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Cell.pdf

It is whole study about animal cell . Componant of cell well described with their function . Structure of organals also seen in presentation . Also gives Homeostatic mechanism of body and how to wor it . Cell divission frieflys described with their phases And types .

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Cell
Swati Govind Patil
M. Pharm ( Pharmaceutics)
K.Y.D,S.C.Ts college of Pharmacy ,
Sakegaon
Cell Is a basic smallest
structural and functional
unit of the body tissue.
• Human body is
composed od trillions (
about 37 trillions ) of
cell.
• Cell provide structure
and support f the body .
• Every cell body require
oxygen to metabolize the
nutrient and release
energy fro food.
Component of cell
o The membrane which separate the internal
component of cell form extracellular
material is known as plasma membrane or
cell membrane.
o Regulate passage of substance IN and
OUT of the cell .
o Plasma membrane consist Equal portion of
protein and lipid .
o Lipid made u of 75 % phospholipid and
normally consist of Phosphorus and small
amount of cholesterol and glycolipid .
Phospholipid ( bilayer ) which is form
basic framework of the plasma membrane .
Phospholipid are amphipathic in nature , Amphipathic are dual nature , i.e. contain Polar and
nonpolar region .
Polar
Head Nonpolar tail
Polar part contain phosphate which is hydrophilic and
nonpolar part contain 2 fatty acid which are hydrophobic.
.
Integral
membrane
Protein
Peripheral
membrane
Protein
Lipid
anchored
Protein
Membrane protein
Two types of membrane protein
1. Integral Protein :
 Are glycoprotein Which extended in
phospholipid bilayer between fatty acid and
tails. Normally sugar portion of glycoprotein
faces the extracellular fluid .
 It work as receptor and bind to nutrients ,
hormones , neurotransmitters and these are
essential for cellular function.
 Molecules attaches to receptor is known as
receptor.
2 . Peripheral Protein :
 loosely attaches to the inner &
Outer surface of membrane .
Physiological Properties of Membrane :
 The membrane serve as a cellular commu8nication . It
interact other body cell , foreign body cells and Ligands.
 It encloses cellular content and keep it away from
extracellular fluids.
 The plasma membrane maintains an electrical and
chemical gradient Known as Electrochemical gradient
between the inside and outside of the call.
 The plasma control entry and exit of material. It allow the
passage for certain substance And restrict the Passage for
Other , such a Property of the membrane is known as
Selective permeability . It is depend on lipid solubility ,
charge and Presence of channels and transporters.
Selective permeability
Organelles
Nucleus
 Largest structure in cell , spherical or oval in shape.
 Nucleus containing hereditary unit called genes . It control
cellular activity of cell .Gene are arranged in single unit along
structure called chromosome . ( 46 chromosome in 23 pairs in
human body ) .
 Nucleus has double membrane known as nuclear envelopes
which is separate the nucleus from cytoplasm .
 Inside nucleus present nucleoli which are site for ribosome
biogenesis. Nucleolus is coiled filament which are made up of
RNA
 Chromatins are network of fibrous thread . They composed DNA
and Proteins. At the time of cell division chromatin condenses
into chromosomes
 Nucleotide has three component i.e. sugar , Phosphate group and
nitrogen containing base.
 Four bases in DNA : Adenine (A) , Thiamine (T) , Guanine (G) ,
cytosine (C)

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Cell.pdf

  • 1. Cell Swati Govind Patil M. Pharm ( Pharmaceutics) K.Y.D,S.C.Ts college of Pharmacy , Sakegaon
  • 2. Cell Is a basic smallest structural and functional unit of the body tissue. • Human body is composed od trillions ( about 37 trillions ) of cell. • Cell provide structure and support f the body . • Every cell body require oxygen to metabolize the nutrient and release energy fro food. Component of cell
  • 3. o The membrane which separate the internal component of cell form extracellular material is known as plasma membrane or cell membrane. o Regulate passage of substance IN and OUT of the cell . o Plasma membrane consist Equal portion of protein and lipid . o Lipid made u of 75 % phospholipid and normally consist of Phosphorus and small amount of cholesterol and glycolipid . Phospholipid ( bilayer ) which is form basic framework of the plasma membrane . Phospholipid are amphipathic in nature , Amphipathic are dual nature , i.e. contain Polar and nonpolar region . Polar Head Nonpolar tail Polar part contain phosphate which is hydrophilic and nonpolar part contain 2 fatty acid which are hydrophobic. .
  • 4. Integral membrane Protein Peripheral membrane Protein Lipid anchored Protein Membrane protein Two types of membrane protein 1. Integral Protein :  Are glycoprotein Which extended in phospholipid bilayer between fatty acid and tails. Normally sugar portion of glycoprotein faces the extracellular fluid .  It work as receptor and bind to nutrients , hormones , neurotransmitters and these are essential for cellular function.  Molecules attaches to receptor is known as receptor. 2 . Peripheral Protein :  loosely attaches to the inner & Outer surface of membrane .
  • 5. Physiological Properties of Membrane :  The membrane serve as a cellular commu8nication . It interact other body cell , foreign body cells and Ligands.  It encloses cellular content and keep it away from extracellular fluids.  The plasma membrane maintains an electrical and chemical gradient Known as Electrochemical gradient between the inside and outside of the call.  The plasma control entry and exit of material. It allow the passage for certain substance And restrict the Passage for Other , such a Property of the membrane is known as Selective permeability . It is depend on lipid solubility , charge and Presence of channels and transporters. Selective permeability
  • 6. Organelles Nucleus  Largest structure in cell , spherical or oval in shape.  Nucleus containing hereditary unit called genes . It control cellular activity of cell .Gene are arranged in single unit along structure called chromosome . ( 46 chromosome in 23 pairs in human body ) .  Nucleus has double membrane known as nuclear envelopes which is separate the nucleus from cytoplasm .  Inside nucleus present nucleoli which are site for ribosome biogenesis. Nucleolus is coiled filament which are made up of RNA  Chromatins are network of fibrous thread . They composed DNA and Proteins. At the time of cell division chromatin condenses into chromosomes  Nucleotide has three component i.e. sugar , Phosphate group and nitrogen containing base.  Four bases in DNA : Adenine (A) , Thiamine (T) , Guanine (G) , cytosine (C)
  • 7. Ribosomes  Ribosomes are fine granules contain ribosomal RNA , synthesized by DNA in the nucleus .  They synthesized Protein from amino acids .  Ribosomes also present on the surface of Rough endoplasmic reticulum.  The ribosome reads the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence and translates that genetic code into a specified string of amino acids, which grow into long chains that fold to form proteins
  • 8.  They are located in cytoplasm in various number. Near about 100 to few thousand .  Shape : Spherical , Oval or flat.  Their size is about 0.5 to 7 microns  They are made up of Protein , Phospholipids and some important enzymes .  Membrane of mitochondria made up of two layer , 9inner and outer layer .  Inner later consist of number of fold called as Cristaewhich help to increase the surface area for biochemical reaction. The outer layer is smooth Both layer is enclosed central cavity of matrix . Function of Mitochondria : 1. It generate energy , so called as powerhouse of the cell 2. They are mainly concern with cellular oxidation . 3. They are produce energy form of ATP molecule 4. They contain necessary enzyme for the improvement of cellular respiration.
  • 9. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • They are Present inadipose tissue , liver cell and they do not contain Ribosome . • Smooth reticulam’s associated with fatty acids and Stenosis synthesis . • They store calcium and release calcium Granular Or Rough Endoplasmic reticulum • It contains ribosomes on surface • They are mostly present in Pancreatic cell. • They synthesize Protein Function 1. They help in synthesis of protein , lipids, Glycogen , lysosomes 2. They helps in transportation of cellular contains. 3. They gives mechanical support to the cytoplasm.
  • 10. They have cup shaped Double membrane structure. They contain vesicles and near to nucleus. There are three types of Golgi bodies present in cell , 1. Cisternae : They are flat tubules. 2. Vesicles : These are Droplet like sacs Structure. 3. Vacuoles : They are Round sac like structure Function 1. They produce lysosomes in secretary vesicles. 2. Cellulose and Protein are synthesized in Golgi bodies. 3. Golgi bodies are sorting , Packaging and delivery of Protein and lipid to the plasma membrane.
  • 11.  They are small spherical or oval shaped bodies surrounded by lipoprotein unit membarain.  They contain variety of hydrolytic enzyme .  These enzymes are digest protein , nucleic acid , mucopolysaccharides and glycogen .  Lysosome prevent the enclosed digestive enzyme from coming in contact with other substance of cell Lysosomal enzyme work best in acidic pH (pH 05).  They breakdown and digest bacteria and debris engulfed by cell.  The lysosome are celled suicidal sac because they digest and break down damaged intracellular organ .
  • 12. • They are located near to nucleus . • They have small rod shaped structure . • They play an important role in cell division . • The centrioles play an important role in cell division . • The centrioles are surrounded by radiating thread like structures which contain two centrioles.
  • 13. Many cell contain fine tubular structure called microtubules which are arranged in bundle. They are hollow cylinder with diameter 200 A0 . These are stiff structure that break if bent too severely. Function • Microtubules is provide rigid physical structure for cilia. • Also used movement of flagella and and cytoplasm . • Microtubules play a major role in forming the mitotic spindles. These mitotic spindles organize and separate the chromosomes during cell division. • They also facilitate the contraction and expansion of the cell helping them to move from one place to another.
  • 14. • The cell have some projection on their body hat help the cell locomotion OR for moving substance along the external surface of cell. These are known as flagella and cilia. • Flagella are few and long . E.g. sperm cell . • Cilia , numerous and short like hair . Cells are present in respiratory track . It present near to nucleus and it form dense area of cytoplasmic material With radiating microtubules
  • 15. Cell division, cell reproduction or cell multiplication is the process of formation of new or daughter cells from the pre-existing or parent cells. During the division a cell, DNA replication and cell growth also takes place ( in size and replicate). Eg. Somatic cell of body Cell Cycle - The sequence or series of events by which a cell duplicates its genomes Synthesis the other constituents ( e.g. Proteins )of all and eventually divides into two daughter cells. All these events occur in a coordinated manner & Are Under genetic control. The period between two cell divisions is termed as cell cycle. cell cycle has two phases Interphase (preparatory phase) M-phase (Dividing phase) Cell Cycle And Cell Division
  • 16. 1. Interphase (resting Phase ):is a series of Changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus before it becomes Capable of division again. The interphase Cell is metabolically quite active a) G-Phase (Gap /Growth 1): (10 hours) Cell is metabolically active and grows Continuously. • Protein Synthesis occurs. • Most of the cell organelles increases their number G0 Phase (G node /quiescent phase ): Cell have option for division or not divisions (cell quite ),If cell is not divided and not participate in further cell division process is called as G0 Phase (G node /quiescent phase ). E.g. Cardiac cell and Neuronal cell ( after birth neuronal cell not divided ) b) S phase (Synthesis): ( 9 hours) DNA Synthesis and replication and centrosomes replications . And amount of DNA per cell double(2C convert in 4C ). The chromosome replicate forming two identical copies of DNA(2N as it is 2N i.e. 46 chromosomes) . c) G₂ base (Gap 2, Growth 2)(4 hours ) : Proteins are synthesized and Cell growth continues. Phases of Cell Cycle
  • 18. ( In Greek Thread OR fibril ) • It is Final Phase of cell cycle • Mitosis is equational division in the parent and progeny (daughter) cell is the same . • It occur in somatic cell. Mitosis Karyokinesis Nuclear division corresponding to separation of daughter chromosomes Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Cell cytoplasm division
  • 19. Karyokinesis • First stage of mitosis follows the S and G₂ phases of interphase. • In the S & G2 phases the new DNA molecules formed are not distinct but intertwined. • Prophase is marked by the initiation of condensation of chromosomal material. Chromosomal material becomes untangled. • The centriole, which had undergone duplication during S-phase, now begins to move towards opposite poles of all. Completion of prophase?  Chromosomal material condenses to fem combat mitotic chromosomes ( two sister chromatids attached together at centromeres.  Nuclear membrane started disintegrate.  Initiation of assembly of mitotic spindle.  Golgi complex, Endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus, nuclear envelope not visible under microscope. ( Disappearation)
  • 20. • The Complete disintegration of nuclear envelope marks the start of metaphase • condensation of Chromosomes is completed. • Small disc-shaped structure at the surface of centromeres are called Kinetochores. These structures Serves as the site of attachment of spindle fibres to the chromosomes that are moved into position at the center of cell. • Hence, the metaphase is characterized by Chromosomes Coming to lie at the equator. • The plane of alignment of the chromosomes at metaphase is metaphase plate. • Spindle fibre attaches to Kinetochore of Chromosomes. Chromosomes are moved to spindle equator and get align along with metaphase plate through Spindle fibers to both plates https://youtu.be/Vg4c7uq4fdk
  • 21. • At the onset each chromosome arranged At the metaphase plate is split into two daughter chromatid (now refused as chromosome ) And begin their migration toward the pole. • Chromosomes move away from the equatorial plate, Centromere of each chromosome is towards the pole. Centromeres split and chromatids separate.  Chromatids move to opposite pole
  • 22. o Chromosomes that have reached their respective poles decondense and lose their individuality. o Tends To collect in a mass in the two poles (Cluster) o nuclear envelop assembles around the chromosome clusters. o Nucleolus, Golgi complex B ,ER reform.
  • 23.  Division of Cell cytoplasm Cytosol, Intracellular organelles and plasma membrane distributed & split forming two identical daughter cells.  Significance of Mitosis • Mitosis of the equational division is usually restricted to the diploid cells only. • Mitosis results in the production of diploid daughter cells with identical genetic complement. • Mitosis is necessary fast cell growth & to replace Join out cells.
  • 24. Cell Cycle- • Meiosis Occurs in gametes (Sperm & eggs ) • Gametes formed from specialized diploid cells key Features of meiosis- o Involve two cycles Meiosis I & Meiosis II o Involve pairing of Homologous chromosomes. ie Genetic recombination. o Four Haploid cells forms at end of Meiosis Meiosis I Prophase I Leptotene - Chromosomes gradually visible Zygotene - Synapsis occurs Pachytene - Crossing over b/w non-sister chromatic Diplotene - Chiasmata forms Diakinesis- Terminalization of chiasmata.
  • 26. The process of meiosis essentially involves two cycles of division, involving a gamete mother cell (diploid cell) dividing and then dividing again to form 4 haploid cells. These can be subdivided into four distinct phases which are a continuous process. i. Prophase - Homologous chromosomes in the nucleus begin to pair up with one another and then split into chromatids (one half of a chromosome) where crossing over can occur. Crossing offer can increase genetic variation. ii. Metaphase - Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell, where the sequence of the chromosomes lined up is at random, through chance, increasing genetic variation via independent assortment. iii. Anaphase - The homologous chromosomes move to opposing poles from the equator iv. Telophase - A new nuclei forms near each pole alongside its new chromosome compliment. At this stage two haploid cells have been created from the original diploid cell of the parent.
  • 27. I. Prophase II - The nuclear membrane disappears and the second meiotic division is initiated. II. Metaphase II - Pairs of chromatids line up at the equator III.Anaphase II - Each of these chromatid pairs move away from the equator to the poles via spindle fibres• IV.Telophase II - Four new haploid gametes are created that will fuse with the gametes of the opposite sex to create a zygote . Overall, this process of meiosis creates gametes to pass genetic information from parents to offspring, continuing the family tree and the species as a whole. Each of these gametes possesses unique genetic information due to situations in meiosis where genetic diversity is increased.
  • 28. Homeo (same) ; Stasis ( standing ) Definition - Homeostasis refers to the ability of maintenance of constant internal environment of the body despite changes in the world outside OR The state of internal equilibrium is called homeostasis. • Internal environment in the body is the extracellular fluid(ECF) in which cells live, which constantly moves throughout the body. ECF includes blood (circulated in vascular system) and interstitial fluid fluid present in b/w the cells) • ECF contains nutrients, ions and all other substances necessary for the survival of cell. Homeostasis
  • 29. 1. Respiratory system blood and kidney helps in regulating pH of the ECF, which is 7.4 2. Pancreas regulates blood glucose levels with the release of insulin or glucagon. 3. Skin, respiratory, digestive, excretory, nervous system and skeletal muscles are involved in maintaining body temperature of 37.5°C 4. Digestive system and circulatory systems play major role in supply of nutrients to cells. 5. Respiratory system supply oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide from body. 6. Kidneys are involved in excretion of waste products. 7. Hormones are to be synthesized and released from endocrine glands in appropriate kidney . 8. Kidneys, skin, salivary glands and GIT tract regulate water and electrolyte balance in the body. 9. Blood the major part of internal environment must contain required number of normal RBCs, other blood cells and plasma for transportation of nutritive substances, respiratory gases, metabolic substances and other waste products. 10. Central nervous system plays an important role in homeostasis. Sensory system detects the state of body and surroundings and commands the body to act accordingly. 11. system regulates all the 12. Autonomic nervous vegetative functions of the body essential for homeostasis. Role of various system in Homeostasis
  • 30. Mechanism of action of homeostatic System • Homeostatic mechanism in the body is responsible for maintaining the normalcy of various body systems. • Whenever there is any change in the body, detectors or sensors detect the deviation and alert the control center. The integrating center immediately sends information to the concerned effectors to either accelerate or inhibit the activity to restore the normalcy.
  • 31. 1. Positive feedback Effector sends positive feedback signals to the system in such a way as to increase the intensity. 2. Negative feedback Effector sends negative feedback signals back to the system, in such a way as to arrest the change or slow or reverse the direction of change to stabilizes its own function.