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PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE
MIX DESIGN
Cement concrete mix design
Cement concrete mix design means, determination
of the proportion of the concrete ingredients
i...
Basic considerations
Design involves determination of the proportions
of the given constituents namely cement, water,
coar...
 For

hardened state compressive strength and
durability are important.

Proportioning of the ingredients of concrete is ...
Factors influencing the choice
of mix design
Grade designation
 Type and grade of cement
 Maximum nominal size of coarse...
Grade designation



It gives characteristic compressive strength
requirements of the concrete.
It’s the major factor in...
Type and grade of cement
Choice of type of cement depends upon the
requirements at hand.
 For very high compressive stren...
For mass construction low heat portland
cement is used.
 Cement content in concrete varies inversely
with the strength of...
Max nominal size of coarse aggregate
Its determined by sieve analysis.
 Max nominal size of aggregate used is
governed by...
Grading of combined aggregate
Grading is one of the important factor
affecting strength of concrete.
 The aggregates can ...
Water-to-Cement Ratio


The ratio of water-to-cement, or w/c, is the single
most important parameter with regards to conc...


It also makes the concrete more difficult to work



In combination, the w/c and degree of hydration
control many of t...
Workability


The workability of concrete for satisfactory
placing and compaction is controlled by:

i.

Size and shape o...
Durability
Durability of concrete is the resistance to
deteriorating influences which may reside inside
the concrete itsel...
PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
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PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

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PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

  1. 1. PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
  2. 2. Cement concrete mix design Cement concrete mix design means, determination of the proportion of the concrete ingredients i.e. cement , water, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate which would produce concrete possessing specified properties such as workability, strength and durability with maximum overall economy.
  3. 3. Basic considerations Design involves determination of the proportions of the given constituents namely cement, water, coarse and fine aggregates and admixtures  This would produce concrete possessing specified properties both in the fresh and hardened states with the maximum overall economy.  Workability is specified as the important property of concrete in the fresh state 
  4. 4.  For hardened state compressive strength and durability are important. Proportioning of the ingredients of concrete is an important phase as it ensures the quality.  Design of plastic concrete of medium strength can be based on following assumptions: 1) Compressive strength is governed by W/C ratio. 2) Workability of concrete is governed by water content. 
  5. 5. Factors influencing the choice of mix design Grade designation  Type and grade of cement  Maximum nominal size of coarse aggregates  Grading of combined aggregates  Water-cement ratio  Workability  Durability  Quality control 
  6. 6. Grade designation   It gives characteristic compressive strength requirements of the concrete. It’s the major factor influencing mix design.
  7. 7. Type and grade of cement Choice of type of cement depends upon the requirements at hand.  For very high compressive strength portland cement of grades 43 and 53 used.  Where early strength is required, rapid hardening portland cement is used. 
  8. 8. For mass construction low heat portland cement is used.  Cement content in concrete varies inversely with the strength of cement used in preparation of concrete, i.e. higher the strength lesser will be the cement content.  Fineness of cement increases workability by reducing friction between aggregates. 
  9. 9. Max nominal size of coarse aggregate Its determined by sieve analysis.  Max nominal size of aggregate used is governed by size of the section and the spacing of the reinforcement.  For the concrete with higher W/C ratio, the larger max size of aggregate is used  For high strength concrete, 10-20mm size. 
  10. 10. Grading of combined aggregate Grading is one of the important factor affecting strength of concrete.  The aggregates can be combined by:  1. 2. Analytical method Graphical method
  11. 11. Water-to-Cement Ratio  The ratio of water-to-cement, or w/c, is the single most important parameter with regards to concrete quality  Theoretically, about 0.22 to 0.25 is required for complete hydration  Practically, the useful limit is around 0.33  Reducing the water for a given amount of cement will move the cement particles closer together, which in turn densifies the hydrated cement paste.  This increases strength and reduces permeability
  12. 12.  It also makes the concrete more difficult to work  In combination, the w/c and degree of hydration control many of the properties of the hardened concrete  Steps to be followed in selecting the water cement ratio: i. The strength of cement to be used is determined. ii. When cement strength data are available, corresponding curve is chosen for the determination of W/C.
  13. 13. Workability  The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is controlled by: i. Size and shape of section to be concreted Quantity and spacing of reinforcement Methods employed for transportation, placing and compaction of concrete. ii. iii.
  14. 14. Durability Durability of concrete is the resistance to deteriorating influences which may reside inside the concrete itself, or to the aggressive environments.  Durability are achieved by restricting the minimum water cement content and the maximum water cement ratio and the type of cement. 

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