Bonding with ecosystems

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This is basically from one of the chapters of 9th std of SSC board of India..........abt the ecosystems...:)

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Bonding with ecosystems

  1. 1. In this chapter we will go through………………. 1] Types of Ecosystems 2] Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic factors in an Ecosystem 3] Energy Flow and its Importance
  2. 2. 1] TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS  THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF COMPONENTS: >BIOTIC- LIVING >ABIOTIC- NON LIVING  IN THE INITIAL DAYS EARTH HAD ONLY ABIOTIC FACTORS ROCK, SOIL.ETC.  LIFE EVOLVED FROM THESE ABIOTIC FACTORS.  THE NATURE OF THE ABIOTIC FACTORS DECIDE THE NATURE OF THE LIVING ORGANISM THAT WILL LIVE IN THAT PLACE
  3. 3. ECOSYSTEM  BIOTIC FACTORS, ABIOTIC FACTORS,AND THEIR INTERACTIONS FORM AN ECOSYSTEM.  PARTS OF EARTH HAVE MORE OR LESS THE SAME TYPE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS SPREAD OVER A LARGE AREA.  THE BIOTIC PARTS IN THESE AREAS ARE ALSO SIMILAR.  THIS CREATES A LARGE ECOSYSTEM OVER A LARGE AREA.
  4. 4.  SUCH MAJOR ECOSYSTEMS ARE CALLED BIOMES.  BIOMES ARE ECOSYSTEMS WHERE SEVERAL HABITATS INTERSECT.  THE EARTH ITSELF IS ONE LARGE BIOME.  THERE ARE 2 MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES ON EARTH :- 1. LAND BIOMES: THEY ARE MOSTLY THE FOREST TYPES LIKE GRASS LANDS AND AREAS LIKE TUNDRA. 2. AQUATIC BIOMES: THEY ARE THE WATER LIFE I.E, LIFE UNDER WATER.THEY ARE OF 2 TYPES >FRESH WATER: FRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM >MARINE WATER: MARINE ECOSYSTEM
  5. 5. Coral Reef in the Red Sea Coral reefs support more fish and marine animals than any other ecosystem in the ocean.
  6. 6. 2] Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic factors in an Ecosystem
  7. 7.  DIFFERENT LIVING ORGANISMS NEED DIFEERENT ABIOTIC FACTORS TO SURVIVE.  ALSO, DIFFERENT LIVING ORGANISMS HAVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TOLERANCE FOR DIFFERENT ABIOTIC FACTORS.  THUS,EVERY ABIOTIC FACTOR IN A GIVEN ECOSYSTEM LIKE TYPE OF SOIL, QUANTITY OF LIGHT, ETC. AFFECT THE BIOTIC FACTORS IN THAT ECOSYSTEM.  BIOTIC FACTORS DEPLET OR ADD ABIOTIC FACTORS.  EACH BIOTIC FACTOR AFFECT THE ABIOTIC FACTOR IN THAT ECOSYSTEM.  THE SIGNIFICANCE AND FUNCTION OF EACH ORGANISM IN AN ECOSYSTEM IS DIFFERENT.
  8. 8. > NICHE  NICHE IS THE ECOLOGICAL ROLE AND SPACE THAT AN ORGANISM FILLS IN AN ECOSYSTEM.  THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE INVOLVES BOTH THE PLACES WHER AN ORGANISM LIVES AND THE ROLES THAT AN ORGANISM CARRIES OUT IN ITS HABITAT.
  9. 9. 3] Energy Flow and its Importance
  10. 10. > AUTOTROPHS  THE LIVING ORGANISMS THAT CAN PRODUCE FOOD ON THEIR OWN ARE CALLED AS AUTOTROPHS OR SELF FEEDERS. PROPERTIES: 1. THEY CAN MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD. 2. ALL GREEN PLANTS ARE AUTOTROPHS. 3. THEY ARE PRODUCERS OF THE LIVING WORLD.
  11. 11. > HETEROTROPHS  ORGANISMS THAT CANT MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD AND ARE DEPENDENT ON OTER ORGANISMS ARE CALLED AS HETEROTROPHS.  THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS: 1.PRIMARY CONSUMER 2.SECONDARY CONSUMERS 3. APEX CARNIVORE 4. OMNIVORES
  12. 12. 1.PRIMARY CONSUMER  ORGANISMS THAT DIRECTLY FEED ON AUTOTROPHS ARE FIRST LEVEL CONSUMERS.  THEY ARE CALLED AS HERBIVORES.
  13. 13. Rabbit Rabbits eat grass and other plants. Meat-eating animals, such as foxes and coyotes, like to hunt and eat rabbits.
  14. 14. 2.SECONDARY CONSUMERS  ORGANISMS THAT FEED ON HERBIVORES ARE CALLED AS SECOND LEVEL CONSUMERS.  THEY ARE ALSO CALLED AS CARNIVORES.
  15. 15. Hunting for Food Some animals that are high up on the food chain can kill larger animals. These lionesses feast on a buffalo they have hunted down at a game park in Kenya.
  16. 16. 3. APEX CARNIVORE  THE FINAL FEEDER THAT NO ONE DIRECTLY EATS ARE KNOWN AS TOP OR APEX CARNIVORE.
  17. 17. 4. OMNIVORES  ORGANISMS THAT FEED ON BOTH CARNIVORE AS WELL AS HERBIVORE ARE CALLED AS OMNIVORES.
  18. 18. > DETRITIVORES  ORGANISMS THAT FEED ON DEAD BODIES OF AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC ORGANISMS ARE CALLED AS DETRITIVORES.  Eg :- termites, pigs, vultures, etc.
  19. 19. Termites Termites live in colonies (groups) with as many as several million members. They feed on wood and can do great damage to trees and wooden buildings.
  20. 20. Bush Pig A bush pig is a type of wild pig that lives in parts of Africa. Bush pigs usually travel in small groups. They are fierce when cornered and can kill goats, sheep, and other pigs.
  21. 21. > DECOMPOSERS  THE ORGANISMS THAT BREAK DOWN DEAD ORGANISMS AND RETURN THE NUTRIENTS TO THE SOIL ARE CALLED AS ‘DECOMPOSERS’ OR ‘SAPROPHYTES’  Eg.:- Fungi and Bacteria
  22. 22. Decomposition Bacteria and fungi, like this slime mold, decompose (break down) dead plants and animals. This returns nutrients into the soil, helping plants grow and renewing the food chain.
  23. 23. > Food Chain and Food Web  FOOD CHAIN IS A LINKAGE OF ORGANISMS WITHIN AN ECOSYSTEM, IN WHICH EACH LINK FEEDS ONE BEFORE IT IS AND IS FED ON BY THE ONE AFTER IT.  SIMILARLY, DIFFERENT FOOD CHAINS INTERWINE WITH ONE ANOTHER AND FORM THE INTICRITE NETWOORKS CALLED ‘FOOD WEBS’
  24. 24. Bug Eaters Many animals rely on insects as their main source of food. This chameleon uses its long, sticky tongue to catch and eat bugs.
  25. 25. Salmon Catch Fishers haul in a salmon catch off the coast of Japan. Salmon and other fish are an important part of many people’s diets.
  26. 26. > ENERGY PYRAMID  EACH LEVEL IN A FOOD CHAIN IS CALLED A TROPHIC LEVEL OR FEEDING LEVEL.  TROPHIC LEVELS ARE THE DIFFERENT FEEDING POSITIONS IN THE FOOD CHAIN.  ALL THE PRODUCERS IN AN ECOSYSTEM FORM THE 1st TROPHIC LEVEL, THE HERBIVORES FROM THE 2nd TROPHIC LEVEL, AND THE 1st LEVEL CARNIVORES FORM THE 3rd TROPHIC LEVEL.
  27. 27.  ORGANISMS AT THE TROPHIC LEVEL DON’T PASS ALL THE ENERGY THEY HAVE CAPTURED FROM THE SUN OR THE PREVIOUS TROPHIC LEVEL.  SOME OF THE ENERGY IS USED BY THEMSELVES LIKE IN BREATHING, GROWING, MOVING, JUMPING, ETC.
  28. 28. Cheetah Running The cheetah is one of the fastest animals on Earth, reaching speeds of close to 60 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour) while chasing prey. Wildebeests, gazelles, impalas, and other hoofed mammals make up much of the cheetah’s diet.
  29. 29. Kangaroo Hopping The kangaroo, a mammal native to Australia, has powerful hind legs that enable the animal to jump as far as 16 feet (5 meters) in a single leap. Its tail is used for balance while jumping.
  30. 30. > CYCLE OF NUTRIENTS IN TERRESTIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM  THOUGH THE FLOW OF ENRGY IS UNIDIRECTIONAL , THE FLOW OF NUTRIENTS IS CYCLIC.  ALL THE ORGANISMS REQUIRE NUTRIENTS FOR GROWTH. > PLANTS NEED WATER, CO2, ETC.  ANIMALS NEED PROTEINS, VITAMINS , ETC.  THESE ORGANISMS RECEIVE ALL THE NEEDED THINGS THROUGH THE PATH OF AIR, WATER OR SOIL INTO THEMSELVES AND AGAIN BACK TO THE AIR, WATER,SOIL WHICH IS CALLED ‘BIOCHEMICAL CYCLE’
  31. 31. > NATURE’S MECHANISM IN MAINTAINING BALANCE  THE TWO MAIN CHARACTERSTICS OF ECOSYSTEM ARE :- 1) UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOW OF ENERGY 2) CYCLIC FLOW OF NUTRIENTS.  EVERY ECOSYSTEM PERFORMS THESE JOBS .  THE HEALTH OF AN ECOSYSTEM DEPEND ON THE EFICIENCY OF DOING THESE JOBS.  BUT UNFORTUNATELY WE ARE THE ONES WHO ARE DEPLETING IT.  SO IT IS OUR PRIME DUTY TO MAINTAIN THE BALANCE O NATURE AND PRESERVE THE BIODIVERSITY TO ENRICH THE BIOSPHERE(life).
  32. 32. Thank You...
  33. 33. MADE BY :-  SWAPNEEL. D  KUNAL. M  JAY.D  MAHFOOZ. K

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