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  1. 1. PROBIOTICSAli Raza
  2. 2. Contents Intestinal Microflora Formation Gut Microflora (Microbiota) History Of Probiotics Probiotics definition Probiotics : An edge over Antibiotics Probiotic strains currently used Key properties of probiotics Established effects of probiotics Mechanism for the benefit of Probiotics
  3. 3.  Advantages of Probiotics1. Antibiotic associated diarrhea2. Probiotics and Cancer3. Hepatic Diseases4. Helicobacter pylori Infections5. Treat high cholesterol6. Use of probiotics beyond GIT (Allergy) Effects of Probiotics in Livestocks Prebiotics Synbiotics Health benefits of Synbiotics Market Of Probiotics
  4. 4. Intestinal Microflora:Location & Prevalence Rare in the esophagus Uncommon in the stomachprimarily gram (+)102 - 103 105 in the duodenum & jejunum – primarily aerobes 105 -107Ileum 109 – 1012 in the colonprimarily anerobes1000x more anerobes than aerobes
  5. 5. More than total cells in the human body At least 17 families At least 50 genera 400-500 species in any single person 80-90% unculturable
  6. 6. Formation Gut Flora(Microbiota) Genetic factors Age Gender Mother’s microbiology Mode of delivery Feeding practices Breast-fed – Bifidobacterium Bottle-fed - Lactobacillus Medications Diet
  7. 7. History Of ProbioticsIn 76 BC the Roman historian Plinius recommendedthe administration of fermented milk products fortreating gastroenteritis .Russian scientist Eli Metchnikoff in early 20th centurysuggested that it would be possible to modify thegut flora and to replace harmful microbes by usefulmicrobesThe term “Probiotics” was first introduced in 1965 byLilly and Stillwell, when it was described asgrowth promoting factors produced bymicroorganisms.
  8. 8.  Parker was the first to use the term probiotic inthe sense that it is used today “organisms andsubstances which contribute to intestinalmicrobial balance”. In 1989, Fuller attempted to improve Parker’sdefinition of probiotic with the followingdistinction: “A live microbial feed supplementwhich beneficially affects the host animal byimproving its intestinal microbial balance.”
  9. 9. Probiotics‘‘Live microorganisms which whenadministered in adequate amountsconfer a health benefit on the host’’ asdefined by WHO.
  10. 10. Antibiotics Emergence of antibiotic resistance micro-organisms. Unpleasant side effectsProbiotics Non-invasive Preventive Free from undesirable side effectsProbiotics :An edge over Antibiotics
  11. 11. Probiotic strains currentlyusedLactobacillus species1) L. acidophilus2) L. plantarum3) L. casei subspecies rhamnosus4) L. brevis5) L. delbreuckii subspecies bulgaricusBifidobacterium species1) B. adolescentis2) B. bifidum3) B. longum4) B. infantis5) B. breve Contd….
  12. 12. a. Streptococcus salivariusb. Lactococcus lactisc. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremorisd. Enterococcus faeciume. Leuconostoc mesenteroidesf. Propionibacterium freudenreichiig. Pediococcus acidilacticih. Saccharomyces boulardiiOthers
  13. 13. Key properties of probiotic1. Non-pathogenic, non-toxic and non-allergic.2. Capable of surviving and metabolizing in upper G.I.tract e.g. Resistant to low pH, organic acids, bilejuice, saliva and gastric acid3. Human in origin, genetically stable and capable ofremaining viable for long periods in field condition.4. Able to modulate immune response and provideresistance to disease through improved immunity or bythe production of antimicrobial substance in the guts.Contd….
  14. 14. 5. Good adhesion/ colonization to human intestinaltract and influence on gut mucosal permeability.6. Antagonistic against carcinogenic/ pathogenicorganism.7. Clinically proven health benefit, e.g. gastrointestinaldisorders, diarrhoea, clostridium difficlecolitis, antibiotics associated diarrhoea, acuteinfantile gastroenteritis.8. Technologic properties for commercial viability suchas stability of desired characteristics duringprocessing, storage and transportation.
  15. 15. Established effects ofprobioticsAid in lactose digestion Resistance to enteric pathogens Anti-colon cancer effect Anti-hypertensive effect Small bowel bacterial overgrowth Immune system modulation Blood lipids, Heart disease Urogenital infections Hepatic encephalopathy
  16. 16. Mechanism for the benefit ofProbiotics: Adherence and colonization of the gut Suppression of growth or epithelial binding/invasion bypathogenic bacteria and production of antimicrobialsubstances Improvement of intestinal barrier function Controlled transfer of dietary antigens (Iron etc.) Stimulation of mucosal and systemic host immunity
  17. 17. • Produce lactic acid- lowers the pH of intestines andinhibiting bacterial villains such asClostridium, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli, etc.• Decreases the production of a variety of toxic orcarcinogenic metabolites.• Aid absorption of minerals, especially calcium, due toincreased intestinal acidity.• Production of β- D- galactosidase enzymes that breakdown lactose .Contd….Advantages of Probiotics
  18. 18.  Produce a wide range of antimicrobial substances– hydrogen peroxide– organic acids– Bacteriocin– acidophilin Produce vitamins (especially Vitamin B and vitamin K) Act as barriers to prevent harmful bacteria fromcolonizing the intestines
  19. 19. Effects of probiotics onpathogenic bacteria Probiotics reduce levels of bacterial endotoxinconcentrations, by inhibiting translocation of bacteriaacross the GI lumen into the bloodstream. Decrease in translocation of bacteria may occur as aresult of the ability of probiotics to tighten the mucosalbarrier. Probiotics disallow colonization by disease-provokingbacteria through competition for nutrients, immunesystem up-regulation, production of antitoxins, and up-regulation of intestinal mucin genes. contd…
  20. 20. • Probiotics lower colon luminal pH and fostergrowth of non-pathogenic commensal bacteria bySCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acid) production. OneSCFA, acetic acid, has antimicrobial activityagainst molds, yeasts, and bacteria.• Probiotics exert protective effects throughproduction of hydrogen peroxide and benzoicacid, which inhibit many pathogenic, acid-sensitivebacteria .
  21. 21. Disease Antibiotic treatmentDiarrhoa Disturbance ofintestinal microbiotaClostridium overgrowthproduces toxinAntibiotic associated diarrhea
  22. 22. Disease Antibiotic treatmentProbioticsDisturbance ofintestinal microbiotaMicrobiota Clostridium overgrowthin balance produces toxinAntibiotic associated diarrhea
  23. 23. Enzymes (Glycosidase, B- glucuronidase , azoreductase, and nitroreductase) of the intestinal flora convert theprecarcinogens to active carcinogensProbiotics reduce Faecal concentrations of enzymes Reduce absorption of harmful mutagens that maycontribute to colon carcinogenesis.Activity of L. acidophilus and L. casei supplementationin humans helped to decrease levels of these enzymesProbiotics and Cancer
  24. 24. Several mechanisms have been proposed as to howLACTIC ACID BACTERIA may inhibit colon cancer1. Enhancing the host’s immune response2. Altering the metabolic activity of the intestinalmicroflora3. Binding and degrading carcinogens4. Producing antimutagenic compounds5. Altering the physiochemical conditions in the colon
  25. 25. Hepatic DiseasesMechanisms by which probiotics may treat HepaticEncephalopathy1. Decreased portal blood ammonia by reduced bacterialurease activity2. Decreased pH due to less ammonia absorption3. Reduce intestinal permeability and improved gutepithelium4. Decreased inflammation and oxidative stress due toreduced ammonia toxins5. Reduced uptake of other toxins
  26. 26. Helicobacter pylori InfectionsChronic gastritis, Peptic ulcers, Gastric adenocarcinoma,and a number of non-gastrointestinal disorders.Bifidobacteria and B. subtilis may inhibit the growth orattachment of H. pylori.Possible mechanisms by which L. salivarius eradicates H.pylori include the ability of the former to bind to gastricepithelial cells, to produce a high quantity of lactic acid,and to proliferate rapidly.
  27. 27. Treat high cholesterol Helping to treat high cholesterol. Helping to lower blood pressure due to theACE inhibitor-like peptides produced duringfermentation of milk.
  28. 28. Lactic acid bacilliIncreases production ofShort chain Fatty AcidInhibits cholesterol synby liverDecreases blood chlesterolIncreases bile.Bile syn. IncreasesMore cholesterol is used upDecreases plasma cholesterolHelping to treat highcholesterol
  29. 29. Allergy To modify the structure of antigens Reduce their immunogenicity Reduce intestinal permeability Generation of proinflammatory cytokines thatare elevated in patients with a variety ofallergic disordersUse of probiotics beyond GIT
  30. 30. Effects of Probiotics inLivestocks resistance to infectious disease improvement of digestion increased growth rate better absorption of nutrients provision of essential nutrients improvement of milk quality reduction of bad ordor in feces
  31. 31. Probiotics: prescribing– Lactobacillus best studied to date– Combination products not wellstudied, but may work as well– 10 billion organisms/day– Keep in fridge– Give in cool food/drink– 2% risk bloating/gas
  32. 32. Probiotic Products
  33. 33. • The term prebiotic was introduced by Gibsonand Roberfroid who exchanged “pro” for “pre,”which means “before”.A non-digestible food ingredientBeneficial effectsPrebiotics
  34. 34. Concept of Probiotics and Prebiotics:
  35. 35. Prebiotics- examples• Inulin• Garlic• Onions• Chicory root• Asparagus• Wheat• Rye• Barley• breast milk,• tomatoes,• bananas, honey
  36. 36. PrebioticsBiochemistry Inulin : long-chain (2-60sugars) fructooligosaccharides (FOS) xylooligosaccharides(XOS) Polydextrose galactooligosaccharides(GOS)It is not clear which type of prebiotic is most effective.
  37. 37. Prebiotics
  38. 38. Synbiotic = Probiotic + Prebiotic The concept of synbiotics has been proposed tocharacterize health-enhancing foods andsupplements used as functional food ingredients inhumans Potential synergy between pro- & prebiotics Improve survival in upper GIT More efficient implantation Stimulating effect of ProbioticsSynbiotics
  39. 39. Health benefits of Synbiotics• Improved survival of live bacteria in foodproducts, prolonged shelf life• Increased number of ingested bacteria reaching the colon ina viable form• Stimulation in the colon of the growth and implantation ofboth exogenous and endogenous bacteria• Activation of metabolism of beneficialbacteria, antagonistic toward pathogenic bacteria
  40. 40. • Production of antimicrobial substances(bacteriocins , hydrogen peroxide, organicacids etc)• Immuno-stimulation• Anti-inflammatory, Anti-mutagenic, Anti-carcinogenic, and production of bioactivecompounds (enzymes, vaccines, peptides etc)
  41. 41.  Increased from $14.9 billion in 2007 to anestimated $15.9 billion by the end of 2008. Itshould reach $19.6 billion by 2013, acompound annual growth rate (CAGR) of4.3%. Japan accounted for the largest share of totalsales in 2007 with 39.5%, driven primarilyby the country’s large and well-developedprobiotic foods segment.Market Of Probiotics
  42. 42. Summary Intestinal Microflora , Formation History Probiotics definition and strains currently used Key properties of probiotics Established effects of probiotics & Mechanism Advantages of Probiotics Effects of Probiotics in Livestocks Prebiotics, Synbiotics , Health benefits of Synbiotics Market Of Probiotics
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