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• Assembling an effective, efficient computer system
requires an understanding of its relationship to the
information syst...
• When selecting computer devices, you also must consider
the current and future needs of the information system and
the o...
Computer Systems: Integrating the
Power of Technology
• Computer system
• Special subsystem of an organization’s overall i...
Hardware Components
• Central processing unit (CPU)
• Input devices
• Output devices

Principles of Information Systems, S...
Hardware Components (continued)
• Communications devices
• Primary storage devices
• Secondary storage devices

Principles...
Figure 3.1: Computer System
Components

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

7
Hardware Components in Action
• Step 1: Fetch instruction
• Step 2: Decode instruction
• Step 3: Execute instruction
• Ste...
Figure 3.2: Execution of an Instruction

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

9
Processing and Memory Devices:
Power, Speed, and Capacity
• System unit: houses the components responsible for
processing—...
Processing Characteristics and
Functions
• Machine cycle time is measured in:
• Microseconds (1 millionth of a second)
• N...
Processing Characteristics and
Functions (continued)
• Clock speed: electronic pulses that affect machine cycle
time
• Her...
Figure 3.3: Clock Speed and the
Execution of Microcode Instructions

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

1...
Wordlength and Bus Line Width
• Bit: a binary digit (0 or 1)
• Wordlength: number of bits the CPU can process at any
one t...
Physical Characteristics of the CPU
• CPU: collection of digital circuits
• Electrical current flows through silicon
• Moo...
Figure 3.4: Moore’s Law

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

16
Complex and Reduced Instruction Set
Computing
• Complex instruction set computing (CISC): chip
design that places as many ...
Memory Characteristics and Functions:
Storage Capacity

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

18
Types of Memory
• Random access memory (RAM): temporary and volatile
• Types of RAM
• EDO (Extended Data Out)
• DRAM (Dyna...
Types of Memory (continued)
• ROM (read-only memory): usually nonvolatile
• Types of ROM
• PROM (programmable read-only me...
Figure 3.5: Basic Types of Memory Chips

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

21
Figure 3.6: Cache Memory

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

22
Multiprocessing
• Multiprocessing: the simultaneous execution of two
or more instructions at the same time
• Massively par...
Figure 3.7: Massively Parallel Processing

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

24
Secondary Storage
• Secondary storage: offers advantages of nonvolatility,
greater capacity, and greater economy
• Access ...
Table 3.1: Cost Comparison for Various
Forms of Data Storage

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

26
Access Methods
• Sequential access: retrieval method in which data must
be retrieved in order; devices used are called seq...
Secondary Storage Devices
• Magnetic tapes
• Magnetic disks
• Virtual tape
• Optical discs

Principles of Information Syst...
Secondary Storage Devices
(continued)
• Digital versatile disk (DVD)
• Magneto-optical (MO) disks
• Memory cards
• Flash m...
Enterprise Storage Options
• Attached storage
• Network-attached storage (NAS)
• Storage area network (SAN)

Principles of...
Figure 3.12: Storage Area Network

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

31
Input and Output Devices: The
Gateway to Computer Systems
• Through input and output devices, people provide data
and inst...
Characteristics and Functionality
• Data: can be human- or machine-readable
• Data entry: process of converting human-read...
Input Devices
• Personal computer input devices
• Keyboard
• Mouse

• Voice-recognition devices
• Digital computer cameras...
Input Devices (continued)
• Scanning devices
• Optical data readers
• Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices
• ...
Input Devices (continued)
• Pen input devices
• Light pens
• Touch-sensitive screens
• Bar-code scanners
• Radio-frequency...
Output Devices
• Display monitors
• Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
• Active-matrix
• Passive-matrix

Principles of Informa...
Output Devices (continued)
• Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
• Printers and plotters
• Computer output microfilm (CO...
Computer System Types, Selecting,
and Upgrading
• Computers can be classified as either special purpose or
general purpose...
Computer System Types
• Handheld computers
• Portable computers
• Thin client
• Desktop computers

Principles of Informati...
Computer System Types (continued)
• Workstations
• Servers
• Mainframe computers
• Supercomputers

Principles of Informati...
Selecting and Upgrading Computer
Systems
• Hard drive considerations
• Main memory considerations
• Printer considerations...
Summary
• Hardware: machinery that assists in the input,
processing, storage, and output activities of an
information syst...
Summary (continued)
• Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more
instructions at the same time
• Sequential ac...
Summary (continued)
• Examples of input devices: keyboards, mice, voicerecognition devices, terminals, scanning devices, a...
Ch03 ipo Devices
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Ch03 ipo Devices

  1. 1. • Assembling an effective, efficient computer system requires an understanding of its relationship to the information system and the organization. The computer system objectives are subordinate to, but supportive of, the information system and the needs of the organization • Describe how to select and organize computer system components to support information system (IS) objectives and business organization needs Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 2
  2. 2. • When selecting computer devices, you also must consider the current and future needs of the information system and the organization. Your choice of a particular computer system device should always allow for later improvements • Describe the power, speed, and capacity of central processing and memory devices • Describe the access methods, capacity, and portability of secondary storage devices • Discuss the speed, functionality, and importance of input and output devices • Identify popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 3
  3. 3. Computer Systems: Integrating the Power of Technology • Computer system • Special subsystem of an organization’s overall information system • Integrated assembly of devices used to input, process, store, and output data and information • Hardware • Any machinery—most of which use digital circuits—that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 4
  4. 4. Hardware Components • Central processing unit (CPU) • Input devices • Output devices Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 5
  5. 5. Hardware Components (continued) • Communications devices • Primary storage devices • Secondary storage devices Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 6
  6. 6. Figure 3.1: Computer System Components Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 7
  7. 7. Hardware Components in Action • Step 1: Fetch instruction • Step 2: Decode instruction • Step 3: Execute instruction • Step 4: Store results Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 8
  8. 8. Figure 3.2: Execution of an Instruction Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 9
  9. 9. Processing and Memory Devices: Power, Speed, and Capacity • System unit: houses the components responsible for processing—the CPU and memory • All other computer system devices are linked either directly or indirectly into the system unit housing Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 10
  10. 10. Processing Characteristics and Functions • Machine cycle time is measured in: • Microseconds (1 millionth of a second) • Nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) • Picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second) • MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 11
  11. 11. Processing Characteristics and Functions (continued) • Clock speed: electronic pulses that affect machine cycle time • Hertz (Hz): one cycle (pulse) per second • Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second • Microcode: elementary circuits and logical operations a processor performs when executing instructions Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 12
  12. 12. Figure 3.3: Clock Speed and the Execution of Microcode Instructions Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 13
  13. 13. Wordlength and Bus Line Width • Bit: a binary digit (0 or 1) • Wordlength: number of bits the CPU can process at any one time • Bus line: physical wiring that connects the computer system components Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 14
  14. 14. Physical Characteristics of the CPU • CPU: collection of digital circuits • Electrical current flows through silicon • Moore’s Law: transistor densities on a chip double every 18 months • Superconductivity: property of certain metals that allows current to flow with minimal electrical resistance • Optical processors: computer chips that use light waves instead of electrical current to represent bits Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 15
  15. 15. Figure 3.4: Moore’s Law Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 16
  16. 16. Complex and Reduced Instruction Set Computing • Complex instruction set computing (CISC): chip design that places as many microcode instructions into the central processor as possible • Reduced instruction set computing (RISC): chip design that involves reducing the number of microcode instructions built into a chip to an essential set of common microcode instructions Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 17
  17. 17. Memory Characteristics and Functions: Storage Capacity Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 18
  18. 18. Types of Memory • Random access memory (RAM): temporary and volatile • Types of RAM • EDO (Extended Data Out) • DRAM (Dynamic RAM) • SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 19
  19. 19. Types of Memory (continued) • ROM (read-only memory): usually nonvolatile • Types of ROM • PROM (programmable read-only memory) • EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) • Cache memory • High-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 20
  20. 20. Figure 3.5: Basic Types of Memory Chips Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 21
  21. 21. Figure 3.6: Cache Memory Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 22
  22. 22. Multiprocessing • Multiprocessing: the simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time • Massively parallel processing • Speeds processing by linking hundreds or thousands of processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel • Can coordinate large amounts of data and access them with greater speed Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 23
  23. 23. Figure 3.7: Massively Parallel Processing Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 24
  24. 24. Secondary Storage • Secondary storage: offers advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy • Access methods, storage capacities, and portability required are determined by the information system’s objectives Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 25
  25. 25. Table 3.1: Cost Comparison for Various Forms of Data Storage Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 26
  26. 26. Access Methods • Sequential access: retrieval method in which data must be retrieved in order; devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASDs) • Direct access: retrieval method in which data can be retrieved in any order; devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 27
  27. 27. Secondary Storage Devices • Magnetic tapes • Magnetic disks • Virtual tape • Optical discs Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 28
  28. 28. Secondary Storage Devices (continued) • Digital versatile disk (DVD) • Magneto-optical (MO) disks • Memory cards • Flash memory • Expandable storage Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 29
  29. 29. Enterprise Storage Options • Attached storage • Network-attached storage (NAS) • Storage area network (SAN) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 30
  30. 30. Figure 3.12: Storage Area Network Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 31
  31. 31. Input and Output Devices: The Gateway to Computer Systems • Through input and output devices, people provide data and instructions to computer and receive results from it • Selection of input and output devices depends on organizational goals and information systems objectives Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 32
  32. 32. Characteristics and Functionality • Data: can be human- or machine-readable • Data entry: process of converting human-readable data into machine-readable form • Data input: involves transferring machine-readable data into the system • Source data automation: involves capturing and editing data where the data is initially created and in a form that can be directly input to a computer Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 33
  33. 33. Input Devices • Personal computer input devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Voice-recognition devices • Digital computer cameras • Terminals Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 34
  34. 34. Input Devices (continued) • Scanning devices • Optical data readers • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices • Point-of-sale (POS) devices • Automated teller machine (ATM) devices Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 35
  35. 35. Input Devices (continued) • Pen input devices • Light pens • Touch-sensitive screens • Bar-code scanners • Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 36
  36. 36. Output Devices • Display monitors • Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) • Active-matrix • Passive-matrix Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 37
  37. 37. Output Devices (continued) • Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) • Printers and plotters • Computer output microfilm (COM) devices • Music devices Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 38
  38. 38. Computer System Types, Selecting, and Upgrading • Computers can be classified as either special purpose or general purpose • Special-purpose computers: used for limited applications by military and scientific research groups • General-purpose computers: used for a wide variety of applications Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 39
  39. 39. Computer System Types • Handheld computers • Portable computers • Thin client • Desktop computers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 40
  40. 40. Computer System Types (continued) • Workstations • Servers • Mainframe computers • Supercomputers Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 41
  41. 41. Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems • Hard drive considerations • Main memory considerations • Printer considerations • DVD burners Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 42
  42. 42. Summary • Hardware: machinery that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system • Hardware components include central processing unit (CPU), input and output devices, communications devices, primary storage devices, and secondary storage devices • Random access memory (RAM): temporary and volatile • Read-only memory (ROM): usually nonvolatile Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 43
  43. 43. Summary (continued) • Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time • Sequential access: records must be retrieved in order • Direct access: records can be retrieved in any order • Examples of secondary storage devices: magnetic tapes and disks, optical disks, and DVDs • Enterprise storage options: attached storage, networkattached storage (NAS), and storage area network (SAN) Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 44
  44. 44. Summary (continued) • Examples of input devices: keyboards, mice, voicerecognition devices, terminals, scanning devices, and touch-sensitive screens • Examples of output devices: display monitors, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), printers, and plotters • Computers can be classified as either special purpose or general purpose • Computer system types: handheld computers, portable computers, desktop computers, workstations, servers, etc. Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition 45

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