Title : Simulation on Pendulum StoryAim : 1. To apply the simulation software in teaching and learning process 2. To conduct the experiment by using STELLA software 3. To understand the uses of simulation in teaching and learning process 4. To identify which factors influence the period, T, of the pendulum 5. To investigate the relationship between mass, initial displacement and length of string on the amplitude, period and frequency of a simple pendulumIntroduction : Simulation is an abstract representation of a real situation in which students caninteract with each other based on their respective roles to solve any problem or issue related.It is also a situation that was created to resemble the real situation by using the problemsreally exist or provide situations that are exist in a controlled environment. Simulation isa representation of the operation or features of one process or system through the use ofanother. It is also one of the imitation as of a potential situation or in experimental testing. Ina simulation, the learner acts, the simulation reacts and the learner learns from thisfeedback. Simulation can be used to provide a fertile learning environment for student. Theuse of activities by using simulation in education is use widely and become an important toolin school. One type of simulation is computer simulation. According to de Jong (1991), thereare many approaches and learning through simulation like computerized analysis,experiment and teaching. The function of using simulation in teaching and learning process is to providestudents with realistic experience as they have to handle and conduct the simulation on theirown. So, they have their own experience on how to use the simulation software, running theexperiment, manipulate the parameter and to produce the output graph. Apart from that,simulation also is one of the technique for enhancing learning and increase student’s interestand awareness in the topic being discussed. As a teacher-to-be, we should improve ourteaching skills rather than using a Power point slide or experimental activity. This is becausethe students cannot feel the new learning atmosphere in their class. So, when a teacher usesimulation, they can feel this type of teaching is one of the reformation in learning style andthus can increase student’s interest on the topic. Besides, simulations will provideopportunities for students to explore environments that mirror real-world situations orcomplex ideas. They can see clearly what will happen to the process or situation involve ifthey change the parameter involve rather than just imagine it. Simulations also will provide
innovative ways to use technology. Due to our world’s modernization, technology willbecome as enabler in teaching and learning process. New computer technologies allow for avariety of strategies to design learning environment that are realistic, authentic, engaging andgun. Computer simulation is one of the software applications which enable a user to run amodel of a system. The users can use these type of simulation by interact with the computersystem, setting the input variables and observe the changes occur for the output. They alsocan explore more about the model in a real time by running the simulation which it can bestart and stop the model, make changes to the test hypothesis and conclude what has beenoccur. Simulation has its own characteristics such as: 1. Simulation is an experiential learning which it allows participants learn from their mistakes and have the opportunity to improve themselves in any situation. 2. In the simulation, participants play quite wide role because the participants are not only required to maintain a role as determined but they will need to discuss and contribute an idea to make decisions. 3. Participants are required to interact dynamically in related systems, make decisions and solve problems. 4. The purpose of the simulation is that it allows students to use the language with more work and gives students the opportunity to interact and communicate effectively. 5. One of advantages of this technique is it allows students to discuss and think creatively and critical analysis. Learning through computer simulation can be divided into four which are create aformula, establish teaching goals, specific teaching process and establish learning activities.Using computer simulations in the learning process has some importance. The mainimportance is to make sure students are active in the exploration and can learn something inwhich the approach used has connection with the modern learning theory. Computersimulation learning is more on experiential learning that require support from the instructor orsystem to ensure the simulation has been used effectively. There are some advantages of using simulation especially for computer simulationlike the students can observe, explore, recreate and receive immediate feedback about thereal phenomena or processes occur or in the other word can enhance the student’smotivation. Besides, simulation can help the students to promote further investigation. Afterstudying the learning of materials and experiencing the simulation program, some students
may want to do further exploration with the learning contents and computer simulationprogram makes it possible for them to manipulate and experiment with the phenomenon orprocess. They can change the values of input parameters and examine which outputvariables are changed consequently and how they are changed. The next advantages ofusing simulation in teaching and learning process is simulation provides supportive andconstructivist learning. This is because when students work with a simulation program, theywill play an active role in their learning process and build their own knowledge through activeinteraction. There are many simulation software in market like ACSL, APROS, ARTIFEX, Arena,AutoMod, C++SIM, CSIM, Call$im, FluidFlow, GPSS, Gepasi, JavSim, MJX, MedModel,Mesquite, Multiverse, NETWORK, OPNET Modeler, POSES++, Simulat8, Powersim,QUEST, REAL, SHIFT, SIMPLE++, SIMSCRIPT, SLAM, SMPL, SimBank, SimPlusPlus,imApp, STELLA, TIERRA, Witness, SIMNON, VISSIM, VenSim and Javasim. So, in thisproject we will conduct a model or graphical simulation by using one of the simulationsoftware called STELLA (Structural Thinking Experimental Learning Laboratory withAnimation). I will introduce a little bit about STELLA before explain a model that I have choose.STELLA software has similar dynamic simulation software like SimApp, Simile and VenSim.STELLA models consist of four basic components such as stock, flow, converter andconnector. Stock is a noun and represents something that accumulates. Some examples ofstocks are population, radioactivity, enzyme concentration, self-esteem and money. Flow isan activity that changes magnitude of stock, converter is use to convert, stores equation orconstant while connector is use to transmits inputs and information. In this project, I have decided to conduct a simulation on the pendulum story. In thissimulation, I have to investigate some factors such as mass of bob, length of string and initialdisplacement towards the amplitude, period and frequency of the pendulum’s motion.
Result and Discussion: a) Normal graph The above graph shows the normal graph for the displacement over time for a simplependulum motion. As we can see, the graph formed sinusoidal graph and the pendulummotion will experience simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodicmotion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement. In thissimulation, I have set three variables for this model such as mass of bob, initial displacementand string length with mass of bob = 1.00 kg, initial displacement = 0.10 m and the stringlength = 1.0 m. So, in this model we need to investigate the effect of mass of bob, initialdisplacement and string length with the time required to complete one oscillation for examplefrom one crest to the next crest which is called the pendulum’s period. Pendulum period ismeasured in seconds. For a simple harmonic motion, the period is given as T = 2π √m/kSubstituting k = mg /L into the equation and the formula to calculate this quantity is given as
Where L = length of string in meters G = gravitational field strength or acceleration due to gravityThe quantity for g at sea level is 9.81 m/s2 and can be calculated asWhen we already find the period of pendulum, we can also find the frequency of thependulum in Hz and is given by f=1/TWhere T = period of pendulum in secondA simple pendulum consists of a weight suspended on a string or wire. If the pendulumweight or bob is pulled to a small angle from the vertical and let go, it will swing back andforth at a regular period and frequency. Although damping effects from air resistance andfriction are a factor but in this simulation they are considered negligible for the basicequations concerning the frequency of the pendulum. The diagram below shows theamplitude, frequency and the period of a simple harmonic motion graph for make usunderstand more about this type of model. In teaching and learning process, to make student understand what they want to do isfirstly, we need to understand clearly about the theory or concept for the topic we had chose.Then, see the parameter involved in the simulation. In this simulation there are three
parameters involved which are mass of bob, initial displacement and string length. Then,click ‘RUN’ to see the shape of the theoretical graph. So, from the graph illustrated above,the graph formed sinusoidal shape. The graph shows displacement vs. time and this willrefer to the simple harmonic motion of a pendulum. So, the next step is we will change one ofthe parameter and see what will happen to the graph. b) Effect Of Mass In this part, the length of the string and the initial displacement were kept constantwhile varying the mass of the bob. Three trials were conducted with masses of 1.2 kg, 1.4 kg,1.6 kg and 1.8 kg. As we can see from the diagram shown above, there is no variation for thegraph. It means that as the mass increases, the period of pendulum remains the same orhave a little effect upon the period of the pendulum. Same goes to the amplitude which massof bob do not altered the amplitude of the pendulum’s motion. Notice that the mass of thebob does not appear in the above equation. This means that no matter what the mass werehang out at the pendulum, it will gives the same value or same variation for the period of
pendulum. Same goes to the frequency of the pendulum. Mass of bob will not affect thefrequency as it has no changes in the period. In the other words, a pendulum with a heavybob will move at the same rate as one with a lighter bob. On the other hand, the period isinfluenced by the position of the pendulum in relation to the earth since the acceleration ofgravity on a falling object is independent of the mass of the object. For the first parameter, we have changed the mass of bob with another twoparameters which are initial displacement and string length were kept constant. So, beforewe start ‘RUN’, we need to move the knob for the mass of bob up to any values you want.For example, move the knob of mass of bob to 0.2 kg. Then, click ‘RUN’ to see what happento the graph. The graph will illustrated as shown. Next, if we want to clear the first graph, wejust need to click ‘RESET’. If we want to compare the graph for all the values of mass of bob,we just change the next value of mass of bob by moving the knob and click ‘RUN’. So, fromthat we can compare the graph for all values we change as well. So, as we can see from thegraph shown above, there was no variation for the mass of bob. Means that, mass of bob didnot alter the values of pendulum period and thus will not become the factor to the period ofpendulum. c) Effect of Initial Displacement
In this part, mass of bob and length of string were kept constant while initialdisplacement was varied. I have set the initial displacement with -0.02 m, -0.01 m, 0.01 mand 0.02 m. From the graph, we can see that the period of the pendulum does not changebut the amplitude of the motion has changes. As the magnitude of the initial displacementincreases, the amplitude of the pendulum’s motion will increases as it travels farther backand forth. The magnitude of the initial displacement does not gives any effect on the periodor frequency of the pendulum’s motion as the parameter of initial displacement does notinclude in the equation to find the period of the pendulum. In this model, I have set the valuesof the initial displacement for the negative values and the positive values to compare. So,from the graph above we can see that for the negative values of the initial displacementwhich are -0.02 m and -0.01 m, the graph will starts in the trough of the sine wave rather thanthe crest. The positive values of the initial displacement which are 0.01 m and 0.02 m showthat the graph will start in the crest of the sine wave. So, means that in the real experimentor in the real world, this would indicate whether the bob was initially displaced to the left orright from the rest position. Velocity vs. Displacement Graph For The Factors Of Initial Displacement From the above graph, we can relate the initial displacement with the velocity of thependulum. As we can see from the graph, the displacement is zero when velocity is at amaximum. At this point the pendulum is in the middle or in rest position if in the real
experiment. Then, the velocity is zero when displacement is at a maximum. The bob wouldbe go farther from the middle position either to the right or left as it was going to travel. Thenegative values for the displacement and velocity show that the direction of the movingpendulum as displacement and velocity is vector quantity which is has magnitude anddirection itself. For the second part, we need varying the initial displacement while another bothparameters were kept constant by not changing them. So, we just alter the values of initialdisplacement up to the values we want. Move the knob of initial displacement and click‘RUN’. Then, see what will happen to the displacement vs. time graph. It still gives the sameshape as it is a simple harmonic motion. Next, move the knob for the second value and click‘RUN’ again and repeat the same step for the next value for initial displacement parameter.So, we can see the variation among of these values of initial displacement. From theory, wealready knew that initial displacement has the relationship with the velocity of the pendulum.So, to see the relationship between them, we can click the ‘dog ear’ at the left side of graph.Then, it will show the velocity vs. time graph. Thus, we can relate the initial displacement withthe velocity. d) Effect of Length of The String
In the third part, I have varying the length of string while mass of bob and the initialdisplacement kept constant. I set the length of string with four different values which are0.5m, 1.0m, 1.5m and 2.0m. As we can see from the graph above, the sinusoidal wave forfour different values show a big variation compared to the mass of bob and length of string.For, qualitatively measurement we can see that the increases the length of string, theincreases the period of the pendulum. For quantitatively measurement, we can find theperiod of the pendulum by using the formula. So, by using the formula to find the period ofthe pendulum, I have calculated the period of the pendulum for each value of the stringlength. Length of String (m) Period of Pendulum (s) 0.5 1.42 1.0 2.00 1.5 2.46 2.0 2.83From table, we can see that when the length of string increase, the value of the period ofpendulum also become increase. So, the longer the length of string, the higher the period ofthe pendulum and thus the frequency become lower. The length of the string does not giveany effect on the amplitude of a pendulum’s motion. So, from the result we can conclude thatonly the length of string would gives effect on the period of the pendulum’s motion comparedto mass of bob and the initial displacement. This is because the length of string is one of theparameter included in the following equation:When the length is changed, the pendulum will take more or less time to oscillate, dependingon its length and acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, the period may be varied bychanging either of these two factors. Since acceleration due to gravity is constant on Earth,so the only dependent factor is the length of the pendulum. The next parameter is length of string. We will keep constant the mass of bob andinitial displacement of pendulum. As stated before, move the knob of string length to thevalues we chose. Click ‘RUN’ and observe the graph. As we can see, the graph shows thevariation for all the values and thus the length of string is one of the factor for the period ofpendulum.
How Simulation Can Increase Student Motivation And Making Prediction? Overall, from four graphs above, the simulation can increase student motivation byincreasing the student’s interest. Before they start to conduct the experiment, they willexplore the background of the simulation and the theory of experiment that will conduct.Then, while perform the simulation they will change the parameter as they can see directlywhat will happen to a given phenomena or process illustrated. So, they will feel moreenjoyment in performing an experiment and thus could increase the student’s interest aboutthat topic. Besides, during changing the parameter for mass of bob, string length and initialdisplacement, there will have variation among four graphs and hence will make the studentsto think and work together of a possible solution and prove the answer presented withcertain decision in which among three parameters will affect the period of pendulum’smotion. In this simulation, the student also will play their role as they require a student’sinvolvement and participation. Hence, they will have an experience in conducting anexperiment using simulation. In this simulation, student will be motivated as they have to follow the step so thatthey can conduct the experiment systematically. Firstly, they need to identify the problemin this simulation sample which is the parameter that influence the period of pendulum’smotion. Then, after identifying the problem, they have to formulate the problem. Means that,they have to select the problem to be identified based on the objectives. Then, collect andrun the system. they have to change all the parameters, fix the variables, substituting thevalues for variables, observe the output graph and manually checking the result. After that,the students should validate the simulation by comparing the simulation they have conductedwith the simulation of the real system or theory. To better understand the motivational impact of using simulation in learning process,in this experiment, the teacher will ask the students to assume the three parameters whichare mass of bob, initial displacement and string length become the factors that affect theperiod of pendulum before running the simulation. With the aid use of computer simulation,students can find the exact answer for the real answer whether all the parameters becomethe factors which affect the period of pendulum or not all. As students click on the parameterinvolve on the screen browser, they will get the result and information for each graph display.Continuing the journey of simulation, at start, they will did not get any problem but when itcomes to the end, for comparing all the graphs, the students encounter a problem and at thisstage, they start to make discussion and reconstruct back their misconception. Such an
experience could teach students about the important details about certain concept and allowstudents to have a deep exploration. Besides motivate the students, simulation also allows the students to makeprediction. For example, when they have read and understand the theory of the experiment,they will get to know what they have to do in the simulation. So, when they haveidentified the parameters involve such as mass of bob, string length and initial displacement,they can predict directly or make an inference what will happen if they change mass of bob,string length and initial displacement with the period of the pendulum’s motion before runningthe simulation. If there is any misconception, it will be explain after analysing the result obtainfrom what they have predict. So, in this case, simulation also can construct the abstractthinking of students. In making prediction, the use of simulations are use ‘Mental Experiments’ that canbe designed for a wide variety of situations and to make predictions based on numericalmodels. For example in our experiment, when the normal graph is running, students will startto think and imagine using their ‘’mental’’ part to describe about the graph illustrated andrelate it with the principle or any theory. During this stage, students can make prediction bysupporting their imagination with sensory input from a Physical Model of the experimentalsystem. For example, students can discover a theory or model to explain the motion of thependulum by imagine it with the swinging of the cradle which it moves up and down likesimple harmonic motion. So, students can easily capture the concept of simple harmonicmotion which involves amplitude, period and frequency. In simulation, students will have more into discussion about their coloringprediction of results. These suggested by the act of more discussion about the result, andmanipulating the computer simulator model will help students make progress towardsdeveloping useful model. During the first trial, students model were not formulated ordetailed, there will have a little discussion about the results. The situation will reverse afterthey have tried for many trials and got the last result. The simulator experiment howeverbecause enabled students to focus on model that was visualize and manipulative, generatedextensive discussion when students make predictions and interpreted results.
Conclusion By using STELLA simulation software, the students can create models and runsimulations of systems over time. The results of simulations are displayed with visualrepresentations to support diverse learning styles. Other than that, by using simulation thestudents can understand more and can practice the lesson they have learnt in a classroominstead of only read the books. They can get to know what will happen to a given system ifchange one of the parameter that influence the system of model. So, they can conclude andsummarize the result from the play simulation they have run. From my opinion, I thinksimulation is one of the best teaching style in enhancing the student’s achievement for tenyears onward as our world will more developing with the use of technology. Simulation alsowill give an opportunity for students to be more active as they have to participate in activelearning. They are called upon to make decisions and through this team-based exercise theygain a better understanding of process. Ultimately, for me simulation allow for deeperexploration of a complex issue or concept with greater student involvement and enjoyment inthe learning experience. So, I would strongly suggest and encourage teachers especially forScience teachers to run the experiment with simulations in their class for authentic,collaborative and constructivist learning. In response to the challenges experience byteachers in developing technology, I would advocate two strategies and solutions. First,make it simple to elaborate the concept and the second, continue to encourage technology-related professional development teaching style so that the teachers will feel morecomfortable in using of technology tools. From my simulation of pendulum story, I can conclude that from the three factor whichaffect the period of the pendulum, only the length of string does influence the period of thependulum. The longer the length of the string, the higher the period of the pendulum and thuswill lower the frequency. The initial displacement and mass of bob would give no effect to theperiod of the pendulum. The initial displacement only gives effect to the amplitude of thependulum which is when the initial displacement increase, the amplitude of the pendulumalso will increase. Differ for the mass of bob where it does not gives any effect to theamplitude, period and frequency of the pendulum’s motion.
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