Personal Observation: This is oldest method of
controlling. Manager get quick information about the
employee and this in turn put the employee to focus
more on the work rather to waste time.
Statistical data may be used in the form of charts, tables
and graphs. The presentation quality depends upon the
accuracy of the data. Such reports are used for
Break Even Analysis
Helpful to evaluate the cost of production, volume of
production, sales and revenue generated. Point
where there is not profit no loss is known as break
BEP = Fixed Cost
SP/U – VC/U
It is the oldest technique of control. It provides the
standard by which actual operations can be
evaluated to know variations from the planned
Management information system : At every function
organization has to take important decisions. Quality of
decision is directly linked with the nature and quality of
information provided. An effective information system is vital
for efficient decision and management.
Programme Evaluation review Technique:
PERT includes planning, monitoring and controlling of
project. It is helpful in project management problems like –
construction , promotion of new product or new
launch, installation etc. It identify the component activities –
decides the sequencing of the activity – analyze the time
required to complete the activity and improve upon the initial
plan through modifications. Control the project.
Critical Path Method:
CPM is like PERT but is applicable for those project where the
activity time is well known.
It is a comprehensive and constructive review of the
performance of management team of any organization. It is
an aid for evaluation management performance.