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Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for Improved Sports Performance

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Some of you have read HRV Measurement Explanations and found them very useful. This is one step further in detail. We want our users to get the most out of their HRV biofeedback.

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Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for Improved Sports Performance

  1. 1. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for Improved Sports Performance Ronda Collier SweetWater Health
  2. 2. Who Am I?  Ronda Collier, B.S.E.E., M.A. Psychology • Ronda is currently CEO of SweetWater Health and has more than 25 years of experience in high technology product development. She spent 3 years as an independent scholar researching non-invasive health monitoring techniques which led to the founding of SweetWater Health in 2011 and the release of SweetBeat, the HRV measurement app in 2012. • Ronda has presented HRV basics and applications at the 2012 and 2013 Quantified Self conference and SweetBeat was featured at the 2012 Health 2.0 conference in San Francisco. In addition, she has been interviewed by several popular podcast hosts, including sports physiologist and author Ben Greenfield, and The Bulletproof Executive’s Dave Asprey. She is known for presenting HRV in a simple and understandable fashion. © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  3. 3. Introduction  Most athletes know that getting enough rest after exercise is essential to high-level performance • Still many over train and feel guilty when they take a day off  Continuous training can actually weaken the strongest athletes • Rest is physically necessary so that the muscles can repair, rebuild and strengthen  Standardized training programs produce well documented results however they do not take individual responses into account • Age, gender, race, baseline fitness level and genetic factors are known determinants of individual differences in responses to endurance training*  The status of the Nervous System is an important indictor of training response • Nervous System measures indicate individual responses  Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a view into the nervous system • HRV is reflection of vagal tone which is affected by overtraining • HRV can be used to guide an optimal training program • HRV is non-invasive and can be measured with an off the self chest strap *(Bouchard et al. 1999; Bouchard and Rankinen 2001; Rankinen et al. 2003) © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  4. 4. The Science of HRV  What is Heart Rate Variability (HRV)?  What does a healthy HRV look like?  HRV in the mainstream © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  5. 5. HRV and Vagal Tone © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  The Vagus Nerve is the 10th of 12 paired cranial nerves and controls parasympathetic innervation of the heart and acts to lower the heart rate.  Vagal innervation is the mediator of HRV and therefore HRV is an indication of Vagal Tone  The higher the HRV, the stronger the Vagal Tone  Higher HRV is an indication of an individuals ability to “put the brakes on stress” by mediating the sympathetic control over the nervous system and heart rate.
  6. 6. The Sympathetic/Parasympathetic Nervous System  The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) consists of: • Sympathetic “Fight or Flight” Branch • Parasympathetic “Rest and Repair” branch  These two branches of the ANS can be measured using HRV analysis © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  7. 7. RR Intervals Defined © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  HRV calculations are performed on the “RR interval time series”. What exactly is that? • ECG “R” point can be though of as the beat time • The R-R interval is the time between beats  The resulting “RR interval time series” looks something like this: 0.978516 0.982422 1.06641 1.06738 0.974609 1.05273 1.08887 0.974609 0.961914 1.04688 1.02734
  8. 8. HRV Can Be Measured in Multiple Ways © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  Statistical Analysis  Standard Deviation (SDNN)  RR intervals have also been called NN intervals which is why SDNN instead of SDRR  NN stands for Normal to Normal  Root Mean Square of Successive Differences, (rMSSD)  pNN50, TINN, Triangular index  Frequency analysis of RR intervals  Very Low Frequency (VLF)  Low Frequency (LF, associated with sympathetic activation)  High Frequency (HF, associated with parasympathetic activation)  Non-Linear • SD1/SD2, ApEn, SampEN
  9. 9. HRV Parameters of Interest: rMSSD  rMSSD is a reflection of Vagal Tone  rMSSD is non-stationary and varies +/- 10 ms at rest  Average rMSSD ranges from ~20ms to ~80ms depending on age and state of health  Generally calculated on 5 minute window  Used in clinical research for HRV and performance training  Most consumer HRV applications provide a number 0-100 based on rMSSD  Each application uses a slightly different scaling algorithm so it is important to choose one and stick with it  A high HRV (rMSSD) is an indication of health and training recovery © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  10. 10. HRV Parameters of Interest: LF/HF © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  LF is associated with sympathetic nervous system  HF associated with parasympathetic nervous system  There are industry standards for LF and HF frequency ranges  LF = 0.04hz - 0.15Hz  HF = 0.15hz – 0.4hz  LF and HF units are Power  Power also called Spectral Density  LF and HF Ratio is another standard of measure  LF/HF < 2 is indication healthy stress levels
  11. 11. HRV Additional Information  HRV is an indication of your resilience – the ability of the nervous system to respond and recover from physical or psychological stressors  IMPORTANT: HRV values depend on length of measurement  5 Minutes = Short term HRV  24 Hour = Long term HRV  IMPORTANT: HRV is age and gender dependent  HRV has a circadian rhythm  HRV may change day to day with your biorhythm or due to emotional or physical stress  Chronic low HRV is an indication of systemic health (psychological or physical) issues © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  12. 12. HRV Interpretation © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  HRV can vary greatly from person to person depending on health and fitness  HRV can vary greatly for an individual from day to day and even hour to hour  While there are “average HRV values” determined through clinical research, HRV is dynamic and individuals will tend to have their own range  Some athletes have HRV values that are magnitudes higher than average persons  Athletes use HRV to guide training • Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109797005548 • Values based on 24 hour measurements • HRV represents rMSSD scaled to a value between 0 – 100 and is SweetBeat specific Gender Age Average HRV Male 10-29 72.29827 Female 67.68875 Male 30-49 62.51162 Female 60.47521 Male 50-69 52.91486 Female 55.733 Male 70-99 52.91486 Female 52.91486
  13. 13. HRV for Training: When and How to Measure © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  HRV has a circadian rhythm  HRV is dependent on body position  HRV value is dependent on length of measurement  Therefore • HRV taken at same time each day ― First thing in the morning is recommended • In same position ― Lying down ― Sitting ― Standing • Measurement for same length of time each day (3 minutes typical) 6am 12pm 6pm 12am Circadian Rhythm HRV Time of Day
  14. 14. HRV for Training Example 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Ben G. Daily HRV Reference Low Exertion Day Recommended Rest Day Recommended Good Recovery Proceed or Increase Good HRV Proceed with training Low Exertion Day Recommended © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  15. 15. Guided Training Flow Chart Example Source: Endurance training guided individually by daily heart rate variability measurements . Kiviniemi et al. 2007 © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  16. 16. HRV* for Elite Triathlete *HRV measured using SweetBeat 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 100 103 HRV HRV Linear (HRV) © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  17. 17. HRV* for Fitness Enthusiast *HRV measured using SweetBeat 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 HRV HRV Linear (HRV) © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  18. 18. LF, HF Power, Elite Athlete 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 LF HF Day of first race high cortisol measure day before Tuesday after race high cortisol measured LF vs. HF Elite Athlete © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  19. 19. LF, HF Power, Fitness Enthusiast 0.00 1000.00 2000.00 3000.00 4000.00 5000.00 6000.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 LF HF LF vs. HF Fitness Enthusiast © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential
  20. 20. Stress, Food, HRV and Optimal Performance © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  Inflammation is a common reaction to a hardcore work out and is part of the recovery process  Inflammation is an innate response to stress, illness, poor gut function or eating toxic foods • Stress increases cortisol which contributes to inflammation  What causes stress for one person will not cause stress for another • Same thing goes for food • Individuals need to track what works and doesn’t for them  Interdependence of our body functions make it complicated Source: http://robbwolf.com/2012/04/09/real-deal-adrenal-fatigue/
  21. 21. “It’s Complicated” © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  When this response becomes the norm for your body, whether it is from workouts, stress or food, it becomes a low-level feature in your physiology  Syphilis • Mild, chronic, inflammation produces few symptoms and subtle changes on blood tests, though has a very different effect on your metabolism • Chronic low-grade inflammation makes your brain and body resistant to the normal regulatory effects of hormones, including insulin and cortisol • It interferes with recovery and thus optimal performance  It is recommended that stress and diet be monitored in addition to HRV for optimal performance Source: http://www.integrativepsychiatry.net/adrenal_fatigue.html
  22. 22. Tools of the Trade © 2014 SweetWater Health LLC Confidential  SweetWater Health’s SweetBeat and SweetBeatLife iPhone applications • HRV for Training functionality • Real time stress monitoring • Food Sensitivity testing • LF and HF measurements  HRV for Training includes training recommendations based on clinical research  www.BeatHealthy.com  @Beathealthy  BeatHealthy
  23. 23. And Better Yet…  SweetBeat and SweetBeatLife now* work seamlessly with Restwise recovery program • HRV and Resting Heart Rate automatically entered into Restwise when SweetBeat session is uploaded • HRV may be displayed in relation to recovery score and any of the other RestWise metrics  www.restwise.com  @restwise  Restwise 23

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