Acute abdomen by Syed Alam Zeb

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Acute abdomen by Syed Alam Zeb

  1. 1. ACUTE ABDOMEN Dr.Syed Alam Zeb
  2. 2. CAUSES <ul><li>Acute Inflammatory Conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Appendicitis Acute Cholecystitis Acute Pancreatitis Acute Diverticulitis Acute Salphingitis </li></ul>
  3. 3. CAUSES <ul><li>Gut Perforation (Peritonitis): </li></ul><ul><li>Perforated Duodenal Ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid Perforation in Ileum </li></ul><ul><li>Perforated Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic perforation </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION : </li></ul><ul><li>Bands and adhesions </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructed Hernia </li></ul><ul><li>Strictures(TB) </li></ul><ul><li>Tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Volvolus </li></ul><ul><li>Intussusceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Worms </li></ul>
  5. 5. CAUSES <ul><li>RENAL CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Acute pyelonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Ureteric Colic </li></ul>
  6. 6. CAUSES <ul><li>ABDOMINAL ABSCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>liver abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Subphrenic abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Perinephric abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Psoas abscess </li></ul>
  7. 7. CAUSES <ul><li>IN FEMALES </li></ul><ul><li>Ruptured ectopic pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>ruptured / torsion ovarian cyst </li></ul><ul><li>salphingitis </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAUSES <ul><li>Rare Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>mesenteric ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>diabetic keto acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>lead poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Acute porphyria </li></ul>
  9. 9. MANAGEMENT <ul><li>HISTORY: </li></ul><ul><li>PAIN – site, onset, duration, character,radiation,associated symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>FEVER -continuous, intermittent. </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Examination </li></ul><ul><li>GPE: pulse, temp.,anemia, jaundice, hydration. </li></ul><ul><li>ABDOMINAL EXAM. inspection,palpation,percussion,auscultation. </li></ul><ul><li>DRE. </li></ul>
  11. 11. investigations <ul><li>FBC </li></ul><ul><li>Urea/ creatinine </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>serum electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>abdominal x-ray. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>SPECIFC INVESTIGATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>serum amylase </li></ul><ul><li>LFTs </li></ul><ul><li>ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>ivu </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan </li></ul>
  13. 13. treatment <ul><li>Admit, examine, investigate and prepare for surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for surgery: </li></ul><ul><li>iv line, NG tube, catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>IV fluids, antibiotics, pain killers. </li></ul><ul><li>take the consent for surgery. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Definite surgical procedure depends on the cause for admission. </li></ul>

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