestown Chapel, 1611
<ul><li>1606-1607    40 people died on the voyage to the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>1609    another ship from England ...
Starving Time <ul><li>During the period known as the “ Starving Time” they ate rats, mice, and snakes to survive . </li></...
High Mortality Rates <ul><li>The “Starving Time”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1607: 104 colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By ...
Captain John Smith Captain John Smith  imposed martial law. What was his motto? His motto was  “He who will not work shall...
“ Widowarchy ” High mortality among husbands and fathers  left many women  in the Chesapeake colonies with  unusual autono...
Powhatans <ul><li>Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James Rive...
Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan Indian Village The Powhatan taught the English which crops to grow and how to grow them.
Pocahontas Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith
John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
<ul><li>Jamestown prospered after John Rolfe  introduced the cash crop of tobacco . </li></ul><ul><li>The crop needs  vast...
Tobacco Plant Virginia’s  gold  and  silver . -- John Rolfe, 1612
<ul><li>Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing....
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618  — Virginia produces  20,000 pounds  of    tobacco. 1622  — Despite losing nearly one-third of...
Powhatan Alliance A 1616 engraving In 1614, Pocahontas,  the daughter of the Powhatan chief married John Rolfe. This helpe...
<ul><li>As more English settlers arrived the English forgot their debt to the Powhatan as soon as they need more land. </l...
<ul><li>Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General mistrust because of different cultu...
Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660 As new settlements sprang up around Jamestown the whole area  became known as th...
Indentured  Servitude Headright System
Indentured Servitude <ul><li>Headright System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose pas...
Virginia
Virginia House of Burgesses Virginia established the House of Burgesses  in which any property-holding, white male could v...
<ul><li>The House of Burgesses established in  1619  & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England </li></...
<ul><li>James I grew hostile to Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He hated tobacco . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He  distruste...
<ul><li>Late 1600s     large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Litt...
<ul><li>Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels resented Berkeley’s  cl...
Bacon’s Rebellion:  1676
<ul><li>Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown . </li></ul><ul><li>They burned the capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels ...
<ul><li>Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American hi...
Separatists vs.  Puritans
Puritanism <ul><li>Calvinism     The English followers of John Calvin were known as Puritans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predes...
The Puritans leave England <ul><li>The Puritans believed that  Queen Elizabeth I’s reforms had not gone far enough to refo...
<ul><ul><li>One Puritan group called the Separatists  believed in a total break from the Church of England. </li></ul></ul...
The Pilgrims <ul><li>The  first group of dissenters are commonly known as the Pilgrims  today.  They went by the name “Sep...
<ul><li>1620    a group of 102  people [half Separatists]  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated with the Virginia Company  </...
The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 The first document of self government in North America.
The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 <ul><li>Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. </li></u...
Covenant Theology <ul><li>“ Covenant of Grace ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between Puritan communities and God. </li></ul></ul...
The Massachusetts Bay Colony <ul><li>1630    1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establis...
John Winthrop We shall be as a  city on a hill.. <ul><li>Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Be...
Characteristics of New England Settlements <ul><li>Low mortality    average life expectancy was 70 years of age. </li></u...
Patriarchy <ul><li>Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household . </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal ministers a...
Puritan “Rebels” <ul><li>Roger Williams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught a number of controversial principles , among them tha...
<ul><li>1636    Roger Williams fled there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to pr...
<ul><li>Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened patriarchal control. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>1638    she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually  bragged that she had received ...
<ul><li>Indians especially weak in New England    epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native population. </li></ul><ul><li>Wampa...
The First Thanksgiving? In 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving an official US holiday.
<ul><li>THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY </li></ul><ul><li>As the population grew,  settlers began to look for more places to live. ...
The Pequot Wars:  1636-1637 <ul><li>Pequots    very powerful tribe in CT river valley. </li></ul><ul><li>1637    Pequot ...
A Pequot Village Destroyed, 1637
<ul><li>Only hope for Native Americans to resist  white settlers was to UNITE. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacom  [King Philip to ...
<ul><li>The  war ended in failure for the Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered. </li></u...
DECLINE PURITAN SOCIETY <ul><li>Many colonists began to care about business and material things. </li></ul><ul><li>The dri...
Maryland
<ul><li>A  royal charter  was granted to George Calvert,  Lord Baltimore , in 1632. </li></ul><ul><li>A  proprietary  colo...
New York
New Netherlands <ul><li>New Netherlands    founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established...
Pennsylvania
The Quakers and William Penn <ul><ul><li>Refused to pay taxes to support the Church  of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
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Drugan Notes- Colonization

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Drugan Notes- Colonization

  1. 1. COLONIZATION
  2. 2. Why explore? <ul><li>Motives behind exploration: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The desire for wealth and power. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The desire to spread Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The desire for adventure and fame. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Improvements in technology. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Mercantilism? <ul><li>A system where nations increase their power and status by acquiring gold and silver. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a missionary? <ul><li>A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to carry on ministries of the word , such as evangelism and literacy, or ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care and economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>The word &quot;mission&quot; originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects of Exploration <ul><li>Destruction of the Aztec and Incan Empires. </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbian Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>European Colonies in America </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul>
  6. 6. Question: How were the Spanish able to defeat the Native tribes of America? <ul><li>Superior military technology such as the gun. </li></ul><ul><li>Playing one group of indigenous people off of another. </li></ul><ul><li>The tribes were weakened by the effects of small pox. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Columbian Exchange Effect in America: European disease kills millions Settlers bring sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses. Europeans and Native Americans begin to blend cultures.
  8. 9. Columbian Exchange Effect in Europe : ~Native American crops are taken back to Europe. ~Europeans have a more well balanced diet. ~New foods fuel rapid growth in Europe.
  9. 10. Colonial Government <ul><li>Royal Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>What is Divine Right of Kings? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Northwest Passage <ul><li>What was the Northwest Passage? </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest Passage : a travel route that would take merchants from Europe to Asia without having to travel around the continent of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1609, Englishman, Henry Hudson , set sail for Europe hoping find a quicker route to China. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Hudson did not find the passage to Asia. He led a second expedition in 1610. He sailed through the frozen waters in Canada and into what is now the Hudson Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>After a harsh winter, Hudson’s crew rebelled against him. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The English Arrive <ul><li>The first attempt by the English to settle North America took place when Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Roanoke <ul><li>The colonists relied to heavily on the Native Americans for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans realized the colonists wanted their land and cut off the food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The colony disappeared which is why it has become known as the Lost Colony . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Virginia
  15. 16. Joint Stock Company <ul><li>A group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the king. </li></ul><ul><li>People believed there was gold in the New World and wanted to make a profit. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The area around Jamestown took it’s name from the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers were promised the same rights they had in England if they settled the new land. </li></ul>Virginia Company
  17. 18. GRADE CONNECT!!!!!!
  18. 19. <ul><li>May 24, 1607  about 100 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown, along banks of James River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily defended, but swarming with disease- causing mosquitoes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are ill prepared to the many adjustments to life in the New Colony. </li></ul></ul>Founding of Jamestown
  19. 20. Jamestown Fort & Settlement Map
  20. 21. Jamestown Housing
  21. 22. Jamestown Settlement
  22. 23. Jamestown Chapel, 1611
  23. 24. <ul><li>1606-1607  40 people died on the voyage to the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>1609  another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers died by the dozens! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gentlemen” colonists would not work themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming . </li></ul>The Jamestown Nightmare
  24. 25. Starving Time <ul><li>During the period known as the “ Starving Time” they ate rats, mice, and snakes to survive . </li></ul><ul><li>Some colonists resorted to cannibalism and joining neighboring Indian tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1610 there were only 60 colonists left alive when two ships arrived from Europe. </li></ul>
  25. 26. High Mortality Rates <ul><li>The “Starving Time”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1607: 104 colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By spring, 1608: 38 survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1609: 300 more immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By spring, 1610: 60 survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1624 population: 1,200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult life expectancy: 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of children before age 5: 80% </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Captain John Smith Captain John Smith imposed martial law. What was his motto? His motto was “He who will not work shall not eat”.
  27. 28. “ Widowarchy ” High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
  28. 29. Powhatans <ul><li>Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Powhatan Confederacy
  30. 31. Powhatan Indian Village The Powhatan taught the English which crops to grow and how to grow them.
  31. 32. Pocahontas Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith
  32. 33. John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
  33. 34. <ul><li>Jamestown prospered after John Rolfe introduced the cash crop of tobacco . </li></ul><ul><li>The crop needs vast amounts of land and needs to constantly be moved to new soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were constantly encroaching on Native American land in search of new fields. </li></ul>TOBACCO
  34. 35. Tobacco Plant Virginia’s gold and silver . -- John Rolfe, 1612
  35. 36. <ul><li>Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruinous to soil when continuously planted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chained VA’s economy to a single crop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for cheap, abundant labor. </li></ul></ul>Virginia: “Child of Tobacco”
  36. 37. Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
  37. 38. Powhatan Alliance A 1616 engraving In 1614, Pocahontas, the daughter of the Powhatan chief married John Rolfe. This helped ease the tension between the settlers and the Native Americans. Why form an alliance? The Powhatans hoped that an alliance with the settlers would give them the advantage against enemy tribes.
  38. 39. <ul><li>As more English settlers arrived the English forgot their debt to the Powhatan as soon as they need more land. </li></ul>Breaking the Alliance
  39. 40. <ul><li>Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General mistrust because of different cultures & languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times. </li></ul></ul>Culture Clash in the Chesapeake
  40. 41. Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660 As new settlements sprang up around Jamestown the whole area became known as the Chesapeake . Today this area is comprised of Virginia and Maryland.
  41. 42. Indentured Servitude Headright System
  42. 43. Indentured Servitude <ul><li>Headright System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indenture Contract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-7 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised “freedom dues” [land, £] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden to marry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts! </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Virginia
  44. 45. Virginia House of Burgesses Virginia established the House of Burgesses in which any property-holding, white male could vote.
  45. 46. <ul><li>The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over finances, militia, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly leading planters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions like House of Lords. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members. </li></ul></ul>Growing Political Power
  46. 47. <ul><li>James I grew hostile to Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He hated tobacco . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1624  he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, VA became a royal colony , under the king’s direct control! </li></ul></ul>Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
  47. 48. <ul><li>Late 1600s  large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little access to land or women for marriage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1670  The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men! </li></ul>Frustrated Freemen
  48. 49. <ul><li>Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements. </li></ul>Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676 Nathaniel Bacon Governor William Berkeley
  49. 50. Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676
  50. 51. <ul><li>Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown . </li></ul><ul><li>They burned the capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels went on a rampage of plundering. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacon suddenly died of fever . </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels. </li></ul>Bacon’s Rebellion
  51. 52. <ul><li>Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history . </li></ul><ul><li>Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel  Africans </li></ul>Results of Bacon’s Rebellion
  52. 53. Separatists vs. Puritans
  53. 54. Puritanism <ul><li>Calvinism  The English followers of John Calvin were known as Puritans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predestination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good works could not save those predestined for hell . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one could be certain of their spiritual status. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Puritans : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. The Puritans leave England <ul><li>The Puritans believed that Queen Elizabeth I’s reforms had not gone far enough to reform the church . </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans controlled many congregations in England and had become an influential force . </li></ul><ul><li>King James I abandoned the policy of religious toleration when he took the throne. </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><ul><li>One Puritan group called the Separatists believed in a total break from the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1629, King Charles I took the throne and launched a campaign of repression against the separatists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This political turmoil paved the way for thousands to escape to the colonies. </li></ul></ul>The Separatists
  56. 57. The Pilgrims <ul><li>The first group of dissenters are commonly known as the Pilgrims today. They went by the name “Separatist” in their time period. </li></ul><ul><li>The originally moved to Holland but decided to proceed to North America because they felt the Dutch were seducing their children with their ideas of tolerance. </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>1620  a group of 102 people [half Separatists] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated with the Virginia Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to settle in its jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt. </li></ul></ul>The Mayflower
  58. 59. The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 The first document of self government in North America.
  59. 60. The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 <ul><li>Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by 41 adult males. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings . </li></ul>
  60. 61. Covenant Theology <ul><li>“ Covenant of Grace ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between Puritan communities and God. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Social Covenant ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between members of Puritan communities with each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required mutual watchfulness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No toleration of deviance or disorder . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No privacy. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. The Massachusetts Bay Colony <ul><li>1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a colony with Boston as its hub. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Great Migration” of the 1630s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Puritans  20,000 came to MA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Migration was one of the largest migrations in history . </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. John Winthrop We shall be as a city on a hill.. <ul><li>Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Became 1 st governor of Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Characteristics of New England Settlements <ul><li>Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Many extended families. </li></ul><ul><li>Average 6 children per family. </li></ul><ul><li>Average age at marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women – 22 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men – 27 years old. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. Patriarchy <ul><li>Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household . </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Puritan “Rebels” <ul><li>Roger Williams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught a number of controversial principles , among them that church and state should be separate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned MA Bay Charter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not give fair compensation to Indians. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1635  found guilty of preaching new & dangerous opinions and was exiled. </li></ul>Roger Williams
  66. 67. <ul><li>1636  Roger Williams fled there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters  More liberal than any other colony! </li></ul>Rhode Island
  67. 68. <ul><li>Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened patriarchal control. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-nomialism [direct revelation] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed faith and God’s grace could save you as opposed to the observance of moral law and performance of good deeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy life was no sure sign of salvation. </li></ul></ul>Anne Hutchinson
  68. 69. <ul><li>1638  she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this! </li></ul></ul>Anne Hutchinson’s Trial
  69. 70. <ul><li>Indians especially weak in New England  epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native population. </li></ul><ul><li>Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1621  Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autumn, 1621  both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving. </li></ul></ul>Puritans vs. Native Americans
  70. 71. The First Thanksgiving? In 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving an official US holiday.
  71. 72. <ul><li>THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY </li></ul><ul><li>As the population grew, settlers began to look for more places to live. </li></ul><ul><li>The Connecticut Valley was a fertile region with lots of access to the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>This area was inhabited by the Pequots. </li></ul>
  72. 73. The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 <ul><li>Pequots  very powerful tribe in CT river valley. </li></ul><ul><li>1637  Pequot War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pequots attacked a settlement killing nine colonists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony retaliated by killing 400 Pequot . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pequot tribe virtually annihilated  an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. A Pequot Village Destroyed, 1637
  74. 75. <ul><li>Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacom [King Philip to white settlers] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to unite Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston. </li></ul></ul>King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
  75. 76. <ul><li>The war ended in failure for the Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His son and wife sold into slavery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never a serious threat in New England again. </li></ul></ul>King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
  76. 77. DECLINE PURITAN SOCIETY <ul><li>Many colonists began to care about business and material things. </li></ul><ul><li>The drive for economic success competed with Puritan religious ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>A new royal charter allowed for religious freedom in Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>People were allowed to vote based on land ownership rather than church affiliation. </li></ul>
  77. 78. Maryland
  78. 79. <ul><li>A royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore , in 1632. </li></ul><ul><li>A proprietary colony created in 1634. </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes a haven for Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants </li></ul>The Settlement of Maryland
  79. 80. New York
  80. 81. New Netherlands <ul><li>New Netherlands  founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York. </li></ul><ul><li>Renamed “New York” </li></ul>
  81. 82. Pennsylvania
  82. 83. The Quakers and William Penn <ul><ul><li>Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed all were children of God  refused to treat the upper classes with deference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraced Quakerism after military service . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1681  he received a grant from king to establish a colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colony was liberal land policy attracted many immigrants. </li></ul></ul>

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