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1. The document describes how to use a sextant to determine the height of an object. A sextant measures angles between objects by reflecting light off mirrors. 2. The procedure involves measuring the angles between a reference point on the object and the top of the object from two distances away. These angle measurements are used in a calculation to determine the height. 3. The experiment was conducted and the calculated height of the water tank was found to be 9.42 feet with a 4.7% error compared to the actual height of 9 feet.

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Scalar product of vectors

The dot product of two vectors a and b is a scalar value defined as |a||b|cosθ, where |a| and |b| are the lengths of the vectors and θ is the angle between them. The dot product will be 0 if the vectors are perpendicular, positive if the angle between them is less than 90 degrees, and negative if the angle is greater than 90 degrees. If one vector is a unit vector, the dot product equals the length of the other vector projected onto the direction of the unit vector.

Simple harmonic motion

1) Simple harmonic motion is the motion of an object where the acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position and directed towards the equilibrium.
2) It can be modeled as circular motion where the acceleration towards the center is proportional to the displacement from the center.
3) Simple harmonic oscillators include spring-mass systems and pendulums, where the restoring force is proportional to the displacement.

System Of Particles And Rotational Motion

This document defines key terms and concepts related to rotational motion and systems of particles, including:
- Angular position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration
- Equations of rotational motion
- Moment of inertia and its calculation for different objects
- Parallel and perpendicular axis theorems for calculating moment of inertia
- Torque, angular momentum, and their relationship to moment of inertia and angular acceleration
- Conservation of angular momentum for systems with no external torque

FRAMES OF REFERENCE BSC I 2018

The document discusses frames of reference in physics. It defines a frame of reference as the perspective from which the position or motion of an object is described. Frames of reference are either inertial or non-inertial. Inertial frames are where Newton's laws hold true - an object either remains at rest or in motion with constant velocity unless acted on by an external force. Non-inertial frames include accelerated or rotating frames where Newton's laws do not apply, such as reference frames on the surface of the rotating Earth.

Projectile

Students conducted an experiment to study projectile motion. They built a launch pad with an adjustable angle and elastic band to launch projectiles at varying angles and velocities. Observations of the projectile's range and maximum height were recorded. The experiment demonstrated that a projectile's horizontal velocity remains constant while its vertical velocity changes, and that range is greatest at an angle of 45 degrees.

Relativity

The document discusses key concepts from Einstein's special theory of relativity, including:
1) Frames of reference and the distinction between inertial and non-inertial frames. The laws of motion only hold in inertial frames.
2) The postulates of special relativity - that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames, and that the speed of light is constant.
3) Consequences of these postulates, including Lorentz transformations, length contraction, time dilation, and the relativity of simultaneity.
4) Experiments that motivated relativity, like the Michelson-Morley experiment, and equations like Lorentz transformations that were developed to be consistent with the postulates

Centre of gravity

The document discusses the centre of gravity of objects. It defines the centre of gravity as the point where an object's entire weight seems to act no matter its orientation. For regularly shaped objects of uniform thickness and density, the centre of gravity is at the geometric centre. Irregularly shaped objects require attaching a plumb line to determine where three lines drawn from holes intersect, which marks the centre of gravity. Stability can be increased by lowering an object's centre of gravity or widening its base. Examples given are a bus made stable by a low centre of gravity and a desk lamp stable due to a wide, heavy base.

simple harmonic motion

1. simple harmonic motion
and simple pendulum, relation with uniform motion
2. damped harmoic motion
and discuss its three cases
3. driving force

Scalar product of vectors

The dot product of two vectors a and b is a scalar value defined as |a||b|cosθ, where |a| and |b| are the lengths of the vectors and θ is the angle between them. The dot product will be 0 if the vectors are perpendicular, positive if the angle between them is less than 90 degrees, and negative if the angle is greater than 90 degrees. If one vector is a unit vector, the dot product equals the length of the other vector projected onto the direction of the unit vector.

Simple harmonic motion

1) Simple harmonic motion is the motion of an object where the acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position and directed towards the equilibrium.
2) It can be modeled as circular motion where the acceleration towards the center is proportional to the displacement from the center.
3) Simple harmonic oscillators include spring-mass systems and pendulums, where the restoring force is proportional to the displacement.

System Of Particles And Rotational Motion

This document defines key terms and concepts related to rotational motion and systems of particles, including:
- Angular position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration
- Equations of rotational motion
- Moment of inertia and its calculation for different objects
- Parallel and perpendicular axis theorems for calculating moment of inertia
- Torque, angular momentum, and their relationship to moment of inertia and angular acceleration
- Conservation of angular momentum for systems with no external torque

FRAMES OF REFERENCE BSC I 2018

The document discusses frames of reference in physics. It defines a frame of reference as the perspective from which the position or motion of an object is described. Frames of reference are either inertial or non-inertial. Inertial frames are where Newton's laws hold true - an object either remains at rest or in motion with constant velocity unless acted on by an external force. Non-inertial frames include accelerated or rotating frames where Newton's laws do not apply, such as reference frames on the surface of the rotating Earth.

Projectile

Students conducted an experiment to study projectile motion. They built a launch pad with an adjustable angle and elastic band to launch projectiles at varying angles and velocities. Observations of the projectile's range and maximum height were recorded. The experiment demonstrated that a projectile's horizontal velocity remains constant while its vertical velocity changes, and that range is greatest at an angle of 45 degrees.

Relativity

The document discusses key concepts from Einstein's special theory of relativity, including:
1) Frames of reference and the distinction between inertial and non-inertial frames. The laws of motion only hold in inertial frames.
2) The postulates of special relativity - that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames, and that the speed of light is constant.
3) Consequences of these postulates, including Lorentz transformations, length contraction, time dilation, and the relativity of simultaneity.
4) Experiments that motivated relativity, like the Michelson-Morley experiment, and equations like Lorentz transformations that were developed to be consistent with the postulates

Centre of gravity

The document discusses the centre of gravity of objects. It defines the centre of gravity as the point where an object's entire weight seems to act no matter its orientation. For regularly shaped objects of uniform thickness and density, the centre of gravity is at the geometric centre. Irregularly shaped objects require attaching a plumb line to determine where three lines drawn from holes intersect, which marks the centre of gravity. Stability can be increased by lowering an object's centre of gravity or widening its base. Examples given are a bus made stable by a low centre of gravity and a desk lamp stable due to a wide, heavy base.

simple harmonic motion

1. simple harmonic motion
and simple pendulum, relation with uniform motion
2. damped harmoic motion
and discuss its three cases
3. driving force

Projectile motion 1

Projectile motion is the motion of an object under the influence of gravity. It can be broken down into two components: horizontal motion and vertical motion. Horizontal motion is unaffected by gravity and follows the regular kinematic equations of straight line motion. Vertical motion is affected by the downward acceleration due to gravity and also follows straight line kinematic equations using the acceleration due to gravity. Understanding projectile motion requires analyzing the horizontal and vertical components separately using the appropriate kinematic equations for each direction.

Schrodinger equation and its applications: Chapter 2

Wave function and its physical significance, Schrodinger time dependent equation, Separation in time dependent and time independent parts, Operators in quantum Mechanics, Eigen functions and Eigen values, Particle in one dimensional and three dimensional box (Energy eigen values). Qualitative analysis of potential barrier Tunneling effect). Simple Harmonic Oscillator (Qualitative analysis of Zero point energy)

Galilean Transformation Equations

This document provides an introduction to the special theory of relativity, including:
- It defines the special theory of relativity as dealing with objects moving at constant speeds, while the general theory deals with accelerating objects.
- Frames of reference and inertial frames are introduced, with inertial frames obeying Newton's laws of motion.
- Galilean transformations are described as relating the coordinates of particles between inertial frames, including equations for position, velocity, acceleration, and forces.
- The drawbacks of Galilean transformations are that they are invalid for objects moving at the speed of light or for electromagnetism.

Projecctile motion by sanjeev

The document describes projectile motion and the key concepts involved. It defines a projectile as a particle thrown obliquely near the earth's surface that moves along a curved path. It discusses the trajectory, components of velocity and acceleration, equations of motion, time of flight, range, maximum height, and velocity of a projectile at any instant. Examples of projectile motion calculations are provided to illustrate how to determine initial velocities, maximum height, range, and the time and distance required for a bomb to hit a target from an airplane.

Partial Differentiation & Application

The document discusses partial differentiation and its applications. It covers functions of two variables, first and second partial derivatives, and applications including the Cobb-Douglas production function and finding marginal productivity from a production function. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating partial derivatives of various functions and applying partial derivatives in contexts like production analysis.

DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

Resolution is the distance at which a lens can barely distinguish two separate objects.
Resolution is limited by aberrations and by diffraction. Aberrations can be minimized, but diffraction is unavoidable; it is due to the size of the lens compared to the wavelength of the light.

Circular Motion & Gravitation

This document provides an overview of gravitational and circular motion concepts for an AP Physics exam preparation series. It defines key terms like gravitational force, centripetal force, and centripetal acceleration. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating gravitational force between objects, linear speed in circular motion, and centripetal force for an object moving in a circular path. The document emphasizes that an inward, centripetal force is required to cause uniform circular motion rather than straight-line motion.

Linear differential equation with constant coefficient

The document discusses linear differential equations with constant coefficients. It defines the order, auxiliary equation, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. It provides examples of determining the complementary function and particular integral for different types of linear differential equations. It also discusses Legendre's linear equations, Cauchy-Euler equations, and solving simultaneous linear differential equations.

Scalar and vector quantities

This document discusses physical quantities and vectors. It defines two types of physical quantities: scalar quantities which have only magnitude, and vector quantities which have both magnitude and direction. Examples of each are given. Vector quantities are represented by magnitude and direction. The document then discusses methods for adding and subtracting vectors graphically using head-to-tail and parallelogram methods. It also covers resolving vectors into rectangular components, finding the magnitude and direction of vectors, dot products of vectors which yield scalar quantities, and cross products of vectors which yield vector quantities. Examples of applying these vector concepts are provided.

The Uncertainty principle

The document discusses the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. It makes three key points:
1) It is impossible to simultaneously measure the exact position and momentum of a particle. If one property is known precisely, the other cannot be predicted at all.
2) The uncertainty principle arises due to the wave-like nature of particles. A particle's position is described by a wavefunction, and knowing its exact position would require an infinite number of waves with different momenta.
3) The uncertainty principle applies broadly to any pairs of "complementary observables" with non-commuting operators, not just position and momentum. It represents a fundamental difference between classical and quantum mechanics.

Engineering Curves

This document discusses engineering drawings and curves. It states that engineering drawings are the language used to communicate engineering ideas and execute work. Various types of curves are useful in engineering for understanding natural laws, manufacturing, design, analysis, and construction. Common engineering curves include conics, cycloids, involutes, spirals, and helices. Conics specifically include circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas which are sections of a right circular cone cut by planes. The document provides definitions and examples of each type of conic section. It also discusses different methods for drawing ellipses like the arc of circles method.

B.tech ii unit-1 material curve tracing

The document discusses curve tracing through Cartesian equations. It defines important concepts like singular points, multiple points, points of inflection, and asymptotes. It outlines the standard method of tracing a curve by examining its symmetry, intersection with axes, regions where the curve does not exist, and tangents. Several examples are provided to demonstrate how to apply this method to trace specific curves like cissoids, parabolas and hyperbolas.

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- Mechanics

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- MechanicsKakatiya Government College, Hanamkonda

The Michelson-Morley experiment aimed to detect the motion of the Earth through the hypothesized luminiferous ether by measuring fringe shifts in an interferometer when the apparatus was rotated. However, the experiment yielded a null result, finding no difference in the speed of light in different directions. This contradicted the ether theory and provided early experimental evidence for Einstein's theory of relativity by showing there was no ether drag. The null result meant the Earth's speed could not be measured relative to the ether, disproving its existence and revolutionizing our understanding of space and time.Application of derivative

Additional Applications of the Derivative related to engineering maths
this presentation is only for the knowledge...............

Double Integral Powerpoint

Double integrals are used to calculate properties of planar laminas such as mass, center of mass, and moments of inertia by integrating a density function over a region. The inner integral is evaluated first, treating the other variable as a constant. Properties include:
1) Total mass by double integrating the density function over the region.
2) Center of mass coordinates by taking moments about axes and dividing by total mass.
3) Moments of inertia by double integrating the distance squared from an axis times the density.

Lesson 3: The Cross Product

This document discusses the cross product and its properties and applications. It begins with announcements about upcoming homework assignments. It then covers defining the cross product vectorially and using components, and properties such as it being non-commutative and non-associative. Applications discussed include using the cross product to find torque, area of parallelograms, and volume of parallelepipeds. It concludes with some jokes related to cross products.

Application of Gauss,Green and Stokes Theorem

Gauss' law, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem are used to relate line integrals, surface integrals, and volume integrals. Gauss' law relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the enclosed charge. Stokes' theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into a surface integral over the enclosed surface. Green's theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into a double integral over the enclosed area. These theorems have applications in electrostatics, electrodynamics, calculating mass and momentum, and deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

Physics project

This document presents information about projectile motion, including definitions of key terms, derivations of equations, and examples. It defines a projectile as an object thrown with initial velocity that moves under gravity. It then defines terms like trajectory, time of flight, horizontal range, and maximum height. It derives equations for the path of a projectile and motion at an angle. It discusses maximum range and vertically upwards motion. Sources consulted are listed at the end.

Projection of Lines

The problem provides the top view, front view and position of one end of a line AB. The top view measures 65mm, the front view measures 50mm, and end A is in the horizontal plane and 12mm in front of the vertical plane. To solve the problem:
1) Draw the top view parallel to the XY line since in that case the front view will show the true length.
2) Extend the top view to determine the true length of 75mm.
3) Use trapezoidal method to determine the inclinations of the line with the principal planes as 30 degrees with the horizontal plane and 48 degrees with the vertical plane.

Fourier series

Fourier series can be used to represent periodic and discontinuous functions. The document discusses:
1. The Fourier series expansion of a sawtooth wave, showing how additional terms improve the accuracy of the representation.
2. How Fourier series are well-suited to represent periodic functions over intervals like [0,2π] since the basis functions are also periodic.
3. An example of using Fourier series to analyze a square wave, finding the coefficients for its expansion in terms of sines and cosines.

Sextant lrg

The document summarizes the basic construction and use of a marine sextant. It describes the main components of a sextant including the frame, index bar, index glass, and horizon glass. It discusses correctable errors like perpendicularity, side error, and collimation error. It provides instructions on testing for errors and making adjustments. The document also covers care, calibration needs, and best practices for taking accurate sightings with a sextant.

Marine sextant lrg

A marine sextant is used to measure the angle between celestial bodies and the visible horizon in celestial navigation. It determines the sextant altitude (hs) which is then corrected for index error, dip due to observer height, and atmospheric refraction to calculate the observed altitude (Ho) used for navigation. The document outlines the procedures for using a sextant including determining the index correction, applying the dip correction, and making additional corrections when observing bodies other than stars to account for factors like parallax. A strip chart example is provided to walk through the full Ho calculation process.

Projectile motion 1

Projectile motion is the motion of an object under the influence of gravity. It can be broken down into two components: horizontal motion and vertical motion. Horizontal motion is unaffected by gravity and follows the regular kinematic equations of straight line motion. Vertical motion is affected by the downward acceleration due to gravity and also follows straight line kinematic equations using the acceleration due to gravity. Understanding projectile motion requires analyzing the horizontal and vertical components separately using the appropriate kinematic equations for each direction.

Schrodinger equation and its applications: Chapter 2

Wave function and its physical significance, Schrodinger time dependent equation, Separation in time dependent and time independent parts, Operators in quantum Mechanics, Eigen functions and Eigen values, Particle in one dimensional and three dimensional box (Energy eigen values). Qualitative analysis of potential barrier Tunneling effect). Simple Harmonic Oscillator (Qualitative analysis of Zero point energy)

Galilean Transformation Equations

This document provides an introduction to the special theory of relativity, including:
- It defines the special theory of relativity as dealing with objects moving at constant speeds, while the general theory deals with accelerating objects.
- Frames of reference and inertial frames are introduced, with inertial frames obeying Newton's laws of motion.
- Galilean transformations are described as relating the coordinates of particles between inertial frames, including equations for position, velocity, acceleration, and forces.
- The drawbacks of Galilean transformations are that they are invalid for objects moving at the speed of light or for electromagnetism.

Projecctile motion by sanjeev

The document describes projectile motion and the key concepts involved. It defines a projectile as a particle thrown obliquely near the earth's surface that moves along a curved path. It discusses the trajectory, components of velocity and acceleration, equations of motion, time of flight, range, maximum height, and velocity of a projectile at any instant. Examples of projectile motion calculations are provided to illustrate how to determine initial velocities, maximum height, range, and the time and distance required for a bomb to hit a target from an airplane.

Partial Differentiation & Application

The document discusses partial differentiation and its applications. It covers functions of two variables, first and second partial derivatives, and applications including the Cobb-Douglas production function and finding marginal productivity from a production function. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating partial derivatives of various functions and applying partial derivatives in contexts like production analysis.

DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

Resolution is the distance at which a lens can barely distinguish two separate objects.
Resolution is limited by aberrations and by diffraction. Aberrations can be minimized, but diffraction is unavoidable; it is due to the size of the lens compared to the wavelength of the light.

Circular Motion & Gravitation

This document provides an overview of gravitational and circular motion concepts for an AP Physics exam preparation series. It defines key terms like gravitational force, centripetal force, and centripetal acceleration. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating gravitational force between objects, linear speed in circular motion, and centripetal force for an object moving in a circular path. The document emphasizes that an inward, centripetal force is required to cause uniform circular motion rather than straight-line motion.

Linear differential equation with constant coefficient

The document discusses linear differential equations with constant coefficients. It defines the order, auxiliary equation, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. It provides examples of determining the complementary function and particular integral for different types of linear differential equations. It also discusses Legendre's linear equations, Cauchy-Euler equations, and solving simultaneous linear differential equations.

Scalar and vector quantities

This document discusses physical quantities and vectors. It defines two types of physical quantities: scalar quantities which have only magnitude, and vector quantities which have both magnitude and direction. Examples of each are given. Vector quantities are represented by magnitude and direction. The document then discusses methods for adding and subtracting vectors graphically using head-to-tail and parallelogram methods. It also covers resolving vectors into rectangular components, finding the magnitude and direction of vectors, dot products of vectors which yield scalar quantities, and cross products of vectors which yield vector quantities. Examples of applying these vector concepts are provided.

The Uncertainty principle

The document discusses the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. It makes three key points:
1) It is impossible to simultaneously measure the exact position and momentum of a particle. If one property is known precisely, the other cannot be predicted at all.
2) The uncertainty principle arises due to the wave-like nature of particles. A particle's position is described by a wavefunction, and knowing its exact position would require an infinite number of waves with different momenta.
3) The uncertainty principle applies broadly to any pairs of "complementary observables" with non-commuting operators, not just position and momentum. It represents a fundamental difference between classical and quantum mechanics.

Engineering Curves

This document discusses engineering drawings and curves. It states that engineering drawings are the language used to communicate engineering ideas and execute work. Various types of curves are useful in engineering for understanding natural laws, manufacturing, design, analysis, and construction. Common engineering curves include conics, cycloids, involutes, spirals, and helices. Conics specifically include circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas which are sections of a right circular cone cut by planes. The document provides definitions and examples of each type of conic section. It also discusses different methods for drawing ellipses like the arc of circles method.

B.tech ii unit-1 material curve tracing

The document discusses curve tracing through Cartesian equations. It defines important concepts like singular points, multiple points, points of inflection, and asymptotes. It outlines the standard method of tracing a curve by examining its symmetry, intersection with axes, regions where the curve does not exist, and tangents. Several examples are provided to demonstrate how to apply this method to trace specific curves like cissoids, parabolas and hyperbolas.

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- Mechanics

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- MechanicsKakatiya Government College, Hanamkonda

The Michelson-Morley experiment aimed to detect the motion of the Earth through the hypothesized luminiferous ether by measuring fringe shifts in an interferometer when the apparatus was rotated. However, the experiment yielded a null result, finding no difference in the speed of light in different directions. This contradicted the ether theory and provided early experimental evidence for Einstein's theory of relativity by showing there was no ether drag. The null result meant the Earth's speed could not be measured relative to the ether, disproving its existence and revolutionizing our understanding of space and time.Application of derivative

Additional Applications of the Derivative related to engineering maths
this presentation is only for the knowledge...............

Double Integral Powerpoint

Double integrals are used to calculate properties of planar laminas such as mass, center of mass, and moments of inertia by integrating a density function over a region. The inner integral is evaluated first, treating the other variable as a constant. Properties include:
1) Total mass by double integrating the density function over the region.
2) Center of mass coordinates by taking moments about axes and dividing by total mass.
3) Moments of inertia by double integrating the distance squared from an axis times the density.

Lesson 3: The Cross Product

This document discusses the cross product and its properties and applications. It begins with announcements about upcoming homework assignments. It then covers defining the cross product vectorially and using components, and properties such as it being non-commutative and non-associative. Applications discussed include using the cross product to find torque, area of parallelograms, and volume of parallelepipeds. It concludes with some jokes related to cross products.

Application of Gauss,Green and Stokes Theorem

Gauss' law, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem are used to relate line integrals, surface integrals, and volume integrals. Gauss' law relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the enclosed charge. Stokes' theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into a surface integral over the enclosed surface. Green's theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into a double integral over the enclosed area. These theorems have applications in electrostatics, electrodynamics, calculating mass and momentum, and deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

Physics project

This document presents information about projectile motion, including definitions of key terms, derivations of equations, and examples. It defines a projectile as an object thrown with initial velocity that moves under gravity. It then defines terms like trajectory, time of flight, horizontal range, and maximum height. It derives equations for the path of a projectile and motion at an angle. It discusses maximum range and vertically upwards motion. Sources consulted are listed at the end.

Projection of Lines

The problem provides the top view, front view and position of one end of a line AB. The top view measures 65mm, the front view measures 50mm, and end A is in the horizontal plane and 12mm in front of the vertical plane. To solve the problem:
1) Draw the top view parallel to the XY line since in that case the front view will show the true length.
2) Extend the top view to determine the true length of 75mm.
3) Use trapezoidal method to determine the inclinations of the line with the principal planes as 30 degrees with the horizontal plane and 48 degrees with the vertical plane.

Fourier series

Fourier series can be used to represent periodic and discontinuous functions. The document discusses:
1. The Fourier series expansion of a sawtooth wave, showing how additional terms improve the accuracy of the representation.
2. How Fourier series are well-suited to represent periodic functions over intervals like [0,2π] since the basis functions are also periodic.
3. An example of using Fourier series to analyze a square wave, finding the coefficients for its expansion in terms of sines and cosines.

Projectile motion 1

Projectile motion 1

Schrodinger equation and its applications: Chapter 2

Schrodinger equation and its applications: Chapter 2

Galilean Transformation Equations

Galilean Transformation Equations

Projecctile motion by sanjeev

Projecctile motion by sanjeev

Partial Differentiation & Application

Partial Differentiation & Application

DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

Circular Motion & Gravitation

Circular Motion & Gravitation

Linear differential equation with constant coefficient

Linear differential equation with constant coefficient

Scalar and vector quantities

Scalar and vector quantities

The Uncertainty principle

The Uncertainty principle

Engineering Curves

Engineering Curves

B.tech ii unit-1 material curve tracing

B.tech ii unit-1 material curve tracing

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- Mechanics

Michelson - Morley Experiment - B.Sc Physics - I Year- Mechanics

Application of derivative

Application of derivative

Double Integral Powerpoint

Double Integral Powerpoint

Lesson 3: The Cross Product

Lesson 3: The Cross Product

Application of Gauss,Green and Stokes Theorem

Application of Gauss,Green and Stokes Theorem

Physics project

Physics project

Projection of Lines

Projection of Lines

Fourier series

Fourier series

Sextant lrg

The document summarizes the basic construction and use of a marine sextant. It describes the main components of a sextant including the frame, index bar, index glass, and horizon glass. It discusses correctable errors like perpendicularity, side error, and collimation error. It provides instructions on testing for errors and making adjustments. The document also covers care, calibration needs, and best practices for taking accurate sightings with a sextant.

Marine sextant lrg

A marine sextant is used to measure the angle between celestial bodies and the visible horizon in celestial navigation. It determines the sextant altitude (hs) which is then corrected for index error, dip due to observer height, and atmospheric refraction to calculate the observed altitude (Ho) used for navigation. The document outlines the procedures for using a sextant including determining the index correction, applying the dip correction, and making additional corrections when observing bodies other than stars to account for factors like parallax. A strip chart example is provided to walk through the full Ho calculation process.

The sextant[1]

Presentation created by Amsterdam Open Schoolgemeenschap Bijlmer students for the Comenius METER project.

Celestial navigation

The document discusses various methods and instruments used for celestial navigation. It describes tools like the sextant, astrolabe, and octant that were used to determine position by measuring the angle between celestial objects and the horizon. It also discusses coordinate systems and modern GPS technology used for navigation.

Prism angle and minimum deviation

1) The document describes how to measure the angle of a prism and determine the minimum angular deviation using a spectrometer.
2) Key steps include placing the prism on a turn table so that light is equally refracted through its faces, then measuring the angle between the faces.
3) To find minimum deviation, the prism is rotated until the spectrum comes to rest, indicating the angle of minimum deflection of light. The telescope readings before and after provide the minimum deviation angle.

Sky coordination systems & celestial sphere

This document discusses coordinate systems used to describe the positions of objects in the sky. It describes two main coordinate systems: the horizon system which uses altitude and azimuth, and the equatorial system which uses right ascension and declination based on the celestial sphere. The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere where stars appear to reside, with the same poles and equator as the Earth. Right ascension is similar to longitude, measured in hours, minutes, and seconds along the celestial equator. Declination is similar to latitude, measured in degrees north or south from the celestial equator. These equatorial coordinates slowly change over long periods of time due to changes in the equinoxes and Earth's rotation.

Astronomical Coordinate System

This document describes different astronomical coordinate systems used to determine the position and motion of objects in the sky, including the terrestrial coordinate system based on the horizon, the equatorial coordinate system based on the celestial equator and equinoxes, and the formulas to transform between the two systems accounting for an observer's latitude and the Earth's rotation.

Celestial sphere lrg

The document discusses basic principles of the celestial sphere and movement of heavenly bodies. It describes how the sky appears as an inverted bowl and celestial positions are measured in angular terms using the celestial equator and meridians. The celestial sphere rotates eastward daily, making bodies appear to move westward. Positions on Earth use latitude and longitude while the celestial sphere uses declination and hour angle. The inclined axis of Earth's orbit around the sun causes changing declinations that create the seasons in temperate regions.

Minor instruments in surveying

this contains a few of the minor instruments that are generally used for surveying. this presentation contains info about them in detail.

Hour angles and aries lrg

This document discusses hour angles and Aries as they relate to celestial navigation. It defines key terms like declination, Greenwich hour angle (GHA), local hour angle (LHA), and sidereal hour angle (SHA). It explains that the Nautical Almanac contains tables with the geographical position of celestial bodies by the second. It also notes that SHA is measured from the point of Aries instead of Greenwich for stars to make the almanac thinner. Diagrams are used to illustrate the relationships between an observer's meridian, Greenwich, Aries, and the hour angles of bodies.

Celestial navigation 2014 (pdf)

1) The document discusses celestial navigation techniques, including methods for determining speed, direction, and position using various historical instruments.
2) Key instruments mentioned include the sandglass, log, compass, lead, astrolabe, cross-staff, back-staff, quadrant, octant, chronometer and sextant.
3) The document also covers the three coordinate systems used in celestial navigation: terrestrial, celestial, and horizon. It provides examples of how sights are reduced using the Nautical Almanac and tables to determine position.

The Celestial Sphere

The Sky
Astronomy is about us. As we learn about astronomy, we learn about ourselves. We search for an answer to the question “What are we?” The quick answer is that we are thinking creatures living on a planet that circles a star we call the sun. In this chapter, we begin trying to understand that answer. What does it mean to live on a planet?
The preceding chapter gave us a quick overview of the universe, and chapters later in the book will discuss the details. This chapter and the next help us understand what the universe looks like seen from the surface of our spinning planet.
But appearances are deceiving. We will see in Chapter 4 how difficult it has been for humanity to understand what we see in the #sky every day. In fact, we will discover that modern science was born when people tried to understand the appearance of the sky.

Oil Bath Exp

here u can got the ppt of of determination of energy band gap of Si diode dipped in oil bath with the help of temperature controlled oven by usin the forward bias characteristics

Platinum expt

here u can determine the resistnce coefficient of platinum resistnce by usinf thecarrey froster bridge

Lee’s disk method

The document describes Lee's disk method for determining the coefficient of thermal conductivity of bad conductors. The method uses an apparatus consisting of a metallic cylindrical chamber and disk. Temperatures are measured before and after inserting an insulator between the disk and chamber, heated by a mantle. The temperature change over time is used to calculate the coefficient of thermal conductivity through an equation, with values plugged in for a sample. The experiment was able to determine the coefficient for a bad conductor but would not work as well for good conductors due to small temperature differences.

Lab%201

The document describes an experiment to determine the average surface heat transfer coefficient in natural convection. The apparatus consists of a vertically oriented brass tube heated by an electric element inside an enclosure. Thermocouples measure the tube temperature. Natural convection heat transfer from the tube to surrounding air is calculated using Newton's law of cooling. Correlations are used to compare the experimentally obtained heat transfer coefficient. The experiment aims to determine the heat transfer coefficient and compare it to values from correlations.

Experiment of finding the resolving power of the

here u can got the pics nd experimental details abt the determing the resolving power of telescope for different mercurry spectrum

Changes To Oil Record Book

The document outlines new requirements for oil record books effective January 1st, 2007. Key changes include:
1. Requiring the quantity of oil residues retained on board to be recorded weekly.
2. Clarifying items under procedures for collection and disposal of oil residues and bilge water.
3. Deleting item 19 from the section on automatic discharge overboard or disposal of bilge water, and renumbering subsequent items.
4. Adding an optional section on additional operational procedures and general remarks.

Avicenna ibn sina peak

Avicenna, also known as Ibn Sina, was a Persian polymath and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. He wrote over 450 treatises on various subjects including philosophy, medicine, and science. His most famous works were The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text in Europe and the Islamic world for centuries. Some of Avicenna's key contributions included introducing experimental medicine and clinical trials, as well as discoveries in areas like infectious diseases, pharmacology, and psychosomatic medicine. He served as a physician and adviser to rulers and spent his later life in the service of a ruler, dying in 1037 at the age of 58.

Ibn Sina

Ibn Sina (980-1037) was a prolific writer who contributed to many fields including medicine, philosophy, and science. He is most famous for writing The Canon of Medicine, an extensive medical encyclopedia that was the primary medical textbook used in Western universities for several hundred years. The Canon summarized all medical knowledge at the time and was organized into five books covering various topics such as anatomy, illnesses, and treatments. Ibn Sina made several important discoveries and innovations in medicine documented in The Canon, cementing his status as one of the most influential physicians in history.

Sextant lrg

Sextant lrg

Marine sextant lrg

Marine sextant lrg

The sextant[1]

The sextant[1]

Celestial navigation

Celestial navigation

Prism angle and minimum deviation

Prism angle and minimum deviation

Sky coordination systems & celestial sphere

Sky coordination systems & celestial sphere

Astronomical Coordinate System

Astronomical Coordinate System

Celestial sphere lrg

Celestial sphere lrg

Minor instruments in surveying

Minor instruments in surveying

Hour angles and aries lrg

Hour angles and aries lrg

Celestial navigation 2014 (pdf)

Celestial navigation 2014 (pdf)

The Celestial Sphere

The Celestial Sphere

Oil Bath Exp

Oil Bath Exp

Platinum expt

Platinum expt

Lee’s disk method

Lee’s disk method

Lab%201

Lab%201

Experiment of finding the resolving power of the

Experiment of finding the resolving power of the

Changes To Oil Record Book

Changes To Oil Record Book

Avicenna ibn sina peak

Avicenna ibn sina peak

Ibn Sina

Ibn Sina

Newtons Ring

This document describes a physics experiment to determine the wavelength of sodium light using Newton's rings. The experiment uses a plano-convex lens, sodium lamp, glass plate, and traveling microscope to create interference fringes known as Newton's rings. Measurements of the ring radii are taken and used in the formula λ = (D2n+m-D2n)/ 4Rp to calculate the wavelength, where λ is 542.036 angstroms. Precautions are outlined to ensure accurate measurements and reduce error in the experiment.

Abhishek physics

This document describes a physics experiment conducted by Abhishek Dhinge to determine the refractive indices of water and turpentine oil using a plane mirror, convex lens, and adjustable object needle. The experiment involves measuring the focal lengths of the convex lens alone and in combination with plano-concave lenses of water and turpentine oil formed between the lens and mirror. The radius of curvature of the convex lens is also measured using a spherometer. Calculations using lens maker's formula and measured values yield the refractive indices of water as 1.06552 and turpentine oil as 1.22736.

047_Lakhan Sharma.pdf

- The document describes an experiment to determine the wavelength of mercury light using a transmission grating. Observations were recorded of the diffraction angles of different colors of light in the first and second order spectra. Calculations were done to determine the wavelengths, which were found to have percentage errors of 7-16% compared to standard values. Precautions included ensuring proper setup of the spectrometer and keeping the grating normal to the incident light.

Physics Investigatory Project

Ajay Kumar Prajapati completed a school physics project to determine the refractive indices of water and turpentine oil using a plane mirror, convex lens, and needle. He thanks his teacher Miss Huma Parveen for guiding the project work and the principal for supporting the project. Ajay describes the experimental procedure and documents his observations and calculations. He determines the refractive index of water to be 1.06552 and turpentine oil to be 1.22736.

surveying ii

1. The document discusses various topics related to surveying including tacheometry, leveling, and triangulation. It provides definitions and explanations of terms like tacheometer, analytic lens, substance bar, and different tacheometric measurement systems.
2. Examples are given for calculating horizontal and vertical distances using tacheometric observations. The document also includes multi-part problems for determining reduced levels, horizontal distances, and elevations from tacheometric data.
3. Additional surveying concepts covered include permanent and temporary bench marks, arbitrary bench marks, extension of baselines, trigonometric leveling, axis signal corrections, and geodetic surveying. Triangulation methods and terms

Bsce quarantine reviewer diagnostic exams solutions and ref

This document contains a review exam for a BSCE degree with questions covering mathematics, surveying, and transportation engineering. It includes 43 multiple choice questions with solutions on topics like statistics, geometry, trigonometry, engineering economics, and probability. The exam tests knowledge of concepts like rate of change, area and volume calculations, compound interest, and curve properties.

SOLAR IMPULSE - LAB WORK - MODELS (ENG)

1) The document provides a worksheet for students to learn about units of measurement used in aviation like degrees for latitude and longitude, nautical miles for distances, and feet for altitude.
2) It will give students practice converting between units and using map scales. They will learn how pilots navigate and what types of maps they use.
3) The worksheet also includes a short history of maps, a research activity, and exercises involving scales, latitude, longitude, altitude, and proportions.

Refractive index of liquids using travelling microscope

1) The document describes a physics investigatory project to determine the refractive index of different liquids using a travelling microscope.
2) The project was conducted by Sharmik Sen of class 12-S4 under the guidance of their teachers.
3) The experiment involves measuring the apparent thickness of different liquids placed on a horizontal surface as viewed through a travelling microscope and calculating the refractive index based on the readings.

Measurement of corneal curvature

Keratometers measure the radius of curvature of the central cornea using the principle of reflected light and angular size measurements. They utilize a doubling principle to measure the size of the reflected corneal image. Modern automated keratometers focus the corneal image electronically without the need for doubling. Keratometry is used to determine refractive power and monitor corneal shape changes.

Refractive Index Lab

This document summarizes an experiment to determine the refractive index of an unknown prism material. Measurements were taken of the prism's apical angle and angles of minimum deviation for three laser wavelengths. These values were used to calculate the refractive index for each wavelength. Constants A, B, and C were then determined, allowing calculation of the refractive index and dispersion for additional wavelengths. The material was identified as glass using a glass map based on its dispersion and refractive index values. Sources of error and their effects on the results are also discussed.

Emissionspectra1

The document describes an experiment using a diffraction grating spectrometer to measure emission spectra of elements and identify unknown elements. Sodium light is used to calibrate the spectrometer by measuring the angles of the first and second order spectra and calculating the grating spacing. Then an unknown light is analyzed by measuring spectral line angles and wavelengths, which are compared to reference tables to identify the element.

Assignment 2 - Traverse

This document provides details of a fieldwork report for a traverse survey conducted by a group of quantity surveying students. It includes:
- Objectives of the fieldwork to enhance surveying skills and apply classroom theories.
- Description of the equipment used including a theodolite, tripod, plumb bob and level rod.
- Raw data collected at stations A, B, C and D including angles, distances and calculations.
- Adjusted data with corrected angles, bearings, latitudes and departures, and error of closure calculation showing the traverse is acceptable.

Astonomical thinking notes

1. Astronomers use very large and very small numbers that are difficult to work with. They use scientific notation to write these numbers in a simpler way by moving the decimal place and adding an exponent.
2. Distances in astronomy are immense, so different units are used including astronomical units (au), light years, and parsecs. Kepler's laws describe the motion of planets in elliptical orbits around the sun.
3. Early models of the solar system placed Earth at the center, but problems arose. The heliocentric model with the sun at the center solved these issues. Galileo and Kepler made discoveries that supported the heliocentric view through observations with early telescopes.

Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt

Tacheometric surveying is a method that determines horizontal and vertical distances optically rather than using a tape or chain. It uses a theodolite fitted with a stadia diaphragm containing hairs to rapidly measure distances. There are different systems, including the stadia system which uses fixed or movable hairs, and the tangential system. Formulas are used to calculate distances and elevations based on staff intercept readings and vertical angles observed. The constants of the instrument such as the multiplying constant and additive constant must also be determined.

Fieldwork 2 (Traversing)

The document summarizes a student's fieldwork using a theodolite to conduct a traversing survey. Key details include:
- The student conducted a closed traverse survey with 4 stations, measuring angles and lengths between stations.
- Angular errors were distributed and angles were adjusted to total 360°. Station coordinates were then computed.
- Total angular error was -0°12'20" and total linear error was 0.0668m, yielding an accuracy of 1:2700, within acceptable limits.
- The fieldwork helped students learn skills like setting up a theodolite, measuring angles and distances, and adjusting data.

Module 3 similarity

This module covers similarity and the Pythagorean theorem as they relate to right triangles. It discusses how the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle divides it into two smaller right triangles that are similar to each other and the original triangle. It also explains how the altitude is the geometric mean of the hypotenuse segments. Special right triangles like 45-45-90 and 30-60-90 triangles are examined, relating side lengths through their properties. The Pythagorean theorem is derived and used to solve for missing sides of right triangles. Students work through examples and multi-step problems applying these concepts.

Engineering. physics lab manual 2014-15-05.03.2015(1)

This document provides instructions for an experiment to determine the dispersive power of a prism using a spectrometer. The experiment involves using a spectrometer to measure the minimum angles of deviation for red and blue light passing through the prism. These values along with the prism angle are used to calculate the refractive indices and dispersive power based on standard formulas. Procedures are outlined for setting up the spectrometer, measuring minimum deviation angles, and calculating dispersive power from the observational results.

Tacheometry 1

Tacheometry is a surveying method that uses angular measurements from a tacheometer to determine horizontal and vertical distances. It is well-suited for hilly areas where chaining distances is difficult. The document provides procedures to determine the multiplying and additive constants of a tacheometer through stadia tacheometry. This involves setting up the instrument and measuring staff intercepts at known distances to solve equations and calculate the constants. The constants are then used in tacheometric formulas to determine horizontal distances, vertical distances, and elevations for different sighting configurations of the staff.

To find the refractive indexes of (a) water,(b) oil using a plane mirror, an ...

1. Ankit Sharma completed a physics project to determine the refractive indices of water and oil using a plane mirror, convex lens, and adjustable needle under the guidance of his teacher Mr. P.K. Sha.
2. The project involved using the lens formula to calculate the focal lengths of the convex lens alone and in combination with water or oil, then using these values and the radius of curvature of the lens to determine the refractive indices.
3. The refractive indices calculated were 1.0831 for water and 1.2886 for oil.

physics-IP Jai maurya.pptx class 12 investigatory project for baords

physics-IP Jai maurya.pptx class 12 investigatory project for baords

Newtons Ring

Newtons Ring

Abhishek physics

Abhishek physics

047_Lakhan Sharma.pdf

047_Lakhan Sharma.pdf

Physics Investigatory Project

Physics Investigatory Project

surveying ii

surveying ii

Bsce quarantine reviewer diagnostic exams solutions and ref

Bsce quarantine reviewer diagnostic exams solutions and ref

SOLAR IMPULSE - LAB WORK - MODELS (ENG)

SOLAR IMPULSE - LAB WORK - MODELS (ENG)

Refractive index of liquids using travelling microscope

Refractive index of liquids using travelling microscope

Measurement of corneal curvature

Measurement of corneal curvature

Refractive Index Lab

Refractive Index Lab

Emissionspectra1

Emissionspectra1

Assignment 2 - Traverse

Assignment 2 - Traverse

Astonomical thinking notes

Astonomical thinking notes

Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt

Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt

Fieldwork 2 (Traversing)

Fieldwork 2 (Traversing)

Module 3 similarity

Module 3 similarity

Engineering. physics lab manual 2014-15-05.03.2015(1)

Engineering. physics lab manual 2014-15-05.03.2015(1)

Tacheometry 1

Tacheometry 1

To find the refractive indexes of (a) water,(b) oil using a plane mirror, an ...

To find the refractive indexes of (a) water,(b) oil using a plane mirror, an ...

- 1. Submitted by: Supervised by:- Deepali Jain Dr. Pranav Saxena Devendra Kumar Sharma Dilip Kumar Meena Submitted to: Dheerendra maharya Physics Department, Jagannath Gupta Institute of (E&C – A), B- tech, Ist Year Engineering and Technology
- 2. SEMINAR COVER’S 1. Object 2. Apparatus 3. Description of sextant 4. Principle 5. Theory 6. Procedure 7. Observations 8. Calculations 9. Result 10. precautions
- 3. Object To Determine the height of a given object by using Sextant
- 5. What is Sextant ? A sextant is a navigational instrument used to measure the angle of elevation of celestial bodies, usually the sun or moon, in order to determine one's location and direction. More generally, a sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects, by which we can calculate the distance between them.
- 6. Parts of a Sextant
- 7. Index mirror: large polished plate that reflects light. Telescope: optical instrument made of lens that magnifies objects. Telescope clamp: reinforcing circle. Eyepiece: lens the user looks through. Telescope printing: lens adjustment. Frame: structure that serves as the base for the different parts of the sextant. Graduated arc: graduated edge of the arc.
- 8. Locking device: apparatus that holds the sextant in place. Drum: graduated button used to take measurements. Index arm: type of ruler that determines direction or measures an angle. Screw to regulate small mirror: piece of metal used to adjust the horizon mirror. Glass filter: colored transparent substance. Horizon mirror: small polished glass plate that reflects light. Glass filter: colored transparent substance.
- 9. Principle of Sextant: Sextant is based on the principle of rotation of a plane mirror . According to this principle, When a plane mirror is rotated through an angle , the reflected angle is ᶿ rotates through an angle 2 provided that ᶿ the incident ray remains unchanged
- 11. Theory : Let H be the height of the water tank MQ whose height is to be determined. Take a refreance point P on MQ at a height hr above ground PQ = MQ – MP = H – hr = h Let α and β be the angles subtended by the PQ height at F and E , distance apart. PE .∙. cot α = ― PQ β α PE = h cot α ∙.∙ PQ = h PF Similarly cot β = ― ∙.∙ PF = h cot β PQ
- 12. ∙.∙ X = Pf – PE = h ( cot β – cot α ) h= X . cot β – cot α ∙.∙ Actual height of water tank β α H = h + hr H= X . + hr ( cot β – cot α )
- 13. Procedure: 1. Find the least count of the vernier attached with the index arm. 2. Draw a horizontal line P as a reference line on the pillar of the water tank. 3. Look at the horizontal line P through the transparent portion of the horizon glass plate M2 by telescope from some distance (say 10 m) from the water tank keeping the plate of the arc scale of sextant vertical . 4. Rotate the index arm towards zero of the scale till direct image of reference line P coincides with the image of the same reference line through the polished portion of horizon glass plate M2
- 14. 5. Now rotate the index arm away from zero reading till the image of the top Q of water tank in the mirror M2 coincides with the image of the reference line P seen directly through the glass plate M2 . 6. take 3 sets of the observations at different distances.
- 15. Observations: Least count of circular scale = 1' Least count of micrometer screw = 1° Least count of vernier scale : 1/5' = 60/5= 12" Height of Sextant from ground hr = 5 ft
- 16. Observation table:- Sr. Distance Zero Reading (a) Elevation reading (b) Angle of no. M.S C.S. V.S. Total M.S. C.S. V.S total elevation . Ѳ = b-a 1. 7m 3° 33' 2" 3.56° 12° 26' 2" 12.41° α = 8.86 2. 9m 3° 19' 2" 3.317° 10° 38' 2" 10.63° β = 7.317 3. 11 m 3° 27' 3" 3.45° 9° 31' 2" 9.51° ϒ = 6.066
- 17. Calculations: (i) x = 9m – 7m α = 8.866° = 2m β = 7.317° h1 = x . 2 . = = 1.485 m cot β- cotα 7.787 – 6.415 (ii) x = 11m – 9m ϒ = 6.066° =2m β = 8.866° h2 = 2 . = 1.233 m 9.433 - 7.787
- 18. (iii) x = 11m – 7m ϒ = 6.066° =2 α = 8.866° 4 . H3 = = 1.325 m 9.433 - 6.415 h1+ h2+ h3 . = 1.347m (H') mean = 3 1.347 x 3.28 ft = 4.42 ft H = hr + H' = 5 + 4.42 ft = 9.42 ft
- 19. Result: Height of water tank is 9.42 ft Calculated height- Actual height x 100 % error = Actual height = 9.42 – 9.00 x 100 = 4.7% 9.00
- 20. Precautions: 1. Plane of index arm should be parallel to the moving arm and normal to the plane of the circular arc. 2. At the position of zero reading both mirrors M1 and M2 should be parallel to each other. 3. While taking reading the plane of the fixed arm and index should be kept vertical. 4. The telescope should be directed towards the centre of horizon glass M2.