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Osseous System Part II.pptx

Osseous system II , is the appendicular skeletal system , it representing about the bone of pectoral girdle , pelvic girdle and upper limbs and lower limbs. structure and function of humerus , radius ulna and structure and function of femur , tibia fibula.

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Osseous System
Part - II
Swati G. Patil
M. Pharmacy
K.Y. D.S.C.Ts College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon.
It consist of shoulder
girdle with upper limb
and pelvic girdle with
lower limb
Appendicular
skeleton
The Bone of pectoral girdle and upper limb
• Each shoulder girdle consist of
clavicle , and scapula .
• On each side of the shoulder
girdle following bones are
attached : one humerus , one
radius , one ulna , eight carpel
bone, five metacarpal bone and
fourteen phalanges
• Is a long bone which is roughly
s-shaped .
• on one end articulate with the
manubrium of sternum and on
the other end it form joint
acromion process of scapula .
• It lies close under the skin and
is easily felt. It keeps the
scapula in position .
The Clavicle
• Is flat triangular bone lying on the
posterior chest wall , superficial
to the ribs . it is held in place by
muscle which attach to ribs and
vertical column .
• It has three border called medial,
superior and lateral and three
angle named as superior ,inferior
and lateral .
The scapula or shoulder blade
• It is long bone and is the largest bone in the
upper limb consist of a proximal end or head ,
neck , shaft and distal end
• The head is smooth and rounded and fits into
glenoid cavity of the scapula forming the
shoulder joint .
• The humerus attaches proximally to the scapula
(shoulder blade) at the humeral head and distally
with the radius and ulna (lower-arm bones) at
the trochlea and capitulum, and form elbow joint
respectively.
• Several muscles of the forearm responsible for
extension at the wrist attach to the humerus
immediately above the capitulum and trochlea.
Humerus

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Osseous System Part II.pptx

  • 1. Osseous System Part - II Swati G. Patil M. Pharmacy K.Y. D.S.C.Ts College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon.
  • 2. It consist of shoulder girdle with upper limb and pelvic girdle with lower limb Appendicular skeleton
  • 3. The Bone of pectoral girdle and upper limb • Each shoulder girdle consist of clavicle , and scapula . • On each side of the shoulder girdle following bones are attached : one humerus , one radius , one ulna , eight carpel bone, five metacarpal bone and fourteen phalanges
  • 4. • Is a long bone which is roughly s-shaped . • on one end articulate with the manubrium of sternum and on the other end it form joint acromion process of scapula . • It lies close under the skin and is easily felt. It keeps the scapula in position . The Clavicle
  • 5. • Is flat triangular bone lying on the posterior chest wall , superficial to the ribs . it is held in place by muscle which attach to ribs and vertical column . • It has three border called medial, superior and lateral and three angle named as superior ,inferior and lateral . The scapula or shoulder blade
  • 6. • It is long bone and is the largest bone in the upper limb consist of a proximal end or head , neck , shaft and distal end • The head is smooth and rounded and fits into glenoid cavity of the scapula forming the shoulder joint . • The humerus attaches proximally to the scapula (shoulder blade) at the humeral head and distally with the radius and ulna (lower-arm bones) at the trochlea and capitulum, and form elbow joint respectively. • Several muscles of the forearm responsible for extension at the wrist attach to the humerus immediately above the capitulum and trochlea. Humerus
  • 7. • This is the long bone consisting of proximal end , shaft and distal end or head. • It is located on the inner side of the forearm and is slightly bigger than radius . • The proximal end contain a semilunar notch called trochlear notch • At proximal end , there is the olecranon process which forms the point of an elbow and fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus when the arm is straight . • At distal end of the trochlear notch lies the coronoid process which fits into coronoid fossa of the humerus when the arm is bent. • A smaller joint cavity , the radial notch , faces outward and forms a pivot joint with the head of the radius which rotates against it. This joint produce turning movement of hand The Ulna
  • 8. • The radius is a long bone and outer bone of forearm . It consist of head , neck , tuberosity , shaft and distal extremity . • The head is disk shaped and flat on the top and articulate with capitulum to ligaments • At the upper end of the shaft , there is radial tuberosity which gives attachments of muscles. The shaft carried a sharp ridge facing ulna . • The distal end articulate with carpel bone to form a wrist joint and with the ulna to form radiolunar joint . • It also carries a styloid process which is felt at the base of the thumb . It gives attachment to ligaments and muscles The radius
  • 9. Carpel bone The carpel bones are eight in number and are arranged in two rows each consist of four bone . The bone as follows , • Proximal rows : Scaphoid , lunate , triquetral , pisiform • Distal row : Trapezium . Trapezoid, capitate, hamate the upper row form wrist joint articulate with radius and lower row articulate with the metacarpus . These bones are closely fitted together and held in position by ligaments which allow certain amount of movement between them.
  • 10. • These are five in number and form a structure Of palm of the hand . • Their upper extremities articulate with carpus and the lower extremities with phalanges . The meta carpal bones or bones of hand • These are fourteen in number and are so arranged that there are Three in each finger and two in the thumb . • The upper end of these bones is the largest and articulate with the corresponding metacarpal bone at one end and with the middle phalanges at the other end • The lower phalanges are the smallest and form tips of fingers. Phalanges or bones Of to the fingers
  • 11. • Bones of pelvic girdle are two innominate bones and one sacrum . • The bone of the lower extremities are follows One femur , one tibia , one fibula , one patella, seven tarsal bone , five metatarsal bone and fourteen phalanges The pelvic girdle and lower limb
  • 12. • Each of the innominate or the hip bone consist of three bone : ilium , ischium, pubis, fused together to form one large irregular bone . • On its outer surface , it has a deep depression called acetabulum with which head of the Femur form the hip joint . • Ilium is upper Flattened part of the bone and contains the iliac crest . • Pubis is an anterior part of the bone and articulate with the pubis of the other hip bone at a cartilaginous joint called symphysis pubis . It also contains large opening Obutarattor foramen . • Ischium is an inferior and posterior part of the bone which contain ischial tuberocity , markedly ridged for the attachment of the muscles . Innominate bone
  • 13. Female Male Female Male Bone Lighter and smaller Haevier and longer Cavity Shallow and round Deep and Funnel shaped Sacrum More concave anteriorly , making the true pelvis broader Less concave . Making the true pelvis narrower at outlet Pubic arch The angle made at the symphysis pubis is wider . The bone are movable for convenience in delivery The angle of pubis arch is narrower . The bone are immovable There are distinct difference between pelvis male and female .
  • 14. • Femur or a thie bone is longest bone and strongest bone of the body . • Proximal extremity consist of head , neck and greater and lesser trochanter . • The head is almost spherical and fits into acetabulum of the hip bone . • Two trochonter and intertrochonteric line give attachment to muscles which moves hip joint. • the shaft of the bone is slightly convex anteriorly and is broader towards its distal end . • Posterior surface forms a flat triangular area called popliteal surface . • Distal extremity present two condyles , there is depression called intercondylar fossa.
  • 15. • Tibia is a long bone running on inner side of the leg . • Its upper extremity is broad and thick and has two shallow condyles which receive the condyles of the femur , forming a knee joint . Between these condyles is the intercondylar eminence . • On the front side , there is tuberosity of tibia which gives attachment to muscles . The lateral condyle has a facet which articulate with the hard of the fibula . • The shaft of the bone is roughly triangular and the surface are called medial , lateral , posterior surface . • Distal extremity of tibia forms an ankle joint with talus. • Tibia carries a process which project downward forming the prominence on the inner side of the ankle joint called medial malleolus.
  • 16. Fibula is a long slender bone which is lateral to tibia . The head articulate with the lateral condyle of tibia and lower extremity articulate with its lower extremities and project further to form lateral malleolus , and takes part in the formation of the ankle joint . The shaft of the bone is ridge for the attachment of muscles
  • 17. • Patella or knee cap is sesamoid ( devloped in muscles tendons ) bone associated with knee joint . • It is roughly triangular and lies with the apex pointing downwards. • It’s anterior surface in the patellor tendons and posterior surface articulate with patellor surface of the femur in the knee joint. Functions • The patella has two main functions: • Leg extension - Enhances the leverage that the quadriceps tendon can exert on the femur, increasing the efficiency of the muscle. • Protection - Protects the anterior aspect of the knee joint from physical trauma.
  • 18. • Tarsals or ankle bone are seven In number and form the posterior part Of the foot . • The bones are one try talus ; on calcaneous , One navicular , three cuneiform • Talus articulates with Tibia and fibula at the ankle joint . Cancelous or heelbone is roughened for the attachment of the muscles. • Navicular is situated on the medial side of the foot distal to talus . • The medial , intermediate and lateral cuneiform and cuboid form a narrow bone which articulate with other three tarsal bones in proximally and with the dive metatarsal bone distally . Tarsals
  • 19. • These are the five in number. • Their proximal end articulate with the tarsal bone and the distal end with the phalanges . • There are fourteen phalanges in each foot . Two in the great toe and three each in other toes. • The arrangement of the bones in such that it is not rigid structure. • The bone have bridge like arrangement and are supported by muscles and ligaments so that four arches such as medial longitudinal , lateral longitudinal and two transverse arches are formed. The metatarsal bone