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Food standards – India, EU, FDA
and WHO Standards of Food Safety
Food laws & Regulations - CODEX
Food standards
Standard Setting
• Food standards, such as those that specify the maximum allowable level of
contaminants in food, or the amount of food additives permitted, are an
important instrument for the assurance of food safety.
• This is particularly the case in international trade, where the food
commodity being traded is manufactured in another country, and the
history and conditions of manufacture may not be fully known.
• International trade on food is based on agreements achieved at the World
Trade Organization (WTO), including the Agreement on Sanitary and
Phytosanitary Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to
Trade.
Food standards
• Under these agreements, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has
the role of implementing the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program,
establishing international food quality and safety standards.
• These standards are adopted or used as models by many countries in their
domestic food legislation and regulations.
Food standards
Food Laws
(PFA, FPO, MMPO, Agmark, BIS & FSSAI)
Food Laws
Food laws and Regulations
Objective
To meet a country’s sanitary and phytosanitary
requirements, food must comply with the local
laws and regulations to gain market access.
These laws ensure the safety and suitability of
food for consumers.
Food Laws
Food laws and Regulations
The requirement of food regulation may be based
on several factors such as
whether a country adopts international norms developed
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the
World Health Organization or a country may also has its
own suite of food regulations.
Each country regulates food differently and has its own
food regulatory framework.
Food Laws
Food laws in our country
The Indian Parliament has recently passed the Food Safety and
Standards Act, 2006 that overrides all other food related laws.
Such as;
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
Fruit Products Order,1955
Meat Food Products Order ,1973;
Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947
Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order 1988
Solvent Extracted Oil, De- Oiled Meal and Edible Flour
(Control) Order, 1967,
Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 etc are
repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.
Food Laws
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act,
2006
which consolidates various acts & orders that have
previously handled food related issues in various Ministries
and Departments.
FSSAI has been created for laying down science based
standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture,
storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of
safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
Food Laws
Functions performed by FSSAI
• Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and
guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying
appropriate system of enforcing various standards.
•Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation
of certification bodies engaged in certification of food
safety management system for food businesses.
•Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of
laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories.
•To provide scientific advice and technical support to
Central Government and State Governments in the matters
of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct
or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition .
Food Laws
Functions performed by FSSAI
• Collect and collate data regarding food consumption,
incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants
in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods
products, identification of emerging risks and introduction
of rapid alert system.
•Creating an information network across the country
so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive
rapid, reliable and objective information about food
safety and issues of concern.
•Provide training programmes for persons who are involved
or intend to get involved in food businesses.
•Contribute to the development of international technical
standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
•Promote general awareness about food safety and food
standards
Food Laws
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
Main Activities
Harmonious development of standardization, marking and
quality certification
To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control.
To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to
standards and integrating them with growth and development
of production and exports.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards
Body of India, resolves to be the leader in all matters
concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality.
Food Laws
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
Main Activities
Laboratory Management
International Activities
Training Services
To Product
Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery.
Quality Management System
Environmental Management Systems
Occupational Health and Safety Management System
Food Safety Management System
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
Imported Products
Certification
Food Laws
AGMARK
AGMARK is a
Quality Certification Mark .
It ensures quality and purity of a product.
The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection enforces the
Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. Under
this Act Grade standards are prescribed for agricultural and allied.
It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to Quality Certified.
Quality standards for agricultural commodities
are framed based on their intrinsic quality.
Food safety factors are being incorporated in the standards
to complete in World Trade.
Food Laws
AGMARK
Products available under AGMARK are as follows:-
Pulses
Whole spices & ground spices
Vegetable oils
Wheat Products
Milk products.
Other products such as Honey, Compounded asafetida, Rice,
Tapioca Sago, Seedless tamarind, Besan (Gram flour)
Standards are being harmonized with international standards
keeping in view the WTO requirements. Certification of
agricultural commodities is carried out for the benefit of
producer/manufacturer and consumer.
Food Laws
Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955
The main objective is lay down quality standards to
manufacture fruit & vegetable products maintaining
sanitary and hygienic conditions in the premises.
It is mandatory for all manufacturers of fruit and vegetable
products including some non fruit products like non fruit
vinegar, syrup and sweetened aerated water to obtain a
license under this Order.
Objective
Food Laws
Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955
Following minimum requirements are laid down in the
Fruit Product Order for hygienic production and quality
standards:
• Location and surroundings of the factory
• Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises
• Personnel hygiene
• Portability of water
• Machinery & Equipment with installed capacity
• Quality control facility & Technical staff
• Product Standards
• Limits for preservatives & other additives
Food Laws
Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955
•Fruit product means any of the following articles, namely
•Non fruit beverages, syrups and sherbets
•Vinegar, whether brewed or non-fruit
•Pickles
•Dehydrated fruits and vegetables
•Squashes, crushes cordials, barley water, barreled juice, and ready
to serve beverages, fruit nectars or any other beverages containing
fruit juices or fruit pulp
•Jams, jellies and marmalades
•Tomato products, ketchup and sauces
•Preserves, candied and crystallized fruit and peel
•Chutneys
•Canned and bottled fruits, juices and pulps
•Canned and bottled vegetables
•Frozen fruits and vegetables
•Sweetened aerated water and without fruit juice pr fruit pulp
•Fruit cereal flakes
•All unspecified fruit and vegetable products which are considered
microbiologically safe and contains only permitted additives within
permissible limits.
Food Laws
Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955
Each container in which any fruit product is packed
shall specify a code number indicating the lot or the
date of manufacture of such fruit product.
The labels shall not contain any statement, claim, design or
device which is false or misleading in any particular concerning
the fruit products contained in the package or concerning the
quantity or the nutritive value or in relation to the place of origin
of the said fruit products.
Food Laws
Meat Food Products Order (MFPO)
Objectives :
The main objective is to regulate production and sale of
meat food products through licensing of manufacturers,
enforce sanitary and hygienic conditions prescribed for
production of wholesome meat food products, exercise strict
quality control at all stages of production of meat food
products, fish products including chilled poultry etc.
Meat & Meat Products are highly perishable
in nature and can transmit diseases from
animals to human-beings.
Processing of meat products is licensed
under Meat Food Products Order,(MFPO)
1973 which was hitherto being implemented
by Ministry of food Processing industries
Food Laws
Meat Food Products Order (MFPO)
Under the provision of MFPO all manufacturers of meat food
products engaged in the business of manufacturing,
packing, repacking, relabeling meat food products meant for
sale are licensed but excluding those manufacturers who
manufactures such products for consumption on the spot
like a restaurant, hotel, boarding house, snack bar, eating
house or any other similar establishment.
Contd….
Food Laws
Milk and Milk Product order (MMPO)
The objective of the order is to maintain and increase the
supply of liquid milk of desired quality in the interest of the
general public and also for regulating the production,
processing and distribution of milk and milk products.
As per the provisions of this order, any person/dairy
plant handling more than 10,000 liters per day of
milk or 500 MT of milk solids per annum needs to
be registered with the Registering Authority
appointed by the Central Government.
In every case where the milk or milk product is packed
by the holder of a registration certificate in a tin, barrel,
carton or any other container, the registration number
shall either be exhibited prominently on the side label of
such container or be embossed, punched or printed
prominently thereon.
Food Laws
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
•The Act was promulgated by Parliament in 1954 to make
provision for the prevention of adulteration of food. Broadly,
the PFA Act covers food standards, general procedures for
sampling, analysis of food, powers of authorized officers,
nature of penalties and other parameters related to food.
•It deals with parameters relating to food additives,
preservative, colouring matters, packing & labelling of
foods, prohibition & regulations of sales etc. The
provisions of PFA Act and Rules are implemented by State
Government and local bodies as provided in the rules.
In every case where the milk or milk product is packed
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 is
repealed from 05.08.2011 by the Central Government
as per the Food Safety and Standards Act,2006.
Food Laws
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
The act clearly defines “What is meant by Food Adulteration
and what is the punishment given to person/manufacturer
involved in the crime?
The food is considered adulterated if it fulfills any of the below -
•If food is sub-standard rotten, decomposed or obtained
from diseased animal or is insect- infested or is otherwise
unfit for human consumption.
If food contains any other substance which affects, or if
the article is so processed as to affect, injuriously the
nature, substance or quality thereof
if the article has been prepared, packed or kept under
insanitary conditions whereby it has become
contaminated or injurious to health;
Codex Alimentarius
International
“Food Law” or “Food Code”
Codex Commission
• Developed Codex in 1962 - 1963
• Subsidiary of Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), United Nations (UN)and World Health
Organization (WHO)
• Joint venture between FAO and WHO to
formulate internationally accepted food safety
standards for protection of human health and to
ensure fair trade practices
Purpose of the Codex Alimentarius
To protect consumer health and
economic interests and to secure
fair trade practices in the food
industry
Codex Commission
•Coordination of all food standards
•Initiation and supervision of draft
standards
•Finalization of food standards
•Publication of standards worldwide
•Amend standards in face of new
technology
Harmonization of International Trade
•Differences in food laws and standards
developed independently can cause
barriers to trade between nations
•Often disguised as health or safety
measures but really designed to protect
local farm products or consumer
misconceptions (Genetic modifications)
Codex Alimentarius
•Ensures that products complying with
Codex standards can be bought and sold on
the international market without
compromising health or interests of
consumers
• Codex standards ensure product is safe
internationally
•Review of member laws based in
internationally accepted scientific and
technological standards
“Food” under the Codex:
• “any substance, whether processed, partly
processed or raw, which is intended for human
consumption and includes drink, chewing gum and
any substance which has been used in the
manufacture, preparation or treatment of food but
does not include cosmetics, tobacco or substances
used solely as drugs
Structure of Codex Commission
• Inter-governmental body
• Open to all UN member nations
• Currently 188 members (98% of world)
• Executive Committee oversees Commission
activities (Chair, 3 vice chairs and 7others)
• Secretariat oversees Executive Committee
• Located at FAO in Rome
• Corresponds with member states re: standards
1.
Codex India"
• "the National Codex Contact Point (NCCP) for India, is
located at Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
(Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), New Delhi.
• It coordinates and promotes Codex activities in India in
association with the National Codex Committee and
facilitates India's input to the work of Codex through an
established consultation process.
Codex Legal Tools:
1. Codex Standards
2. Codes of Practices
3. Guidelines and Recommendations
1. Codex Standards
• Food requirements intended to provide consumers
with a sound, wholesome food product free from
adulteration, correctly labeled and presented.
• Explicitly quantifies and specifies in acceptable form,
exactly what is considered to be in compliance with
regards to certain commodities
1. Codex Standards
• International acceptance most importance
consideration next to safety
• Prescribed format used to develop each standard.
Must include:
• Name, scope, description, essential composition and
quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene,
weights and measures, labeling and methods of
analysis and sampling
2. Codes of Practice
• Advisory text issued to all members
• Designed to assist members in achieving
purposes of Codex
• Individual members decide how to use code
• Typically describe “hygiene” requirements
• “Adequate” / “Acceptable”
• Considered “checklist” of requirements for
enforcement authorities (Jurisdictional
Prerequisites)
3. Guidelines and Recommendations
• Basic tool used to help member nations in elaboration of
their standards to conform to Codex
• Not binding but accepted worldwide
• Very useful to developing countries
• Example: “Code of Ethics for International Trade in Food”
• Commission can make guidelines “quasi-binding”
• i.e. SPS Agreement guidelines
Food Additives under the Codex:
• Codex General Standard for Food Additives
• “any substance not normally consumed as a food on its
own and normally constituting a typical food
ingredient, whether or not it has any nutritional value,
the intentional additional of which to food for a
technological purpose in the manufacturing…..or may
reasonably be expected to result…in it or its byproducts
becoming a component of or otherwise affecting the
characteristics of such foods
Food Labeling Under the Codex
• Codex General Standard for the Labeling of
Prepackaged Foods
• Recognized labeling as important to both
objectives of Codex
• Label = “any tag, brand, mark, pictorial or other
descriptive matter, written, printed, stenciled …to
a container of a food”
Food Labeling Requirements under Codex
Alimentarius
• Name of the food
• List of ingredients (in descending order)
• Net content and drained weight
• Name and address of manufacturer
• Country of origin
• Lot identification
• Date marking and storage instructions
• Instructions for use
Enforcement of Codex Standards
• Codex regulation not binding until adopted by
member.
• Member ratification of Codex standards is
mandatory
• Violation would then be violation of the member
country’s national law and punishment
accordingly
Codex Summary
• Codex Alimentarius is designed to ensure
international acceptance in terms of quality and
economic interest of consumer and to ensure fair
trade practices
• Standards based on scientific principles such as
HACCP
Codex Summary
•Flexible so can be integrated into
member’s National law
•SPS Agreement, GATT and NAFTA all
encourage acceptance of Codex standards
•Codex reflects international consensus on
food law issues

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11 & 12T. AGM 353 Food standards.pptx

  • 1. Food standards – India, EU, FDA and WHO Standards of Food Safety Food laws & Regulations - CODEX
  • 2. Food standards Standard Setting • Food standards, such as those that specify the maximum allowable level of contaminants in food, or the amount of food additives permitted, are an important instrument for the assurance of food safety. • This is particularly the case in international trade, where the food commodity being traded is manufactured in another country, and the history and conditions of manufacture may not be fully known. • International trade on food is based on agreements achieved at the World Trade Organization (WTO), including the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
  • 3. Food standards • Under these agreements, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has the role of implementing the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, establishing international food quality and safety standards. • These standards are adopted or used as models by many countries in their domestic food legislation and regulations.
  • 5. Food Laws (PFA, FPO, MMPO, Agmark, BIS & FSSAI)
  • 6. Food Laws Food laws and Regulations Objective To meet a country’s sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, food must comply with the local laws and regulations to gain market access. These laws ensure the safety and suitability of food for consumers.
  • 7. Food Laws Food laws and Regulations The requirement of food regulation may be based on several factors such as whether a country adopts international norms developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization or a country may also has its own suite of food regulations. Each country regulates food differently and has its own food regulatory framework.
  • 8. Food Laws Food laws in our country The Indian Parliament has recently passed the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 that overrides all other food related laws. Such as; Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 Fruit Products Order,1955 Meat Food Products Order ,1973; Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947 Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order 1988 Solvent Extracted Oil, De- Oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967, Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 etc are repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.
  • 9. Food Laws Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have previously handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments. FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
  • 10. Food Laws Functions performed by FSSAI • Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards. •Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses. •Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories. •To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition .
  • 11. Food Laws Functions performed by FSSAI • Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system. •Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern. •Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses. •Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards. •Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards
  • 12. Food Laws Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Main Activities Harmonious development of standardization, marking and quality certification To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control. To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of production and exports. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India, resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality.
  • 13. Food Laws Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Main Activities Laboratory Management International Activities Training Services To Product Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery. Quality Management System Environmental Management Systems Occupational Health and Safety Management System Food Safety Management System Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Imported Products Certification
  • 14. Food Laws AGMARK AGMARK is a Quality Certification Mark . It ensures quality and purity of a product. The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection enforces the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. Under this Act Grade standards are prescribed for agricultural and allied. It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to Quality Certified. Quality standards for agricultural commodities are framed based on their intrinsic quality. Food safety factors are being incorporated in the standards to complete in World Trade.
  • 15. Food Laws AGMARK Products available under AGMARK are as follows:- Pulses Whole spices & ground spices Vegetable oils Wheat Products Milk products. Other products such as Honey, Compounded asafetida, Rice, Tapioca Sago, Seedless tamarind, Besan (Gram flour) Standards are being harmonized with international standards keeping in view the WTO requirements. Certification of agricultural commodities is carried out for the benefit of producer/manufacturer and consumer.
  • 16. Food Laws Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955 The main objective is lay down quality standards to manufacture fruit & vegetable products maintaining sanitary and hygienic conditions in the premises. It is mandatory for all manufacturers of fruit and vegetable products including some non fruit products like non fruit vinegar, syrup and sweetened aerated water to obtain a license under this Order. Objective
  • 17. Food Laws Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955 Following minimum requirements are laid down in the Fruit Product Order for hygienic production and quality standards: • Location and surroundings of the factory • Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises • Personnel hygiene • Portability of water • Machinery & Equipment with installed capacity • Quality control facility & Technical staff • Product Standards • Limits for preservatives & other additives
  • 18. Food Laws Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955 •Fruit product means any of the following articles, namely •Non fruit beverages, syrups and sherbets •Vinegar, whether brewed or non-fruit •Pickles •Dehydrated fruits and vegetables •Squashes, crushes cordials, barley water, barreled juice, and ready to serve beverages, fruit nectars or any other beverages containing fruit juices or fruit pulp •Jams, jellies and marmalades •Tomato products, ketchup and sauces •Preserves, candied and crystallized fruit and peel •Chutneys •Canned and bottled fruits, juices and pulps •Canned and bottled vegetables •Frozen fruits and vegetables •Sweetened aerated water and without fruit juice pr fruit pulp •Fruit cereal flakes •All unspecified fruit and vegetable products which are considered microbiologically safe and contains only permitted additives within permissible limits.
  • 19. Food Laws Fruit Product Order (FPO), 1955 Each container in which any fruit product is packed shall specify a code number indicating the lot or the date of manufacture of such fruit product. The labels shall not contain any statement, claim, design or device which is false or misleading in any particular concerning the fruit products contained in the package or concerning the quantity or the nutritive value or in relation to the place of origin of the said fruit products.
  • 20. Food Laws Meat Food Products Order (MFPO) Objectives : The main objective is to regulate production and sale of meat food products through licensing of manufacturers, enforce sanitary and hygienic conditions prescribed for production of wholesome meat food products, exercise strict quality control at all stages of production of meat food products, fish products including chilled poultry etc. Meat & Meat Products are highly perishable in nature and can transmit diseases from animals to human-beings. Processing of meat products is licensed under Meat Food Products Order,(MFPO) 1973 which was hitherto being implemented by Ministry of food Processing industries
  • 21. Food Laws Meat Food Products Order (MFPO) Under the provision of MFPO all manufacturers of meat food products engaged in the business of manufacturing, packing, repacking, relabeling meat food products meant for sale are licensed but excluding those manufacturers who manufactures such products for consumption on the spot like a restaurant, hotel, boarding house, snack bar, eating house or any other similar establishment. Contd….
  • 22. Food Laws Milk and Milk Product order (MMPO) The objective of the order is to maintain and increase the supply of liquid milk of desired quality in the interest of the general public and also for regulating the production, processing and distribution of milk and milk products. As per the provisions of this order, any person/dairy plant handling more than 10,000 liters per day of milk or 500 MT of milk solids per annum needs to be registered with the Registering Authority appointed by the Central Government. In every case where the milk or milk product is packed by the holder of a registration certificate in a tin, barrel, carton or any other container, the registration number shall either be exhibited prominently on the side label of such container or be embossed, punched or printed prominently thereon.
  • 23. Food Laws Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 •The Act was promulgated by Parliament in 1954 to make provision for the prevention of adulteration of food. Broadly, the PFA Act covers food standards, general procedures for sampling, analysis of food, powers of authorized officers, nature of penalties and other parameters related to food. •It deals with parameters relating to food additives, preservative, colouring matters, packing & labelling of foods, prohibition & regulations of sales etc. The provisions of PFA Act and Rules are implemented by State Government and local bodies as provided in the rules. In every case where the milk or milk product is packed Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 is repealed from 05.08.2011 by the Central Government as per the Food Safety and Standards Act,2006.
  • 24. Food Laws Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 The act clearly defines “What is meant by Food Adulteration and what is the punishment given to person/manufacturer involved in the crime? The food is considered adulterated if it fulfills any of the below - •If food is sub-standard rotten, decomposed or obtained from diseased animal or is insect- infested or is otherwise unfit for human consumption. If food contains any other substance which affects, or if the article is so processed as to affect, injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof if the article has been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary conditions whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health;
  • 26. Codex Commission • Developed Codex in 1962 - 1963 • Subsidiary of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations (UN)and World Health Organization (WHO) • Joint venture between FAO and WHO to formulate internationally accepted food safety standards for protection of human health and to ensure fair trade practices
  • 27. Purpose of the Codex Alimentarius To protect consumer health and economic interests and to secure fair trade practices in the food industry
  • 28. Codex Commission •Coordination of all food standards •Initiation and supervision of draft standards •Finalization of food standards •Publication of standards worldwide •Amend standards in face of new technology
  • 29. Harmonization of International Trade •Differences in food laws and standards developed independently can cause barriers to trade between nations •Often disguised as health or safety measures but really designed to protect local farm products or consumer misconceptions (Genetic modifications)
  • 30. Codex Alimentarius •Ensures that products complying with Codex standards can be bought and sold on the international market without compromising health or interests of consumers • Codex standards ensure product is safe internationally •Review of member laws based in internationally accepted scientific and technological standards
  • 31. “Food” under the Codex: • “any substance, whether processed, partly processed or raw, which is intended for human consumption and includes drink, chewing gum and any substance which has been used in the manufacture, preparation or treatment of food but does not include cosmetics, tobacco or substances used solely as drugs
  • 32.
  • 33. Structure of Codex Commission • Inter-governmental body • Open to all UN member nations • Currently 188 members (98% of world) • Executive Committee oversees Commission activities (Chair, 3 vice chairs and 7others) • Secretariat oversees Executive Committee • Located at FAO in Rome • Corresponds with member states re: standards
  • 34.
  • 35. 1.
  • 36.
  • 37. Codex India" • "the National Codex Contact Point (NCCP) for India, is located at Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), New Delhi. • It coordinates and promotes Codex activities in India in association with the National Codex Committee and facilitates India's input to the work of Codex through an established consultation process.
  • 38. Codex Legal Tools: 1. Codex Standards 2. Codes of Practices 3. Guidelines and Recommendations 1. Codex Standards • Food requirements intended to provide consumers with a sound, wholesome food product free from adulteration, correctly labeled and presented. • Explicitly quantifies and specifies in acceptable form, exactly what is considered to be in compliance with regards to certain commodities
  • 39. 1. Codex Standards • International acceptance most importance consideration next to safety • Prescribed format used to develop each standard. Must include: • Name, scope, description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene, weights and measures, labeling and methods of analysis and sampling
  • 40. 2. Codes of Practice • Advisory text issued to all members • Designed to assist members in achieving purposes of Codex • Individual members decide how to use code • Typically describe “hygiene” requirements • “Adequate” / “Acceptable” • Considered “checklist” of requirements for enforcement authorities (Jurisdictional Prerequisites)
  • 41. 3. Guidelines and Recommendations • Basic tool used to help member nations in elaboration of their standards to conform to Codex • Not binding but accepted worldwide • Very useful to developing countries • Example: “Code of Ethics for International Trade in Food” • Commission can make guidelines “quasi-binding” • i.e. SPS Agreement guidelines
  • 42. Food Additives under the Codex: • Codex General Standard for Food Additives • “any substance not normally consumed as a food on its own and normally constituting a typical food ingredient, whether or not it has any nutritional value, the intentional additional of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacturing…..or may reasonably be expected to result…in it or its byproducts becoming a component of or otherwise affecting the characteristics of such foods
  • 43. Food Labeling Under the Codex • Codex General Standard for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods • Recognized labeling as important to both objectives of Codex • Label = “any tag, brand, mark, pictorial or other descriptive matter, written, printed, stenciled …to a container of a food”
  • 44. Food Labeling Requirements under Codex Alimentarius • Name of the food • List of ingredients (in descending order) • Net content and drained weight • Name and address of manufacturer • Country of origin • Lot identification • Date marking and storage instructions • Instructions for use
  • 45. Enforcement of Codex Standards • Codex regulation not binding until adopted by member. • Member ratification of Codex standards is mandatory • Violation would then be violation of the member country’s national law and punishment accordingly
  • 46. Codex Summary • Codex Alimentarius is designed to ensure international acceptance in terms of quality and economic interest of consumer and to ensure fair trade practices • Standards based on scientific principles such as HACCP
  • 47. Codex Summary •Flexible so can be integrated into member’s National law •SPS Agreement, GATT and NAFTA all encourage acceptance of Codex standards •Codex reflects international consensus on food law issues