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  1. 1. l|t.cknowledgements-ntroduction for studentshroduction for teachers)iagnostic Tests:ection AbrvelsI i: (sheep)2 r (ship)3 e (pen){ a (man)5 .r (cup)6 q: (heart)i Review8 o (clock)9 cr (ball)i0 u (book)l1 ur (boot)12 g: (girl)13 e (a camera)14 Review15 er (male)16 ar (fine)17 cr (boy)18 au (house)19 au (phone)20 ra (year)2L ee (chair)22 ReviewSectionBConsonants23 P (Pen)24 b (baby)25 t (table)26 d (door)27 k (key)28 s (girl)29 Review30 s (sun)3I z (zoo)32 J (shoe)33 S(television)34 tJ (chip)35 dS(Ianuary)36 Review37 f (fan)38 v (van)39 w (window)4o j (Yellow)4l h (hat)a2 0 (thin)43 6 (thefeather)44 Review45 m (mouth)46 n (nose47 4 (ring)48 I (letter);(bdl)49 r {rain)50 ReviewOverviewMaskKeylvviiix798185899397101105t07110l14tt7t20t24L28l3l135139r43t4715I155159r62165168L72176180183185186I371115192327293336394348525457606366707376
  2. 2. tvIn the preparationof this new edition I would like to thank:SallyMellersh(formerlyof HammersmithandWestLondon College)for updating andexpandingthe lisr of likelyerrorsto accompanythe new editionsof Shipor Sheep?andTleeor Three?byits inclusion on the website(http:/ / McCreathfor IT assistanceand contribution to my computerliteracy.SandraTurnerfor help with typing.My editorsN6irin Burke,FrancesAmrani andYvonneHarmer,aswell asthe followingteachersfrom all overtheworld who commentedduring developmentand gavemesuchpracticaladvice:MicheleChartrand-Hirsch,France;Ian Chitry UK; DavidDeterding,Singapore;SylvieDonna,UK; ElizabethDowney,NewZealand;LyndaEdwards,UK; LauraHancock,UK;DavidHill, Australia;Kip Kelland,Italy;KathyKeohane,UK;AndreaPaul,Australia;GordonFrancisRobinson,Singapore;Iulietta Ann Schoenmann,UK; RogerScott,UKPeterHobbsand otherteachersof InternationalHouseSydney,who allowedme toobserveand co-teachtheir classes;ShdnIones,for classobservationat Blacktor,rrnTAFECollege.I would like to continue to thankAmir Pirouzan,IeanCrockerandIohn Lipscombfortheir adviceand encouragementduring the preparationof the original edition of Shipor Sheep?NsoPhilippaLipscomband otherteachersof the British Council,Teheran,who helpedwith the first classtry-outs.Thepublisherhasuseditsbestendeavoursto ensurethat theURLsfor externalwebsitesreferredto in this book arecorrectand activeat the time of goingto press.However,the publisherhasno responsibilityfor the websitesand canmakenoguaranteethat a sitewill remainlive or that the content is or will remain appropriate.Illustrationsby:JohannaBoccardo,PatMurray,FelicityHouseandTonyWilkinsCoverdesignby PentacorBookDesignDesignedandtypesetby HartMcleod
  3. 3. oaSevenof the 50unitsin thisbookarereviewunits.Eachof the otherunitsintroducesa differentEnglishsound,aswellasotheraspectsofpronunciation(e.g.stress,intonation)which arealsoimportantforsuccessfulcommunicationin English.Youcanusethisbookeitherworkingaloneor with a class+ teacher.Youwill need:- equipmentto listento the CD,andequipmentto recordyourvoice- a smallmirror to compareyourlip positionswith thepictures-Your mask(cutit out from page185).Youwill useit at thebeginningofmostunits (butnot Unit l). Youcanalsouseit for extrapracticeofsoundsthat aredifficult for you.First,find out which units aremostimportantfor you.Todo this:- If possible,checkyour mothertonguein the Lisrof likelyerrors(seewebsite:http://r,r" printout of that part of thelist.- Do at leastoneof theDiagnosticTests(seepagesix-xi).If you areworkingalone,doTestA.TestB needsthe helpof a teacher,nativespeakeror near-nativespeaker.If you areworkingwith a teacher,he/shewill decidewhetheryou do thetests.Decidewhetheryou wantto:- work firston the mostimportantunits for you,or- beginat the beginningandworkthroughthebook,spendingmoretime on themostimportantunitsfor you.Youcanchooseto worksimultaneouslyon SectionA (vowels)andSectionB (consonants).Youcanalsodo the sevenreviewunits.Read,MaktngEnglishsoundsbeforebeginningeachsection(seepagesI-2, 79-80).This introducessomeessentialvocabulary.Symbolsusedin thebook:meansthis materialis recorded.meansthe answersarein the Key(seepages186-224).meansthisexerciseis suitablefor a groupor pair of students.If you area studentworkingalone,you couldtry it by usingyour imagination, imagininganotherstudent.meansusethemask(seepagevi).meansvisitthewebsiteto practise.Othersymbolsused:Intonation is shownwith arrows:Themainword stressis shovrrnin bold,e.g.pronunciation,student.Sentencestressis shownwith underlining,e.g.Sentencestressis shournwith underlining, or sometimeswith big and small circles:OoOoOoooOo(Sentencestressis shorvrmwith underli4ing).
  4. 4. vl Phonetic symbols used in this book are the International PhoneticAlphabet (IPA)(the contenrs page shows all the symbols used).you canuse this book without knowing these symbols, but it is useful to learnthem so that you can check the pronunciation of new words in adictionary. The Cambridge Aduanced Learners Dictionary uses thesesymbols.. In most units (but not in Unit l), Exercise2 Minimal palrs givesyoupractice in contrasting two sounds in words and sentences.If you donthave one of the two sounds in your language,practising the pairs ofsounds can sometimes help you to hear - and then produce - theEnglish sound. Dialogues are recorded.You can backtrack on the CD to repeat them asmany times asyou want. If you dont like backtracking, listen to thedialogue after you have done the dialogue tasks.TheMaskThere are two ways in which you can use the mask (which you cut out frompage I85):I At the beginning of the minimal pair exerclsesHere,you are instructedto use the mask in most units after Unit l. The mask symbol at thebeginning of the exerciseindicates usethe can start theminimal pair practice with the mask covering the written words, justIooking at the pictures and listening to the pair sounds (first in wordsand then in sentences).This will help you to focus on really listening tothe sounds first. After you have listened for the first time, you canbacktrack on the CD to listen again and repeat.2 Extra practice of dfficult sounds You can also use the mask, for exampleat the end of a unit, to enjoy extra practice of sounds that are difficult foryou. Here,your task with the mask is to try to produce the contrastingsounds correctly while trying to remember the words and sentences.(e.g.I Mask on - listen and repeat. 2 Mask off - read aloud. 3 Mask on _remember and say aloud. 4 Mask off- read aloud to check.)Otherwaysof havingextrapracticeof difficultsoundsI Make playrng cardsby photocopying rhe minimal pair charts (e.g.fourcopies) and cutting out the can then play some of the cardgames described in the review units. If working alone, play pick up pairs,Unit 7, page27 or Pick up samesounds,Unit 14, page52.2 Check on the website(http: / i elt/ elt_projectpage.asp?id=2500905)to seeif there is any extra practice material for this sound.
  5. 5. vilotPleasereadthe Introductionfor Studentson pagesv-vi.Level Thisbookiswritten for intermediatestudents,but previouseditionshavealsobeenusedbystudentsat otherlevels.TreeorThree?iswritten for beginner-elementarylevel.Class/Studentworking alone Theinstructions arewritten for a studentworkingalone,but canbeusedfor classroomteachingaswell.Seethesymbolsin the studentsintroduction,especially tDiagnosticTestsYoucanusetheseif you needto assessstudentsdifftculties.But ifyou alreadyknowthisfor your class,you canchoosetoskipthetestsanddecidewhetheryouwant the studentsto workthroughthebookor focusonly on someunits.Studentsworking alonecanself-administerTestA with or without yourinput.ToadministerTestB,studentscanbe askedto recordtheirindividualperformancesfor your assessment.Oryou maypreferto dothiswith them sothatyou canimmediatelycheckpossiblereadingratherthanpronouncingmistakes,by askingthem to listenandrepeattheitem.Listof likely errors Thisis on thewebsitesothat it canbe addedto. Itcanbe found athttp:/ / would be usefulfor eachstudentto haveaprintout of the relevantpart of thislist.Minimal pairs In thisbook,thesearepairsof words/sentenceswhichdifferby onlyonesound,e.g.BilI boughta sheep.lBillboughta ship.Thesesometimeshelp studentsto hear- andthenpronounce- soundsthat aredifficult for them.Youmaywant to extendstudentsclasspracticeof particular minimal pairsby inventing gamesor playingthefollowing:- CardgamesThesearedescribedin Exerciset of the reviewunits.Makemorecopiesif usingpairsfrom only oneunit.Thisbookiscoplright,but permissionis grantedto makea singlecopyof thecardsdescribedin the reviewunits, for the solepurposeof playingthecardgamesoutlined.- FingersForeachpair,saywordsrapidly at random,e.g.sheepsheepsheepship ship sheepshrp.Studentsshowwith oneor two fingersiftheyhearsoundI or sound2.Studentspractisein pairsandthenbackto back.
  6. 6. vllt- Mingling Eachstudenthasoneof the minimal pair cards.Studentsmingle (movearoundrandomly),not showingtheir cardsbutrepeatingtheir word to find the otherswith the samesound.Theyform a group,which checkscorrectmembership.Thefirst group tocompletetheirsetof wordswith the samesoundwins.Studentsswapcardswithin theirgroupandcheckpronunciationof newwordsbeforeall mingling againto find the personin the other groupwiththe otherhalf of their minimal pair.Studentschangecardswith thatpersonandcheckeachotherspronunciation.Thenstarttheminglinggamefrom the beginningsoboth soundsareused.Themask (SeeIntroduction for Students.)Thepurposeof the maskistwofold:- to allowstudentsto listen to and practisethe minimal pair soundsfirstin wordsandthenin sentenceswithout beingdistractedby thewritten word- for extrapracticeof soundsthey find difficult.
  7. 7. txDTAGNOSTICTESTSAll students should do TestA.TestB requires the help of a teacher,native speakeror near-native speakerof English.The tests are not to give you a mark. They may help you to find out whichsounds and other aspectsof English pronunciation could be the mostdifficult for you. You should also check this in the llsf of likely errors orthewebsite: Sounddiscriminationaz Do not stop the recording or repeat. In each item you will hear two words.Sometimes the two words are the same.Sometimes they have one soundthat is different. Listen once only to each item and tick the S (same)columnor the D (different) column. If you are not sure, tick the question mark (?)column.EXAMPLE If you hear,sheep sheeptick the Scolumn.If you hear, sheep ship tick the D column.If you are not sure, tick the ?column.S D 2S D 2 S D ? S D ? S D ?la 6a 12a 17a1b 6b r2b 17b2a 7a l3a l8a2b 7b 13b 18b2c 7c I4a l9a3a 8a r4b 19b3b Bb l4c 20a4a 9a r4d 2Ia4b 9b l5a 22a5a 10a 15b 22b5b r0b 16a 23a5c lla 16b 23br1b l6c 24a
  8. 8. xSection2 lntonationes Do not stop the recording or repeat. Listen to Lucy talking to Lesley on thetelephone. In some items her voice goesup ( ) at the end. In someitems her voice goesdown ( . ). Tick the or column for eachitem. If you are not sure,tick the ?column. Listen to the example first.EXAMPLEa) ThatsLesley,i#t itab) ThatsLesley,isntit?Section3 Wordstresse+ Do not stoptherecordingor repeat.In eachitem,tick the onewordthat isdifferentfrom the others.EXAMPLEitems column number alone/ listenI nowhere birthday mistake toilet postcard2 guitar eighteen today machine English3 away brother breaKast frightened valley4 comfortable vegetables photograph lemonade minimal5 telephoning supermarket conversation exercises helicopter2 ?I 623 84 95 l0
  9. 9. xiIESTB(Note:This test requires the help of a teachel native speaker,or near-native speakerof English.)Ask the student to read each test item, and record the grading on the resultsheet (pagexii).A studentsperformance can be recorded, or the student can be askedtorepeat an item as many times as necessaryto record a result,The reasonsfor mispronunciation are many, and some may be causedby readingdifficulty. To check this, say the mispronounced word correctly and ask thestudent to repeat it. If the student can then say it correctly, add the symbolR to your grading on that item, indicating that tfie student can pronouncethis sound but may have difficulty when reading it.Suggestedsyrnbolsfor grading: / no difficultywith this soundX difficulty with this soundR may have difficulty reading this soundShoppinglist1 some cheese(cheap cheese);some tea (Chinesetea)2 titty biscuits; four fish3 ten eggs(big eggs)4 jam; apples and oranges;a cabbage5 ten tomatoes (largetomatoes)6 five kilos ofveal (verygoodveal)7 some strong string (long string)8 four forks (small forks); spoons; cups; small paper plates9 some good sugar;milk; coffee;a cake10 pick up Iudesblue shoesat the shoe shop; two kilos of brown rice; agrapefruit1l nuts; honey; half a dozen hot buns12 one lemon; nine brolrm onions; flowers for the house13 some paper for my mothers letters; collect Grandfathersleather jacketfrom the cleaners14 a girls shirt and skirt (sizethirteen); cold drinks (dont get dry ginger);some good bread15 eight small cakesand paper plates; some sausagesfor supper16 some yellow rosesfor your sister17 white wine (sweetwine); some lce18 beer for Bob (buy it from the pub near here)19 some shampoo for Claireshair; some pears20 some tins of New Zealand peas, or frozen beans21 fresh English fish from the fish shop22 atoy for the little boy (a blue or yellow ball)23 something for Mr Smith (its his birthday on Thursday)24 a small cheap television for the garage
  10. 10. RESULTSSHEETANDFINDINCSfromListof likelyerrorsIn any of the three columns, place a crossagainst the sound where there may be difficulty.SOUNDS/t"[i(ctri r203 /e/ (pen)1014 le,l(man)1245 /qr/ (heart)/t/ (table)6 /v/ (van)7 /o/ (clock)1688 /crl (ball) 1749 /u/ (book)l0 /ur/(boot)/r/ (rain)1l /,ri (cup)/h/ (hat) 14712 /n/ (nose) 165/aui(house)13 /e/ (camera)/d/ (the feather) 15514 lstl (girl)/d/ (door)L5 letl(male)/s/(sun) 10716 laul(phone)/w/ (window) 1391435717 larl (ftne)l8 /re/ (year)19 leal(chair)/m/ (mouth) 16220 lzl (zoo) 1102r /f/ (shoe) 114/l/ (letter) 17223 /0/(thin)(DiagnosticTest B)FindingsfromListt31111513s8I97176t9l4a, l4b, I4c15124 ftl(television) Il7
  11. 11. SectionAVowelsMakingEnglishsoundsUsevour voiceto makeall vowels.short vowels(makea short sound)A/ (ship)/e/ (pen)/u/ (book)/a/ (man)h/ (cup)/o/ (clock)/a/ (camera)longvowels(makealong sound)/c:/ (ball)/u:/ (boot)/irl (sheep)/c:/ (heart)/s/ (girl)diphthongs(twovowelsounds)/eu/(phone)/rel (year)lctl(boy)/aul (house)/e/ (male)/arl (fine)/eel(chair)
  12. 12. $ rur,urSpotthe different sound.EXAMPLE lal lel lul leal ltlAnswer:Thefourth soundis a diphthong.All the othersareshort vowels.I leullul lrl lal ltl 2 lcrl lel lrcl latl laul 3 lol li.|lczl lszllgzlMatch thesewordswith the picturesbelow.a the backof the tongueb thelipsc the tip of the tod the front of theMatch the pictures(1-9)in A with the instructions (a-i) in B.Anguetonguet--,C€It_-,IOpenyour mouth.Closeyour mouth.Put your tongue forward.Openyour mouth alittle. Thenopenmouth a little more.Putyour tongueback.Putyour tonguedown.Putyour tongueup.Putyour tongueforward andup. Practiselill: eat,easy,he,she,we.Fut your tonguedown and back.Practise/ol/: ask,are,arm,car.Ba)b)c)d)e)f)Ih)i)
  13. 13. lul sheep- Dovou like your teasweet?- l-es.Threesugars,please.Targetsound/irl5 Open your mouth very little to makethe target sound ir. /irl is a long sound.Listen and repeat:/irl.c2 Sound/irl,6rr.-d," t:.1--tsheepLookoutforthatsheep.cheeksWhatlovelycheeks!beanThrowoutthatbean.Stop it leakinglThis pcels got vitamin C in it.Hesgoing to leave."€6lIrf,&,&ffi,sfl w.t&Sound/i:/wordseo a Listen and repeat the words.Sound/irl sentencesez b Listen to the sentences.r;c SentencestressNotice that the most important words for the meaning of a sentencearepronounced more LOUDIy and s I o w Iy .The lessimportant words are said more quietly and quidd5lListen to the sentencesagain and this time look at the underlinedsyllables below. Notice that they are louder and slower.Look out for that sheep.Mhat lovely cheeks!Throw out that bean.leakStopit leaking!PeelThispeelsgotvitaminC in it.leaveHesgoingto d Listenagainand repeatthe sentences.
  14. 14. /D UNIT| /irl sheep5 Dialoguefl a Firstpractisethesound/ill in someof thewordsfrom thisunit. Readthe,/wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto nractise.One-syllablewords: cheese beef tea eat mealthree cheap please meTwo-syllable words: Peter people Edam eveningEastfield biscuit cheesecake(The stressis always on the first syllable.)Two-syllable words: Janine repeat(The stressis always on the second syllable.)Note on word stress:bold is used here to show you which part of theword is strongly stressed,i.e.which syllable is pronounced moreLOUDIy and s I o w ly than the other(s).Word stressdoesnt usuallychange, except in some longer words with stressnear the end. (See4cand 4d.)es b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-10) with the correct words from the box.cheese Peter eat please tea beefthree me teas beefIn a caf6:ltscheaperto eatat MargueritesCHRISTINA:Whatwouldyoulrketo eat,t_ ?Thecheesesandwichesarethe cheapest.PETER:Er. . mmm... oh,a 2_sandwich, please,Christina.CHRISTINA:Cheese... mmm Janine?Wouldvoulikea I sandwichor acheesesandwich?JANINE:A cheesesandwich,+_PETER:Whataboutyou,Christina?Wouldyoulikecheeseor s_ ?WAITRESS:Areyou allreadyto order?Whatwouldyou liketo e_ ?CHRISTINA:Er,wellhaveonebeefsandwich,two cheesesandwichesand,mmm,7 for me.JANINE:Teafor8_ too,please.PETER:Yes,makethatthreeg- , please.wAlTRESS:(wr(ingdowntheorder) Onebeefsandwich,two cheesesandwichesandl0 c Listento the dialogueagainto checkyour answers.Practisereadingthedialoguealoud,andrecordyourvoiceto compareyour productionofthe targetsoundwith the recording.
  15. 15. UNIT1 /irl sheep 5,4 Intonationof questionswithorIntonation is the voice going up or dor,vn.This movement up or dor,rmbegins on the most important word in aphrase or sentence.In questionswithor the intonation usually goesdor,rrnat the a Listen and repeat.Would you like veal or bcgfiWould you like coffee or tea?Would you like coffee,tea or milk?at b RoleplayUse the menu to practise a conversation in a group of four or five.Youare in a restaurant.Taketurns to be the waiter. Ask each other questions,e.g.Wouldyou like ... or ...?Then one persongivesthe order to thewaiter, who repeatsthe order to check it. If possible,also practise usingother menus. If it is an expensiverestaurant, the waiter or waitresscanbe more formal, sa],lngGood euening before asking for the order.EASTFIELI] RESTAIJRANTMENUSoupleek Soup onP€zlsouPMeatveal onbeefVegetablesbeans oRpeasSweetscheesecake onice cream 0RpeachesDrinkscoffee r-rnteaBiscuitsand CheeseEdam cheese onBrie
  16. 16. [unr | /i:/sheepero c Wordstress- nationalitiesendingin eseAsyou listento the sentencesaboutthesenationalities,draw a lineconnectingthe country and nationality in the two listsbelowCountries Nationalities (Notethe stresson the lastsyllable.)Iapan NepaleseNepal LebaneseVietnam Portugueserrr d MovingstressThestressof theseesenationalitieschangesif the nextword is stronglystressed.Sowe say,Thisbcefislapanesebut, Itslqanese bqf.Listenand respond,like the example.EXAMPLEIs this breadfrom Beirut?Response:Yes,its Lebanese.ItsLebanesebread.5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit at wordswith the targetsound,and write whatyou noticed abouthow to spellthe sound/i:/.
  17. 17. T// ship- !hat about this fish? Can I eat it?-Yes. Eat it.- What about this cheese?Can I eat it?- No, dont eat it. Its six weeks out of date.Targetsound/r/Arzaa First practise the sound /ill(seepage 3). Listen and repeat.lrzub Open your mouth a little more tomake the target sound /r/.Listen and repeat.Al2cc Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./irl islong./r/is short.MinimalpairsSoundIli^lsheePLookoutforthatsheep.leakStopit leaking!cheeksWhatlovelycheeks.i(Sound2ltlshipLookoutforthatship.lickStopit licking!chicksWhatlovelychicks.PillThispillsgotvitaminC init.binThrowoutthatbin.liveHesgoingto live.l:@$x$ t*^,-7ig " r:1-/.ga;4.<€4isFT€1 WaY-&PeelThispeelsgotvitaminC init.beanThrowoutthatbean.leaveHesgoingto leave.
  18. 18. 8 UNIT2 /r/ shipMinimalpairwordsAl3aa Listenandrepeatthewords.arsbb Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write ,lfor lll (soundl) or 2 for/r/(sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 1,2,2,2,2MinimalpairsentencesAl.lac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nrrud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lll (sound l) or 2 for ltl(sound2).e SentencestressThe most important words in a sentenceare strongly stressed.They arepronounced LOUDeTand s I o w e r. Look at these examplesfrom theminimal pair sentences.(In the bracketson the right, the big circles arethe strongly stressedsyllablesand the small circles are the weaklystressedsyllables.)Pair l: OUT ... SHIP Look OUT for that SHIP!(oOooo)Pair 2: STOP... LEAK STOPit LEAKing. (OoOo)Pair 3: LOVE ... CHICKS A/hatLOVEIyCHICKS!(oOoO)Pair4: PILLS ... C This PILLS got vitamin C in it. (oOooooOoo)rl4a Listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the stronglystressedwords in each sentence (on page 7).ars f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.ra)sheepI b)ship tr2a)bean I b)bin I3 a)cheeks! b) chicks!4a)cheaptr b)chip tr5a)heel I b)hill tr6 a)peel I b)pill I3 Dialoguei a First practise the sound /r/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.One-syllablewords: film ill miss kids quick Kim BillTwo-syllablewords: (lst syllable) cricket tickets childrenminutes quickly listen pity(2nd syllable)beginsThree-syllablewords: (Ist syllable) history festival cinemainteresting prize-winning Africa(2nd syllable)gymnastics olympic excitedbeginning terrific gorilla(3rd syllable) chimpanzee
  19. 19. UNIT2 /r/ ship 9 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-8) with the correct three-syllable wordsfrom the list in 3a.l-nreeinterestingfilmsBtLL:Coodevening,MrsLeeGINA:ls Kimin?BILL:ls he comingto the cinema,MrsLee?ltsthe ChildrensFilmIMRSLEE:Kimsill.BILL;Herehe is!clNA: Hi,KimlKIM: Hi,CinalHi,BilllBILL:Kim,wevegotthesethreefreeticketsto seethreez filmsforchildren!MRSLEE;Listen,KimKIM: Isit i ?CtNA:l/l/ethinkrtis Firsttheresa shortfilmaboutsorillasand4_ inAfrica,and .BILL: thenthe nextfilmisaboutthe sixbestOlvmpicscompetitions,andthenGINA: then itsthe bigfilm - Ihe 6_ of EnglshCricket.KIM: Cricket!BILL:ltsa7 film.MRSLEE:lf youreill,KimGINA:lt wouldbe a pityto missit.MRSLEE:Nowlisten,youkidsBILL:Andit beginsin fiftyminutes.MRSLEE:KIM!KIM: Quick!Orwellmissthe8_ of the gorillafilml.16 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Practisereading thedialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production ofthe target sound with the recording.d Perform the dialogue in a group of four and, if possible, record your voices.In your group, first practise speaking with feeling. Mrs Lee is getting moreand more angry.The others are getting more and more excited.In English, if you get more angry,you usually speakmore loudly. if youget more excited,you usually speakmore quickly.
  20. 20. lO UNIT2 /r/ ship4 Numbersarz a Word stressStressedsyllablesare in bold. Listen and repeat.three thirteen thirty 3 13 30four fourteen forty 4 14 40five fifteen fifty 5 t 5 50six sixteen sixty 6 16 60seven seventeen seventy 7 17 70eight eighteen eighty t] I t] B0nine nineteen ninety 9 l9 90b MovingstressThe stressin theseteen numbers is different when we are counting.thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen,etc.c Other moving stressThe stressin theseteen numbers is also different when there is a strongstressin the next word.Tim lives at number fifteen.Tim Iives at number fifteen Green Street.Ar8 Practisegiving As reply in the conversationsyou hear,like the example.ExampleA: The dentist is at seventeenMill Street.B: Seventy?A: No, not seventy- seventeen.: d Mini BingogamePlay in a group of 3-5. One person calls out the numbers from 4a but ina random order. (Taketurns to call the numbers.) The others eachchoose one of the boxesA, B, C or D below. Listen to the numbers and ifa number is in your box, cover it with a small piece of paper. When all thenumbers in your box are covered,you arethe wirmer and you shout, BINGO!l 3 .t fi{} (i0 ,{ lti ir l 5 l 6 (i0 {i ts7 Hl 5{i ,.ti} 3{} I.} 7(} L}0 .i {i It f it7 {}{} f} 7{} 5 ti# 4{) 7 tt] t} r}(} 80Selfstudystudent:firstmakearecording,saylngclearlyallthenumbersfrom 4abut in a randomorder.Thenlistenandplayasmanyboxesasyou cansimultaneously.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /r/.DcBA
  21. 21. Itlel pen- Is this milk fresh?Targetsound/e/.reaa First practise the sound /r/(seepage7).arsub Open your mouth alittle more tomake the short target sound /e/.Listen and repeat.Alecc Listen and repeat both soundstogether:ltl andlel.MinimalpairsWherestheSoundI Sound2ltl lelpin penI needa pin. I needa pen.bin BenThatsmybin. ThatsmyBen.tin tenItsa bigtin. ltsa bigten.PegWheresthepeg?Prgpig?chick chequeShewantsa chick. Shewantsa cheque.nimalpairwords.u$aa Listen and repeat the words..,.rt*b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write Ifor A/ (sound l) or 2 for /ei (sound 2).HGMPLE Pair1: 2,2,1,I,2
  22. 22. 12 UNIT5 /e/penMinimalpairsentencesAzlac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.,rzrt,d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for ltl (sound D or 2 for lel(sound2).,ulae SentencestressThe most important words in a sentence are strongly stressed.If theminimal pair sentenceswere spoken with only one strong stress,whichword would it be?Readthe sentencesand guesswhich word it might be.Then listen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline thestrongly stressedword in each sentence (on page 11).nzz f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the I b)pen tr2a)pig I b)peg I3a)tins I b)tens I4a)sit I b)set I5a)disk I b)desk I6a)pickatI b)peckatI5 DialogueO a First practise the sound /e/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read-the words aloud or visit the website to practise. In words with two ormore syllables,bold is used to show which syllable is strongly stressed.In the brackets,write the number of syllablesin each word before youpractise.EXAMPTES friend (1) terribly (3) Emma (2) expensive (3)jealous( ) help( ) everybody( ) any( ) bench( ) Kevin( )America( ) Mexican( ) Emily( ) Ben( )very( ) breadl l Eddie( )Notice that many words in English have the strong stresson the firstsyllable,but some words have the strong stresson the last syllable.hello Adele again except yourself lemonade.?3b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (l-7) with the correct questions (a-g)below.a) CanI getyou a drink,Adele?b) Is thatbetter?c)Wasit expensive?d)Areyou listeningto the RedHot Chili Peppers?e) How did you spendyour holiday,Adele?f) Areyou a friend of Emmas?g) Haveyou met my friendAdeleyet,Kevin?
  23. 23. fundsUN|T5 /e/penffiSADELE:Hi,Emma!Hi,BenlHello,EmilylHello;Eddie!Hi,everybody!EVERYBODYEXCEPTKEVTN:Hi,Adele!EMILY:Niceto seeyouagain,Adele.Kevin,thisisAdele.Adele,thisis Kevin.ADELE:Hi,Kevin.l- ? ltsteniblyloud.KEVTN:Yes .. (turnsthe musicdown) z-? (Adelenodsher head) t-?ADELE:Yes.KEVIN:Emmasaidshehada friendcalledAdele.EDDIE:Helpyourselfto Mexicanfood,Adele.ltson the kitchenbench.EMILY:AndtheresFrenchbreadon the shelf.BEN:4?ADELE:Yes,thanks,Ben.Somelemonadewith a bit of icein it.EMMA: 5 ?KEVIN:Yes.lvejust met her.Shesveryfriendly.BEN:5 ?ADELE:I wentto SouthAmericawith my bestfriendKerrie.EVERYBODY;Well!EMMA:WerealljealousEDDIE:7 ?ADELE:Notvery.ButI spenteverything.I haventanymoneyleft..l,r3c Listento the dialogueagainto checkyour answers.Thenpractisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voiceto compareyourproduction of the targetsoundwith the recording.4 lntonationIntonation is the voicegoingufor dOvwnon the strongestsyllableof themostimportantword in a phraseor sentence.Intonation statementsusuallygoesdovflrat the end.Intonation in WH questions(rMho?ltVhat?Why?When?"4rhere?Hownusuallygoesdomrnat the end.Intonation inYes/Noquestionsusuallygoesupat the end.
  24. 24. lf uNIr l lel penaz+a Listen and repeat.Ir14:Iquestion: How did you spend your holiday?Statement: I went to America.YeslNoquestion: Was it expensive?Statement: Yes.Verv.No. Not very.nzs b Word stressPractisethe word stressin these place narnes.In many place names thestrong stressis on the first syllable.Denmark Venice Edinburgh MexicoMecca Melbourne LebanonA smaller number of place names have the strong stresson the lastsyllable.Iapm Mumbai Madrid Beirut NewYorkIn longer place names the strong stressis sometimes in the middle ofthe word.the Riviera the Mediterranean Australia America HelsinkiPhiladelphiac Now practise the conversation below using the place names in 4b.A: Howdid youspendyourholiday?B: lwentto..A: Wasit expensive?B: Yes.Very./ Not very.d Dictionarywork: word stress,Vhenyou meet a new word, you cirn check which syllable is stronglystressedin a good dictionary @.g.Cambridge Aduanced LectrnersDictionary). The pronunciation of the word is shown in the InternationalPhonetic Alphabet (IPA),with the symbo| in front of the main strongstress of the word, e.g.electric /rrlektrrk/. Your dictionary will also showthe secondary stress (usually in longer words) with the symbol ,, e.g.electricity /l,lekrtrrseti/.In Ship or Sheep?only the main strong stressin a word is in bold to showyou where the stressed syllable ends, e.g. electric, electricity.Look up some of these words in a dictionary and mark which syllablehas the main strong stress.EXAMPLE execpl or exrceptexcept exercise expect expeditionexpel experiment expenditure expertexpression extend extra extrovert5 5p;eliingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /e/.
  25. 25. t5lllnl man- Let s have a chat about that cat.- tr cat?- les ... em ... its too fat.- tl-ell, it is a bit fat. But its ... mm ... a very happy cat.I -argetsoundlrelutlaa First practise the sound /e/(seepage ll). Listenand repeat.r:oo$ Qpsn your mouth a little more tomake the target sound /a/.Listen and repeat.26cc Listen and repeat both sounds together:lelandlal.2 Minimalpairs€=+SoundIlelxPutthexhere.PenCanlbonowapen?menLookatthe men.sendlm sendingthetable.gemItsa lovelygem.breadWehadbreadforlunch.Sound2lnlaxePutthe axehere.PanCanlbonowapan?manLookatthe man.sandImsandingthetable.iarnItsa lovelyjam.BradWehadBradforlunch.,-1*€f:ffi.UL&#lt,,a*J$.(@[-9{6}
  26. 26. 16 untr 4 /ieimanMinimalpairwordsA27aa Listen and repeat the words.azzub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write lfor /e/ (sound 1) or 2 for lal (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2,2,1,,I,2MinimalpairsentencesA28ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.ezard Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lel (sound I or 2 for lel(sound2).A2Bae SentencestressListen to the first two minimal pair sentencesagain and look at thecircles on the left. The big circles are the strongly stressedsyllables,andthe small circles are the weakly stressedsyllables.OoOO Put thex here./Put the axehere.ooOooO Can I borrow a pcq?/Can I borrow a pA!!?28a Listen to the rest of the sentencesand underline the sentencestress(thestrongly stressedsyllablesin the most important words in the sentence).OooO Look at the men./Look at the man.oOooOo Im sending the table./Im sanding the table.ooOoO Its a lovely gem./Its a lovely jam.ooOoO We had bread for lunch./We had Brad for lunch.rzs f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the I b)pan I2a)men tr b)man I3a)end I b)and I4a)feta tr b)fatter ISa)pet tr b)pat tr6a)bed I b)bad tr3 Dialoguei=, a First practise the sound /re/in some of the words from the dialogue.-Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.I Allen salad habit travel Ianet absent sandwich contractscancelled2 animals Africa antelope Annabelle Anthony passengersanchovy3 alligator advertisingtVhichof the list of words (1,2, 3) above have the word stresspatternsbelow?The big circles are the strongly stressedsyllablesand the smallcircles are the weakly stressedsyllables.a) Ooo b) Oooo c) Oo
  27. 27. UNIT4 /ie/ rnan t?:Match the sentences(1-3) below with the sentencestresspatterns (a-c).The big circles are the strongly stressedwords and the small circles arethe weakly stressedwords.I He hasnt done the backup. a) ooOooO2 Aaron doesnt have to come back. b) oOoooOo3 The computer has crashed. c) OooooooOb Aaronsrecordedmessagesro Listen to the recorded messages,pa)lng attention to the target sound.Now listen again and complete the sentencesbelow. Each missing wordhas the sound /e/. Number I has been done as an example.I Aaron works atlhe AjoxTrovelAgency.2 Hes on holiday in _ .3 His bossis Mrs4 Aaron left an and on his desk.5 He - to contact Anthony about the of -he on6 Aaron has a _ habit of being _ from work.7 Aaron booked a _to San with three - : ananteater,an _ , and an8 The computer has and Aaron hadnt done the - upfor the programmes. Mrs Allen is very _ .9 The best advertising have been becauseof Aaronsbadl0 Aaron doesnt to come to the - agencybecausehesbeenA3l Listen to the complete sentencesand check your answersthen practisereading the sentencesaloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.j Sentencestress:the rhythmof EnglishA3za Practisefirst with the names Annabelle and lanet. Notice how theimportant words are strongly stressed- we saythem LOUDeTands I o w er. Listen and repeat.Question: How do you shorten Annabelle and Ianet?Answer: Ann and lan.Listen to sevenpossible answersto the next question (seepage 18).AtJ3 Notice that when we add more weakly stressedwords or syllables tothese sentences,we still say them in about the same length of time. Wedo this by saying all the weakly stressedwords more +dddyand quietlv:Question: Mho works with Aaron?Answers:I OO Ann,Ian.2 OoO Ann and lan.3 Oooo0o Annabelle and Tanet.
  28. 28. tB uNtT4 lnl man4 oOooooOo TheresAnnabelle and theresIanet.5 ooOoooooOo Well theresAnnabelle and then theresTanet.6 oooOoooooooOo Well first theresAnnabelle and then theresalso Ianet.7 oooooOooooooooooo Well first of all theresAnnabelle and then youknow theres also lanet.(Note that although sometimes native speakersof English do speaklikethis with a lot of weakly stressedwords, at other times they may usemore strongly stressedwords, e.g.Well, first of all theresAnnabelle andthen you know theresalso lanet. Both are correct. Both have the samerhythm of strong and weak stress.)as+b Listen to the sevenanswersin 4a again and try to say them all in thesame length of time. Try a few times. First practise putting your energyinto the strongly stressedwords. Next practise saying the weakly stressedwords with lessenergy,so that you saythem more quietly. Then practisesayingthe weakly stressedwords more and more quickly. Recordyourvoice and compare this with the recording.c Match the questions (f -3) with the pairs of answers(a-c) below. (In thebrackets,the big circles are the strongly stressedsyllablesand the smallcircles are the weakly stressed svllables.)Questions:I fhat kind of animals did Aaron book on the SanSalvadorflight?2 rffhat were two of the mistakes Aaron made before he went on holiday?3 Mho elseworks at the tlavel agency?Answers:a) Anthony, Mrs Allen. (Ooo,ooOo)Well, theresAnthony, and then theresMrs Allen. (ooOoo,oooooOo)b) An anteater,an antelope, and an alligator. (oOoo,oOoo, oooooo)He booked an anteater, aswell as an antelope, and also an alligator.(oooOoo,ooooOoo, ooooOooo)c) The l1t4p,the backup, (oO,oOo)He lost the map, and he didnt do the backup. (oooO,ooooooOo)Practisereading the questions and answersaloud. Try to say the pairs ofanswersin the same length of time.SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /re/.
  29. 29. l,tl cupt9- I m hungry.Howmuch moneysin the hat? J- rhing.- -thing?Im hungry too.- Ohshutup!Everybodyshungry.I Targetsoundtnt35aa First practise the sound /re/(seepage I5). Listen and repeat.r.rit b Put your tongue back a little to makethe short target sound /,r/.Listen and repeat.rssc c Listen and repeat both sounds:lal andrnr.2 MinimalpairsSoundIlnlcaPWheresmycap?hatTheresa hatin the garden.trackSeethetrackson the road.Sound2cuPWheresmycup?hutTheresa hutinthegarden.truckSeethetrucksontheroad.&.€n <?-@ffiLf",^-Vban bunTheresa banonit. Theresa bunonit.bag bugShesgota bag. Shesgota bug.ankle uncleMyanklewasinjured. Myunclewasinjured.dffi
  30. 30. 20 UNIT5 /n/ cr,rpMinimalpairwordses6aa Listen and repeat the words.aroub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor lal (sound I) or 2 for /n/ (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2,1,2,I, IMinimalpairsentencesA3zac Listen to the minimal pair sentences., eszrd Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lnl (sound I) or 2 for lnl(sound2).ffi7ae SentencestressListen to the pairs of sentencesagain and match them with the sentencestresspatterns below.The big circles are the strong syllablesand thesmall circles are the weak syllables.EXAMPLE ooO (Pair 1)Wheres my cap? / Mheresmy cup?a) oooO b) ooOoo c) oooooO d) ooOooOo e) oOooOoNotice that if we put too many strong stressesin a sentence,we maysound angry especiallyif the intonation keeps going down. Practisethesentencesbelow.OOO lVheres my cup?OOooOo IVIyuncle was !4jured.eee f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.1a)cap I b)cup tr2a)har f b)hut I3a)bas tr b)bug tr4a)madtr b)mud tr5a)hang I b)hung I6a)ran tr b)run I5 DialogueQ-aFirst practise the sound i,r/ in some of the words from the dialogue.Listen and repeat.lunch just much one love cousin doesnt funny rubbishenough untrue shutup unhappy understand unattractiveworry lovely honey brother other nothing companywonderful month doesesg b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (l-10) with the correct words from the box.They are all words llke louespelledwith o but pronounced l,rl.worry lovely honey brother other nothing companywonderful month does
  31. 31. UNIT5 /,r/cup Sl-i-e doesntlovehimJASMINE:Honey,whyareyouso sad?(Dunconsoyst_ )JASMINE:2_, whyareyouso unhappy?I dontunderstand.DUNCAN:Youdontloveme,Jasmrne.JASMINE:ButDuncan,I loveyouverymuch!DUNCAN:Thatsuntrue,Jasmine.Youlovemy cousin.JASMINE:Justin?DUNCAN:No,his3-.JASMINE:Dud|ey?DUNCAN:No.Stopbeingfunny,Jasmine.Notthatone.The+ brother.Hunter.Youthinkhess and Im unattractive.JASMINE:Duncan!Thatsutterrubbish!DUNCAN:AndHunterlovesyoutoo.JASMINE:No hedoesntDUNCAN:Yeshe eJASMINE:Duncan,justoncelast7_ | hadlunchwithHunter.Youmustnt8_ . I likeyour9_ muchbetterthan Hunters.HuntersDUNCAN:Oh,justshutup,Jasmine!JASMINE:Buthoney,I thinkyoureroDUNCAN:Oh,shutup,Jasmine.JASMINE:Nowthatsenough!Yourejustjealous,Duncan.Youshutup!$e c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 StressandintonationStressand intonation are used to show feelings in English. In the dialoguein 3b, you may have noticed that Iasminesstressand intonation changedat the end when she got angrywith Duncan.
  32. 32. 22 uNtr 5 /,,r/cuon+oa Study the sentencesbelow and then listen to the recording.Emotions N (neutral) A (angry)I No, he doesnt. ooOo OOOo2 Yes,he does. ooO OOO3 Now thats enough. oooO OOoO4 I dont understand. ooooO OOOoO5 Oh just shut up. oooO OOOOA4r Listen to the sentencesand write A for angry or ^|yfor neutra-.I2345Complete this statement.If someone speakswith a lot of _ly stressedwords, with theintonation going - all the time, they can sound very angry.,rz b Intonationin a listThe intonation goesup on the last strongly stressedword in eachphrase, and then dor,rmat the end. Listen and repeat.He bought a cup and some nuts.He bought a cup, some nuts and some honey.He bought a cup, some nuts, some honey and a brush.c GameMy uncle (motheri brother/cousin) went to LondonPractisethis game with a group of five people. Choose any words fromthe list below.EXAMPLEA: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought abus comoanv.B: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought abus company and a toy duck.Each player remembers what the others have said and then addssomething to the list.Practisesaying thesephrasesbefore you onion field some sacksof nutsa bus company a toy ducka brusha cupa cuddly monkeysomehoney a lovelv butterflvsomecomfortablegloves a bun shop a hundredbuttonssomesunglasses5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /,r/.Make a list of all the words inthis unit that are pronounced lttlbttt spelt with the letter o,hke loue.Addother words to this list when you seethem.
  33. 33. llsul heart- [arvellous cars, arenit they?- onderful... fantastic... sofast...- Theyare...theyare...I Targetsound/or/43aa Firstpractisethe sound/re/(seepage15).Listenandrepeat.rlsub Putyour tonguefurther backanddown to makethe longertargetsound/ori.Listenandrepeat..r3cc Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./e/ is short./or/islong.2 MinimalpairsA .tiza--:.,>-o:,lnimalpairwords+4aa Listenandrepeatthewords.l++ub Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.For eachword write lforlal (soundI) or 2 forlstl (sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,1,1,2,2....t2&a--d,(r,i(i)_ 5SoundI Sound2le,l lstlcaP carPWhata lovelycap! Whata lovelycarplhatHetouchedhishat.heartHetouchedhisheartcat cartItsa farmcat. ltsafarmcart.ban barnTheresa banonit. Theresa barnonit.pack parklllpackthe car. lllparkthe car.
  34. 34. 24 uNlT6 /o:l heartMinimalpairsentencesA4sac Listento theminimal pair sentences.n+sud Listento five of the sentencesandwrite I for lal (soundD or 2 f.orls^l(sound2)..q,45ae sentencestressIn Englishsentences,theimportantwordshavea stronglystressedsyllablethat is LOUDeTand sI o w er.Theunstressedsyllablesarecluieterand quid<erThis givesEnglishits rhythm.Listento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(onpage23).E)(AMPLElVhat alovelycarp!MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2l,tl lstlcuP calPWhata beautifulcup! Whata beautifulcar^lcome calmComedown,shesaid. Calmdown,shesaid.Minimalpairwordsrlr,ea Listenandrepeatthewords.rrer b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write Ifor /e/(sound1)or 2 forlal (sound2).HGMPLE PairI: 1,2,1,2,2Minimalpairsentences4ia c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.rrzud Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /n/ (sound t) or 2 for ls^l(sound2).t:e e sentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).EXAMPLE lVhats in that bun?/@$ffinu,.AaR€;qsENT@ffihutTheresa problemwithmyhut.bunWhatsinthatbun?cut cartHe coveredhiscut. He coveredhiscart.heartTheresa problemwithmyheart.barnWhatsin thatbarn?
  35. 35. UNIT6 /r:r/heart 25f tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the I b)hut tr c)heart I2a)cat I b)cut tr c)cart I3a)cap tr b)cup tr c)carp I4a)bun tr b)barn I5a)come tr b)calm I6 a)Pattys ! bl parties !3 )ialoguefi a First practise the sound /o:/ in some of the names in the dialogue. Readbthe names aloud or visit the website to practise.Remember that whenwe sayboth the first and last names, the last name has the strongeststress.Its Tara. Its Tara Darling.Bart lackson Margaret Markus Marsh AlanaThe sound /qr/ is also in some of the words in your instructions.example answer the target sound the mask the last name,, b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps (1-5) with the correct adjectives from thebox.marvellous attractive fantastic fabulous smart:: 3 party(MorgoretondAlonoore ot the bor.Peopleore loughingin the gorden.)ALANA:Whata l_ partythisislImhavingso muchfun,Margaret.MARCARET:Wheresyourglass,Alana?ALANA:Hereyouare.Thanks.Thatsenough.MARTIN:Alana!Margaret!Comeintothe garden.TaraDarlingandMarkusMarsharedancingon thegrass.MARGARET:Inthe darl<?MARTIN:TheyredancingunderthestarsALANA:z I AndBartJacksonis playinghisgurtar.MARCARET:JustlookatTara!Shecantdancebutshelooksvery3-.MARTIN:Lookat Markus.Whata + dancer!ALANA:Whatans coupletheyarelLetstakea photographof them
  36. 36. 264UNIT6 /qr/heartn+sc Listento the dialogueto checkyour answers.Thenpractisereadingthedialoguealoud.Recordyourvoiceto compareyour productionof thetargetsoundwith therecording.Intonationin exclamationsWeoften showthe feelingof surprisein an exclamationwheretheintonation goesa longwayup and then down.esoa Listenandrepeat.lVhat afastcar!What afunny dancer!Whata marvellousphetograph!What a fantasticguital!b Usethesewordsto makeexclamationsaboutthepictures.dark dirty fast marvellous smart unusual funny fantasticSpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /ql/.glass
  37. 37. 27REVIEWl::d game:Pickup pairstPhotocopyandcut out cardsfrom all minimal pairsin units 1-6.Shufflethe cardsand dealthem facedown all overthe table.-:STTurn over any two cards and read their sentences aloud. If they areminimal pairs, you keep them and you continue playtng.If these two cards arent minimal pairs, turn them face down again and thenext person plays.Collect asmany pairs asyou can in a time limit, e.g.ten minutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont need to understandeveryword to do this test.rsr 1 For eachline (1,2,3,4, 5),first listen to the whole line.Then circletheone word that is said twice. Note that meaning is not important in thisexercise.The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them incontrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and thisis shown by an asterisk*.ti^t tU tCJ"l/8,/tetI bean bin Ben ban bun barn2 beal bit bet bat but Bart3 bead bid bed budbad bard*4 peak pick peck pack Puck* park5 peaty* pity petty Patty putty partyScore2 Circle the words withI cupthe samevowel sound as 1-3.done saddoesnt doesmatch combcopy come hotus yes2 heartt(Ii/jump halfam arm cuthome arearent cancarrycant
  38. 38. 28 uNtT7 Review3 sheepli^lslip peoplebread piece anythese stick shopshe this needScore3 IntonationjumbleMatch the correct intonation pattern items a-f with the conversationitems t-6. Number I has been done.I Im goingto makesomejelly.-----r, a) (alist)2 Wouldyou likelemonor cherry? b) Sreslnoquestion)3 Cherry. "- c) (statement)4 CanI help? d) (shortstatementr5 I need a spoon, a bowl, some jelly e) (exclamation)crystalsand some hot water.6 A/hata lovelv colour!f) (questionwithor)Score4 WordstressUnderline the main stressedsyllable in thesewords. (Scorehalf a markper item.)advertising understand Lebanon lemonade sandwichexpensive sunglasses fantastic photograph guitarScoreTotal scoreAdditionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnitst-6Unitl23456Target sound litl ltl lel lal l,rl latlsheep ship pen man cup heartFrom the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficultywith.I Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.6 Practisereading the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compareyour production of the target sound with the recording.You can also use this review task as a quick self-test,by doing steps2 and4 only.
  39. 39. 29Irar clock- hats wrong?- [ve got a reallybad backache.- Im sorry to hear that.I Targetsound/o/,., a First practise the sound /a/(seepage l5). Listen and repeat.,.::bb Put your tongue slightly back andbring your lips slightly forward to makethe target sound /o/. Listen and repeat.i-2! c Listen and repeat both sounds together:lel andror.2 14inimalpairsn:SoundIlalhatItshatweather.catHesgota whitecat.faxLookforthefax.(. "el ,(f (s-*d?;:t)c--a&qs-rue&S&-sack sockPutit ina sack. Putit ina sock.Sound2lolhotItshot weather.cotHesgota whitecot.foxLookfor the fox.toPTurnthattopslowly.taPTurnthattapslowly.backs boxI canseetheirbacks. I canseetheirbox.
  40. 40. lO unr 8/o/clockMinimalpairwordsAs3aa Listen and repeat the words.eseub You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write lfor lal (sound I) or 2 for /o/ (sound 2).H(AMPLE: Pair I: 2,2,1,2,1MinimalpairsentencesAs4ac Listen to the minimal pair,rud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for la,l (sound l) or 2 for lol(sound2).A54ae sentencestressThemostimportantwordsfor themeaningof a sentencearespokenwith a strongstress.Listento the minimal pair sentencesagainandmatchthemwith the sentencestresspatternsbelow.Thebig circlesarethe strongsyllablesandthesmallcirclesaretheweaksyllables.EXAMPLEoOOo(Pair1)Itshat weather./Itshot weather.a)OooO b) oooOO c) ooOoO d) OoOOo e)OoooOnss f Tickthewordsa)or b) thatyou hearin the sentencesIa)cat I b)cot I2a)sack t] b)sock tr3a)tap I b)top tr4a)Pat tr b)pot I5a) baddieE b) body I6 a)black I b) block I5 Dialoguefl a Firstpractisethe sound/o/in someof thewordsfrom the dialogue.Readvthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.soft hot long strong popular horrible wants what wrongsocks job got often sorry washing Mrs Bloggsnsob Listento the dialogue,payingattentionto the targetsound.Thenreadthe dialogueandfill the gaps(l-6) with thecorrectadjectivesfrom thebox.soft hot long strong popular horrible
  41. 41. UNIT8 lol clock If;-. aCvertisementfor OnwashVOICEA: Whatswrongwithyou,MrsBloggs?MRSBLOGCS:Whatswrongwithme?| wanta holidayfromthisr_ job ofwashingsocks!VOICEB: Buya bottleof OnwashiMrsBloggs!VOICEC: Onwashissoz andrvOICED: Youdontwantlotsof + waterwithOnwash.VoICEA: ltsnota s _ job withOnwash.VOICEB: UseOnwashoften.VOICEC: Youwontbe sorrywhenyouvegotOnwash.VOICED: EverybodywantsOnwash.EVERYBODY:Onwashisso6 !{56 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers.Then practisereading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 Intonationin suggestionsandcommandsIntonation is the voice going qi or dOrim.Sometimes this shows whetherthe speaker is more polite and friendly or less friendly.esz a Listen.Intonation goesup in a Intonation goesdorninin asuggestion,and this sounds command, and this sounds lesspolite and friendly: friendly:Have a holiday, Mrs Bloggs. Have afu4iday, Mrs Bloggs.Stop wdshing, MrWong. Stop washing, MrWong.Dont dfop that pol!, Ms Morris. Dont drep that pe!, Ms Morris.Put it on the box, Miss Iohnson. Put it on the box, Miss |ohnson.
  42. 42. S ur.rre/o/clock)tsr assb lntonationdictationListento the intonation in the sentencesbelow.Decideif they aresuggestions(which arepolite and friendly asthe intonation is goinguflor commands(which arelessfriendly asthe intonation is goingtfotryn).Draw an ilrowup or dorrmin the spacebeforethe stronglystressedword. Number I hasbeendone.I Put thesesocksin the top- dfalger,Iohn. commond2 Put it on top of the box.3 Makethe coffee hot, MrsWong.4 Dor/t washthesesocksin the washingmachine,Robin.5 Dont go to the wrong Ofrce.6 Goto the shops,Oscar.7 Dont go to the wrong doctor,Bronwen.AFBc Listenagainand then practisethe sentences.Recordyourvoice tocompareyour production of the intonation with the recording.5 Spelling>r Lookback over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /o/.
  43. 43. 5talc^lball- D.rrrn .rlwaysgoesfor a jog in the morning.- Don?Iogging? In the morning?- o, not Don! His daughter-in-law, Dawn. Shesvery sporty.-argetsoundicll, a First practise the sound /o/(seepage29).Listenand repeat.b The back ofyour tongue goesup alittle more to make the long targetsound /c:/. Listen and repeat.c Listen and repeat both sounds together./o/ is short. /c:/ is long..1inimalpairs;€5F.- ThiscodwasinthHewa--4/I_ti I ltsasmallH-z!rtfoxLookfor the fox.-tAspot-/ I dontliketnesespots.r,rimal pairwords. a Listen and repeat the words.,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For eachword writefor /oi (sound 1) or 2 for lc;l (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: I,1,2,2,1DJi-Sound2DawnlsyournameDawn?cordThiscordwasin the sea.shortHewasshort.PortItsa smallport.forksLookfortheforks.sPortI dontlikethesesports.*-Z--=jy4:="a
  44. 44. t{ unlr 9 lctlballMinimalpairsentenceseorac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.aarud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lol (sound I) or 2 for lctl(sound2).A6rae sentence stressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 33). Notice that the strongly stressedwords are LOUDeTand s I o w er.The weakly stressedwords are quieter and quidcu.eoz f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a)spots I b)sports f2a)pots I b)ports I3a)cod I b)cord I4a)shot I b)short f5a)Rod I b)roared tr6a)whata ! b)water f5 Dialogue$a Firstpractisethesound/crlin someof thewordsfrom rhedialogue.Readthe wordsaloud or visit the websiteto practise.Laura morning walking towards airport awful alwaysreporter report sports York fault (/fcrlt/ or /folt/)A footballmatcha footballer has fallen over a forwardaoeb Listen to the dialogue, paying particular attention to the target sound.SportsreportfromRadioStation4ANNOUNCER:Thismorningthe Roarersfootballteamarrivedbackfromyorr.LauraShortis our sportsreporter,andshewasat the airport.LAURAsHoRT:cood morning,listeners.Thisis Laurashort.Allthefootballersarewalkingtowardsme.HeresCeorgeBall,the goalkeeper.Coodmorning,Ceorge.cEORcEBALL:Coodmorning.Areyou a reporter?
  45. 45. UNIT9 /cr/ball 55LAURAsHoRT:Yes.Ceorse.lm LauraShortfromRadioStation4. Tellusaboutthe footballmatchwithYorkcEoRcEBALL:Well,it wasawful.We lost Andthe scorewasforty-four,four.Butit wasntmv fault.LauraLAURASHORT:Whosefaultwasit,Ceorge?CEORCEBALL:Theforwards.LAURASHORT:Theforwards?cEORcEBALL:Yes.Theforwards.Theywerealwaysfallingoveror losingthe ball!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 rtonationIntonation is the voice going up or dornrn.We can show a feeling ofsurprise with an intonation that goesa long way up.-.r a Listen to the speakersexpressingsurprise.A: Mr Shortalwaysplaysfootballinthe morning.B: Inthernorning?C: Mr Short?D: Football?e: fways?In this conversation B, C, D and E are all surprised by what A says.B issurprised that he plays in the morning. C is surprised that Mr Short plays.D is surprised that he playsfootbal/. E is surprised that he always pIays.roi b Listen and then expresssurprise about the part of the sentencein italics,like the example.EXAMPLE I sawVictoriaat the qilport.Response:At the airport?I Ive put the ball in the drawer.2 lts too warm ro go walking.3 Georgiawas looking gorgeousthis morning.4 Morganhasboughtprty-ftuefotks,5 Im goingtobuy a horse.6 Yououghtto getup atfuurin themorning.7 I sawOrlandowhen I wasin NewYork.8ltsyoutfault.s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /crl.
  46. 46. 56il lu t book-We should put all these books in that boxnow, shouldnt-Yes, we should.I Targetsound/u/,6roa First practise the sound /o/(seepage29).Listen and rePeat.{6br,b The back of your tongue goesforwardand up a little more to make the target .-:)sound /o/.(-")bh(c Listen and repeat both ofthese shortsounds: lol and lul.2 Minimalpairsr*hl.fffi r,,rocky Kyouup..A rock rookThewindblewaroundthe rock. ThewindblewaroundtheMinimalpairwords{i:4 a Listen and repeat the words.,; bb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write lfor /o/ (sound 1) or 2 for lal (sound2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2,2,1,2, IMinimalpairsentencesr,., 6 lislsn to the minimal pair sentences.r,-r,d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /o/ (sound l) or 2 for lul(sound2).
  47. 47. eUNITl0 /u/ book SISentencestressAny word in a sentence can become the most important word, and havethe strongest stressto give the sentencea specialmeaning. Listen to theminimal pair sentencesagain and write the word which has thestrongeststressin each pair in the table. Then read the specialmeanings.Strongest stress Special meaningPair I IN Not just anywhere, e.g.near or beside it.Pair 2 Evervbodv else has a different answer.Pair 3 Nobody elsewould do that,Pair 4 But not under it or above it.Pair5 Dont trust anvbodv else., r f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:I a)cock tr b)cook I2a)lock I b)look tr3a)god I b)good I4a)cod I b)could If ialogue$IaEirstpractisethe sound/u/in someof thewordsfrom thisunit. Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.good book foot cook look took should could would fullsugar football bookshelf cookery shouldnt couldnt wouldnt.i b Listento the dialogue,payingattentionto thetargetsound.I :st bookMRCooK: Couldyoutellme whereyouveputmy book,Bronwen?MRSCOOK:lsntit on the bookshelf?MRCooK: No,Thebookshelfisfullof yourcookerybooks.A4RSCOOK:Thenyoushouldlookinthe bedroom,shouldntyou?MRCooK: lvelooked.Youtookthatbookandputit somewhere,didntyou?MRSCOOK:Thelivingroom?MRCOOK:No.lvelooked.lm goingto putallmy booksin a boxandlockit!MRSCoOK:Look,John!ltson thefloornextto yourfootMRCOOI(:Ah!Cood!Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.
  48. 48. ffi urrrto/u/book4 Intonation:downtagsE)(AMPLEWeshouldput all thesebooksin that box now,sheuldnt we?Theintonation in most questiontagsis goingdown.This meansthat thespeakerexpectsagreement.Sodoumtagsareuseda lot in conversationstocreateagreementand rapport betweenthe speakers.azza Listenand repeat.shauldyou? shquldnt you? cerld you? eoraldntyou? wo{rldhe?weldnt he?He couldnt cook,cotrldhe? Shecould play foatball,eogldntshe?Youwouldnt look.wauld vou? Thevwould like suear.worldnt thev?il .rzsb Practisein pairs.Listenand respond,like the example.**-:,= rE)(AMPLEShecouldnt cook.A: Shecouldntewk, eErld she?B: No,sheco*rldnt.I Wecouldnt cooka cakewithout sugar.2 Goodfootballersshouldnteattoo much pudding.3 Youshouldlook at somegoodcookerybooks.4 Youwouldntput your foot in it*.(*idiommeaningsayor do thevwongthing)5 Theywouldntcook thebooks*.(*idiom meaningchangethe accountsto stealmoney)5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsound,andwrite whatyou noticedabouthowto spellthe sound/u/.
  49. 49. 59-:getsound/ur/-- a First practise the sound /u/(seepage 36). Listen and repeat.-- b Put your tongue up and back a littlemore to make the long targetsound /ur/. Listen and repeat.-. c Listenandrepeatboth soundstogether./u/ is short. /ur/ is long.I "nimalpairslutl boot- , :n full of goodfood.- >uchbeautifulpuddings!- 3urtoomuchsugar...- . hrada hugeservingof chocolatemoussewith stewedfruit.- ""tradthe blueberry souffldandthe rhubarb strudel.- ."ir€6very foolish.I had servingsof gooseberryfool.- -!hata foolyou are!(Note:pol hastwo meanings:I a stupidperson;2 mousse,souffl6,strudelandfool aredesserts)d..u4ffit6d*lr i*;=l/i%i(--PUILt€_*_rhf>!l4vSoundI Sound2lul lu^llook LukeLook,a newmoon! Luke,a newmoon!could cooedThebirdcould. Thebirdcooed.would wooedHewould,Julie, HewooedJulieatthefullmooni atthefullmoon.(Note: proolhas two meanings: I evidence that something is true;2foolproof - made so that it cant be damaged, even by a fool)PullThesignsaidPull.fullThisisntreallyfullproof.PoolThesignsaidPool.foolThisisntreallyfoolproof.
  50. 50. 40 uNlr| | /ulrboorMinimalpairwords8rr d List€fl and repeat the words.t rr b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor /u/ (sound 1) or 2 for lw,l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 2,2, ).,2,IMinimalpairsentencesIilr c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.tut, d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /u/ (sound l) or 2 for lu;l(sound2).sr e Listen to the strong and weak stressesin: oOoooo a foolproof compllter.Then listen and underline the strong stressesin:OooO waterproof boots oOoOo a wind-proof jacketOooOo childproof containers oOooO an ovenproof dishoOooO a waterproof coat oOooO a bullet-proof vest.rk, f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.r a)look I b)Luke tr2 a)full I b) fool3 a)pull I b) pool-4 a)fullish tr b) foolish !5 a)would E b) wooed I5 Dialoguefl a First practise the sound /ur/ in some of the words and phrasesfrom the-dialogue. Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.who school soup threw unit rudeness rudest studentcontinue computer chewing gum excuseme good afternoonit was you!n; b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and guesswhich words are strongly stressed.The numberin brackets tells you how many strong stressesthere are in that line. Thefirst line has been c Listen to the dialogue again and underline the strong stresses.Checkyour answers.
  51. 51. UNITll /ur/bootffi-re two rudeststudentsin the schoolMlSsLUKE:(l) Coodafterngengirls.GIRLS:(2) Coodafternoon,MissLuke.MISSLUKE: (a) Thisafternoonweregoingto learnhowto cooksoup.(5) Turnon yourcomputersand lookat unittwenty-two.LUCY:(2) Excuseme,MissLuke.MISSLUKE:(l) Yes,Lucy?LUCY;(2) Theressomechewinggum on yourshoe.MISSLUKE: (5) Whothrewtheirchewinggum on the floor?Wasit you,Lucy?LUCY:(2) No, wasSusan.MISSLUKE:(l) Who?LUCY:(2) SusanDuke.SUSAN:(3) lt wasntme, wasJulie.JULIE:(1) lt wasyou!SUSAN:(8) lt wasntme!My mouthsfullof chewinggum.Loo( MissLuke!JULiE:( ) Stoppullingmy hair, wasyoulSUSAN:(l) YOU!JULIE:(1) YOU!MISSLUKE:(11) Excuseme!lf youtwo continuewiththisrudeness,youcanstayafterschoolinsteadof goingto the pool.{ Sentencestressna a Listen to this conversation. Notice how the strongly stressedwords areLOUDer, and the weakly stressedwords are said very quiddy.A: Excuseme.B: Yes?A: Couldyoutellme whereI cangetsome(1) shoelaces?B: Yes.Theresa shopnextto the (2) supermarketthatsellsvsrygood(l) shoelaces.lm goingtheretoo.
  52. 52. b use the wordsbelowto makemore conversationslike the one in 4a.Trvto saythe unstressedsyllablesquickly.Ishoelacesherbalshampootoothpastetoolsfootball bootstunachewing gumfresh fruit juice2supermarketswimmingpoolcomputer shopnewspaperstandschool5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsound,andwrite whatyou noticed abouthow to spellthe sound/u:/.
  53. 53. /*3lst^lgirl- {l my co- rkers have started ... er ... walking:o rr-ork... er ... very early in the morning.- lh. -{nd do yoz walk to rk? -:getsound/sr/* a First practise the sound /crl(seepage 33). Listen and repeat.-r-tb Put your tongue forward and up alittle more to make the target sound/sll. Listen and repeat..-c c Listen and repeat both oftheselong sounds together: lctl and lstl.: ,iinimalpairsA :#ftSoundI Sound2lctl lslfour furShesgotfour. Shesgotfur.torn turnItsa tornsign. ltsaturnsign.uvarm wolmI wouldntlikewarmsoup. I wouldntlikewormsoup.walker workelHesa fastwalker. Hesa fastworker.malpairwords"ruaa Listen and repeat the words.rrrrrb You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor lcll (sound L)or 2 for lstl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 1,2,I,1,2,"f"tV-51rt *a--_-sifenq*93i<g,+*t#,ru
  54. 54. 44 UN|T12 l:;l girlMinimalpairsentencestrrra C Listento theminimal pair sentences.nrrud Listento four of the sentencesandwrite 1 for lctl(soundl) or 2 for lstl(sound2).Bllae sentencestressListento theminimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(onpage43).EXAMPLEI wouldnt like warm soup.MinimalpairsBSoundI Sound2lel ls^lten turnThesignsaysten. Thesignsaysturn.Ben burnLookatit,Ben. Lookatit burn.bed birdItsa colourfulbed. ltsa colourfulbird.west wolstItsthewestwind. ltstheworstwind.MinimalpairwordsErrda Listenandrepeatthewords.Hl;l b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write lfor /e/(soundl) or 2 forlsl (sound2).EXAMPLEPairI: 2,2,2,I, IMinimalpairsentencesBlJac Listento the minimal pair sentences.nreud Listento four of the sentencesandwrite I for /e/(sound1)or 2 for ls.^l(sound2).Bt.rae SentencestressListento the minimal pair sentencesagainandunderlinethe sentencestress(above).EXAMPLEItsthe westwind.6)fAh,HwL/rviltY.,4LR
  55. 55. UN|T12lstl g,irl 45Q et- nalpairsC :iu.btlSoundI Sound2Itl l3llfun fernFabulousfun! Fabulousfern!bun burnLookatthatbun. Lookatthatburn.w6ti-qJlGH5-#,Si.[tbud birdThatsa tinylittlebud. Thatsa tinylittlebird.-O ll girl$ Theresa gullontheb :h. ih.,., a girlonthebeach.- nal pairwordsa Listen and repeat the words.b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor /,r/ (sound l) or 2 for ls.^l(sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 1,2,1,2,I-"ralpairsentencesc Listen to the minimal pair sentences.d Listen to four of the sentencesand write I for /n/ (sound l) or 2 for lll(sound2).e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(above).EXAMPLE Fabulous fun!f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:t a)bed I b) bud I c) bird I2a)Bens tl b)buns f c)burns tr3a)ward tr b)word I4a)walk I b)work I5a)short tr b)shirt I6a)or I b)er Ii I alogueo a First practise the sound /srl in words from the dialogue below. Readthewords aloud or visit the website to practise.were werent nurse worst world shirts hurts thirstvThursday dirty Sir Herbert Colonel Burtonb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the rarget sound.
  56. 56. $. UN|Tl2 lstl girlTheworstnurseSIRHERBERT:NUTSe!COLONELBURTON:Nurse!lmthirstylSIRHERBERT:Nurse!My headhurts!COLONELBURTON:NurseShermanalwayswearssuchdirtyshirts.SIRHERBERT:He neverarrivesat workearly.COLONELBURTON:Heand er ... NurseTurnerwerentat workon Thursdav,werethev?SIRHERBERT:No,theywerent.COLONELBURTON:NurseShermanistheworstnursein theward.isnthe.SirHerbert?SIRHERBERT:No,he isnt,ColonelBurton.Hestheworstnursein theworld!c Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 lntonation:up or downtagsBls a Theintonationof questiontagsisusuallygoingdown.Thismeansthespeakerexpectsagreement.Down tagsareuseda lot to createagreementandrapportbetweenthe speakers.EXAMPLEA:Wewereatwork early,werent we?B:Yes,wewere.Sometimestheintonationgoesup.Thismeansthe speakeris not sureifthe information is correctand is askingthe listenerto checkit. Beforeanup tagthereis oftena slightpause..EXAMPLEA:Thenurseswereatwork on Thursday,werent they?B:Yes,thevwere.
  57. 57. UNIT12/sr/girl S. r b Up or down?Listenand mark intonation arrowson the tagsSlexpects agreement)orI (notsure).NumberI hasbeendone.I Theywerent walking to work, rqdrethey? notsure2 Thosedirfy shirtswereNurseTqlners,werent they?3 ThewardswererttdtW, werethey?4 Theywerent speakingGelman,werethey?5 Thosenurseswerethirsw, werentthev?6 TheColoneland SirHerbertwerethe worst patientsin theward,wererlt they?c Practisereadingthe questionsabovewith the sameintonation. Recordyour voiceto compareyour production of the intonation with therecording.5 SpellingLookbackoverthis unit atwordswith the targetsoundand write what younoticedabouthow to spellthe sound/srl.
  58. 58. lel acamera48- Remember to telephone your sisterthe day after tomorrowfor her birthday.- And dont forget to send a letter to your brother.- Shall I send you a letter?- Of course.But dont forget to telephone as soon asyou arrive.I Targetsound/a/B20aa First practise the sound /sl/(seepage 43). Listen and repeat.szoub Make the same sound but very veryshort to make the target sound /e/.Listen and repeat.Bzocc Listen and repeat both sounds together:/srl is long. /e/ is very short.3 e pair ef binoculas4 e photegraph efhemother end fathe5 a book eboutSouth americeCover the words on the left and practise questions and answers.EXAMPLE A: Mhatsin picture two?B: e glassef wate2 lel in unstressedwordsandsvllablesepil rllt"ggggrca photograph ofhermother and fathera book aboutSouth AmericaBzraa Listen and repeat.The spelling has been changed in the words on theright to show you when to use the sound /e/.*@ I e photegraph efBarberea glassof water 2 e glassaf wate(.-) --------..t;1r@
  59. 59. Tellingthe timeListen and repeat.Look at the clock.Mhatsthe time?Its six oclock.Its a quarter to seven.Now practise these.EXAMPLE A: /hats the time?B: Its e quarte te twelve.UNIT15 /e/ a carnera 4!fLook et the clock.Mhatsthe time?Its six aclock.Its e quarte ta seven.oot,3 ;eadingooeoooo@aloudQa Readthis story aloud or visit the website to practise.The spelling hasbeen changed to showyou when to make the sound /e/. Recordyourvoice to listen to your production of the target sound.Barberespent Satedayaftenoon Iooking et e beautifal book ebout Southemerice.I want te go te South emerice, she said te heself.The next morning, when Barberewoke up it wes six eclock, end hebrothes end sisteswe still esleep.Barberelooked et them, end thenclosed her eyesegain.Then she quietly got out af bed end started te pack he suitcase.Shetook same comfeteble clothes out ef tha cupbed. Shepacked epair ef binocules end he sistescamera.Shepacked e photegraph efhaselfend one ef he mothar and fathe.I musnt fegette have same breaKest, she said ta haself.Bet then shelooked et the clock. It wes e quarte to seven.Ill jest drink e glassef wate, she said.e glassef wate, she said.Wate,she said, end opened her eyes.Shewes still in he bed, and he brothes end sisteswe laughing et he.Tell eswhat you we dreaming ebout, they said te he.Bat Barberedidnt answe.Shewes thinking ebout he wondefuliourney te South americe.
  60. 60. f unrrtt latacameraszzb WeakformsListento the exampleof the weakform and the strongform of uras.H(AMPLEWesshedreaming?This is the sound/a/.This is the weakform of uas.Yes,shewas.This is a different sound.This is the strongform of urasThenlisten and repeat.Wesshethinking about SouthAmerica? Yes,shewas.Waher brothersand sistersasleep? Yes,theywere.Dethey like reading? Yes,theydo.Heveyou readabout SouthAmerica? Yes,I have.Dasyour friend like reading? Yes,he does.eweworking hard? Yes,we are.Hasyour friend beento SouthAmerica? Yes,he has.Canyou swim? Yes,I can.nzs c Tick the wordsa)or b) that you hearin the f b)hes I2a) can I b) cen I3a)was I b)was I4a)does I b)das I5a)am I b)em I6a)them tr b)them I
  61. 61. ,U,NITl5 /e/a cameraffi- - 3rOgU€a Readthis dialogueand circlethe soundlal.The first line hasbeendonefor you.ltr:COlfl$A: tm going6thd libr&y.B: Canyou buysomethingfor me at the newsagents?A: Butthe newsagentsis a milefromthe library.B: No.Notthatnewsagents.Notthe onethatsnextto the fishandchipshop.I meanthe onethatsnearthe butche/s.A: Oh,yes.Well,whatdo youwant?B: Somechocolatesanda tin of sweetsandan b Listen and check your answers, then practise reading the dialoguealoud. Record your voice to compare your production of the targetsound with the recording.t SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /a/.
  62. 62. 52TIREVIEWCardgame:Pickup samesoundsTESTPhotocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in Units B-13.Shuffle the cards and deal them face down all over the table.Turn over any two cards and read their sentencesaloud. If they are thesame vowel sound you keep them and you continue playing.If those two cards arent the samevowel sound, turn them face down againand the next person plays.Collect as many same sound pairs asyou can in a time limit, e.g.tenminutes.You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you dont have to understandevery word to do this,I Foreachline (I,2,3,4),firstlistentothewholeline.Thencircletheoneword - or part of a word - that is said twice. Note that meaning is notimportant in this exercise.The purpose is to review the sounds byhearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everydayEnglish, and this is shown by an asterisk*.Incomplete words have therest of the word written in brackets, e.g.foll(ow).lvl/uttDtI Poll(y) Paul pull pool Pearl2 foll(ow) fall fooltull furl*3 cod cord could cooed curd*4 wad ward would wooed* wordScore2 Circle the words with the same vowel sound as 1-4.I birdt3^/bed wererude burnearly board shirtworst shot2 ball,torn watergirl all glassfour logtalk nurse
  63. 63. 3 boot/u"l4 bookhv,lUNIT14 Review 55full boxcook wholock threwwould looktool goodIookshoe twocouldthoughmornrngsuper doclockscoref -l-z-ol3 Listento the sentencesandmarkwhichkind of questiontagisbeingused:agreement(expected) unsure(socheckingthe information)I You can buy bootlaces at the shoeshop,cantyou?2 That carpet shop sellscushions too, doesnt it?3 Suebought her flute at the music shop, didnt she?4 Youdlike a new cookerv book, wouldnt Vou?5 The bookshopsnext to the newsagents,isnt it?6 You do want your birthday presentsto be a surprise,dont you?score| 7b]Total score [- ]:- :ionalreviewtaskusingdialoguesfromUnits8-12Unit I I 10 ll L2 13Target sound lol lc;l htl lutl lrtl lalclock ball book boot girl a cameraFrom the above table, choose anytarget sounds that you had difficultywith.1 Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, Iistening for the target sound. Ifyou have chosen the target sound /e/,listen for that sound in any of thedialoguesfrom Units 8-12.2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.4 Check your answers in the key.5 Listen to the dialogue again, Iistening for the target sound.6 Readthe dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the CD.You can also use this review task asa quick self-test,by doing steps2and 4 only.
  64. 64. 54letl male- Im afraid Ive made a mistake on this form.Is your name spelt C-K?My occupation. Im not a wine taster. Im a food tester.Targetsound/erlB2zaa Firstpractisethesound/e/(seepageI 1).Thenpractisethe shortsound/r/ (seepage7).Listenandrepeat.szzub Ioin the two sounds:/eeer/.B27cc Listenandrepeatthe targetsound/erl.Thesecondpart of the soundis shorter.2 MinimalpairsSoundI Sound2lel lerl,I.4<fure-PenWhatanawfulpenlshedThedogsintheshed.edgeItsa difficultedge.wetJustwet.ParnWhatanawfulpain!shadeThedogsintheshade.a8eItsa difficultage.waitJustwait.ome&,^@ffit*7.Itest tasteTestthisfood. Tastethisfood.FAtpIlr Ilt000ual pairB28a tlnzsrbPePPer PaPelThatstoomuchpepper. Thatstoomuchpaper.wordsListenand repeatthe words.Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.For eachword, writefor /e/(sound1)or 2 forletl (sound2).EXAMPLEPairl: 1,I,2,2,1--->F#Minim
  65. 65. UN|r t5 /er/male 55: latr sentences. c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.- d Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for lel (sound l) or 2 for letl(sound2).e SentencestressFirst read the minimal pair sentencesand try to guesswhich words willbe stressed.Notice which words are nouns, adjectivesor main verbs.Theseare often important, and the most important words for themeaning of a sentenceare stressed.Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(onpage54).EXAMPLE VVhat an aryful pcn! / iVhat an awful paiu!f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences,1a)pen tr b)pain I2a)shed tr b)shade I3a)pepper! b)paper tr4a)ler tr b)late tr5a)letter I b)later tr6a)get I b)gate II - : loguea First practise the target sound /erl in some words from the dialogue.Readthe words aloud or visit the website to practise.made late changed may say train waiting eightGrey timetable April station ages Baker eighteenafraid mistake todayb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.- -: railwaystation(Mr Creyis woiting ot the roilwoy stotion for o troin.)MRCREY:Thistrainslate!lvebeenwaitinghereforages.PoRTER:Whichtrain?MRCREY:The8.l8 to BakerStreet.PORTER:The8.l8? lm afraidyouvemadea mistake,sir.MRGREY:A mistake?Mytimetablesays:BakerStreettrain- B.lBPoRTER:Oh no.TheBakerStreettrainleavesat B.OB.MRGREY:At 8.08?PoRTER:Theychangedthe timetableat the end of April.ltsthe firstof MaytodayMRcREY:Changedit?MayI seethe newtimetable?Whatdoesit say?
  66. 66. 55 UNITl5 /erlmalePORTER:lt says:BakerStreettrain- 8.08.MRGREY:Oh no,youreright.Thetrainisntlate.I am.c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.4 lntonationB3za In a conversation we can show surprise by repeating the other personswords with the intonation going up. Listen.EXAMPLESA: Im afraid youve made a mistake, sir. B: A mistake?A: They changed the timetable. B: Changed it?osr b Write Bspart in the conversation below by repeating the part in italics.Note that number 7 needs a different word in the answer.Drawintonation arrows following the example in l. Check your answersbyIistening to the recording and then practise the intonation. Recordyourvoice to compare your production of the intonation with the recording.1 A: Itstheeighth of May. B: rheeighth?2 A: Yes.ItsMrs Greysbirthday today. B:3 A: Yes.Sheseighty-eight. B:4 A: Yes.And shesgoingawayfor a holiday B:5 A: Thatsright.And shesgoingbyplane. B:6 A: Yes.Shewantsto go toSpain. B:7 A: Thatsright.,Vhydontyou gowith her? B:s SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about spelling the sound /erl.
  67. 67. 57rIllr.,larl tme- er ... Hr! ... Are you all riglrt?... er ... ,t ,uld vou like a ride in mv cart?- .,rhanks. Im fine. Im just flring mv kite.*:d enjoying the sunshine.- )h ... er ... alright! Havea nice time!I Targetsoundiarla Firstpractisethe long sound /oll (seepage23).Then practisethe shortsound /r/ (seepage7).Listenand repeat.b loin the two sounds:/orqro:r/.c Listenand repeatthe targetsound /arl.The secondpart ofthe sound is shorter.IMinimal:o (z)tj"-.-r,a./r_-(sGfue*iV:ParrsSeundE Sound2iUi allbar buyThatwasa goodbar. Thatwasa goodbuy.bark bikeWhata noisybark. Whata noisybike.Pa pieHe loveshisPa. He loveshispieeyeItsgottwo Rs. lts8oi tvvoeyes.cart kiteItsa cart. ltsa kite.heart heightCheckthe heart. Checkthe height.,fi,qA,*fl-,tK(Y..r-.r,q|--!:^J@Vv&/,5/<>-(t,c)..*T{-?l*i2-{
  68. 68. .5S uNtT 16/arl fineMinimalpairwordssss a Listen and repeat the words.eso b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor la,^l(sound I) or 2 for latl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pairl: 2,2, I,I,7MinimalpairsentencesB37ac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.sszud Listen to six of the sentencesand write I for latl (sound l) or 2 for larl(sound2).B3zae SentenCestreSSListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress (on page 57). Strongly stressedwords are LOUDeT and s I o w er.Weakly stressedwords are quieter and qufu*erEXAMPLE That was a good buy.nsa f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) cart I b) kite I2 a) darning! b) dining I3a)star tr b)sW tr4a)laugh tr b)hfe I5a)hard tr b)hide tr6a)Pa I b)pie trHeidi,Carolineand Nigel(Heidi ond Corolineore both typing)HEtDt:(Stopstyping.Shessmiling.)Hi,Nigel.NTCEL:Hi,Heidi.Hi,Caroline.Yourelookingl_ , Caroline(Silencefrom Coroline.Shekeepstyping)NTGEL:Wouldyou likesome2_ coffee,Caroline?5 Dialogue*a Firstpractisethe targetsound/a/ in wordsfrom the dialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.hi right ride smile five nine drive Miles Heidi RileyNigel Caroline bike nice type iced mobile climbingspider Friday library tonightssg b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then readthe dialogue and fill the gaps l-f 0 with the correcr words from the nice type iced mobile climbing spider Fridaylibrary tonight
  69. 69. CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NIGEL:CAROLINE:NICEL:HEIDI:CAROLINE:HEIDI:UNITl6 /ari fine 51I(Keepson typing.)No thanks,Nigel lm busytyping.I have99 pagesto 5_ by Friday.Nevermind.Doyoulikemotor riding,Caroline?Sometimes.(Mobilephonerings.)... My s_ ! . Hello...(Sniles.)...Hi,Riley!Mmmm!... (Loughs.). ldlikethat..Mmmm ... at five... atthe .. its19 HighStreet . byebyel (Corolineputs owoy her mobile ond stortsVping)Wouldyou liketo comeridingwith me 7_ , Caroline?Nottonight,Nigel.lm goingfor a drivewith Riley.(Smilesto herselfond keepsAping)Whatabout8 ?Friday?lm goings_ with Miles.Allrightthen.Bye.Caroline, it somethingnice,Heidi?No.ltsa loc Listen to the dialogue to check your answers. Then practise reading thedialogue aloud. Recordyour voice to compare your production of thetarget sound with the recording.,.lrdstressa Listen and repeat.flyrng ice skating sky diving driving horse riding wine tastingkite flying climbing cyclingi b Use the words above to practise this conversation.A: I think is quiteexciting.Do you likeit?B: Yes.Wouldyou liketo come with me on Friday?R: ld reallyliketo Butlm busyon Friday.Wouldsomeothertimebe allright?! rellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /all.
  70. 70. 50lctl boy- I put all this oil in the rice?-Yes,all the oil, and then let it boil.Targetsound/crlnrrr a First practisethe sound /crl (seepage33).Then practise the short sound /r/(seepage 7). Listen and repeat.rrrrtb Ioin the two sounds: lctc.c..r|.nrr, c Listen and repeatthe targetsound /cll.The second part of the sound is shorter.2 MinimalpairsSoundIlttlallItsallthere.ballItsaballonhishead.cotnLookatthatgoldencorn.J:.r <-:=>#ri3t@MffiRoyHeartheEVAnn.{i{+-.rUVs-toalHeartheengineroar. engine,Roy.MinimalpairwordsIr.r a Listen and repeat the words. Then listen and b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, writefor ltl (sound L) or 2 for lctl (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair l: 1,2,I,2,2MinimalpairsentencesB{rac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.u.r*, d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for lctl (sound l) or 2 for ltl(sound2).Sound2IttloilItsoilthere.boilItsa boilon hishead.coinLookat thatgoldencoin.tore toyThepapertore. Thepapertoy.
  71. 71. UNIT17hrl bov 6*t..e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and notice that the mostimportant words for the speakersmeaning are LOUDer. The lessimportant words for the meaning are r4i.iir:t*r.Underline the mostimportant words in the sentences(on page 60).EXAMPLE Hear the engine, Roy.. f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.I a) corn f b)coin Iz a) bawling I b) boiling !3a)all tr b)oil I4a)aw I b)oi tr5a)bore tr b)boy tr6a)all tr b)oil tr3ogueI a First practise the target sound /crl in words from the dialogue. Readthe-words aloud or visit the website to practise.boy toy noise voice spoilt pointing destroyed employedappointment annoying disappointinglntonationin namesThe main stressis on the last name.JoyceRoyal Roy Coyne Rolls Royceb Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.RoyalsRollsRoyce(JoyceRoyoltokesher noisy RollsRoyceto the mechonicemployedot thegoroge,o young boy nomed RoyCoyne.Royloves RollsRoyces)ROYCOYNE:Whata terriblenoise,MrsRoyallJOYCEROYAL:lsntit annoying,Roy?Itsoutof oil.ROYCoYNE:A RollsRoyce!Outofoil? . Andlookl(pointing)...Thewate/sboilinglPerhapsyouvespoiltthe motor.Or evendestroyedit.Howdisappointing!ltssucha beautifulRollsRoycel (oising hisvoicd ANDA ROLLSROYCEISNTA TOY!JGYCEROYAL:Howdisappointing!lllbe latefor my appointment.
  72. 72. ffi unr fl lctlboyc Practisereadingthe dialoguealoud.Recordyour voiceto compareyourproduction of the targetsoundwith the recording.4 Wordstresssaoa Guessthe main stressedsyllablein eachword in this list. (Theyallcontainthesamesound.)Thenlistenandcheckyour answers.annoying unemployment oyster employer appointmentenjoy poisonous destroyer ointment moist embroidery toiletdisappointed joinb Dictionarywork:secondarystressln Shipor Sheep?the main stressin aword is shonmin bold,e.g.employment.Whenyou meeta newword,you canchecktheword stressin a gooddictionary @.g.CambridgeLearnersDictionary).Most dictionariesusethe symbolrin front of themain stressedsyllable,andthe symbol,toshowanysecondarystress(usuallyin longerwords),e.g./nnrmrplcrment/.Choosefour of thelongestwordsin thelist in 4aanduseyour dictionaryto checkifthere is anysecondarystress.5 SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /crl.
  73. 73. Nlaui house ; rour cow?:r":er norIm takingit to RoyCoyne.Itsrunning: :rt askaboutyour car!I saidhowsyour cow?- Know,your br cow!:et sound/aul- a First practise the sound lel (seepage 23).Then practise the sound /u/(seepage36).Listen and repeat.-- b Ioin the two sounds: lna,r;al.- c Listen and repeat the target sound /aul.The second part of the sound is shorter. ^imalpairsSoundI Sound2la;l laolcar cowItsthe bestcar. ltsthe bestItwasa longbowItwasabrowarch ouchArch!he saidloudlv. Ouch!he said-al pairwords:a3 Listen and repeat the words.,,b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write Ifor latl (sound l) or 2 for laul (sound 2).EXAMPLE Pair1: 2, l,1,2,2barDar. longbow.TheresbeautifulbraHerbrawaswrinkled. Herbrowwaswrinkledgrass glousegrasshere. Theresbeautiful
  74. 74. ffi urrrr18/aulhouseMinimalpairsentencess"rgac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.nlsbd Listen to five of the sentences and write I for latl (sound l) or 2 for laul(sound 2).B4sae SentencestressFirst read the minimal pair sentencesand notice which words areadjectivesor adverbs.These are often important for the meaning of asentence (aswell as nouns and main verbs).Then listen to the sentencesagain and underline the sentencestress(on page 63).EXAMPLE Its the best car.aso f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the I b)cow I2a)grass I b)grouseI3a)bra tr b)brow I4a)ha5a)ah6a)tarn I b)tourn tr! DialogueI b)how trI b)ow! IO a Firstpractisethe sound laulinwords from the dialogue.Readthe wordsaloudor visitthewebsiteto practise.ow! now how shouting house mouse couch loudly frovrm brovrm round found lounge ground somehowmountain around pronounce upsidedownasr b CorrectionTherearesixitems to changein the dialogue.Readthe dialogueandlistento therecordingatthe sametime.Makethewordsthesameastherecording,mouseinthehouseMR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:MRSBROWN:MR BROWN:(shoutingloudly)lYEFOUNDA MOUSE!Ow!Youreshoutingtoo loudly.Sitdownanddontfrown.(sittingdown) lvefounda mousein the house.A town mouse?Yes.A littleroundmouse.ltsrunningaroundin the lounge.On theground?Yes.ltsunderthe couchnow.
  75. 75. UNITl8 /ailrhouse 55MRSBROWN:Well,getit out.MRBR0WN:How?MRSBROWN:Turnthe couchupsidedown.Cetit outsomehowWedontwantamousein ourhouse.Oursisthe cleanesthouseinthetownlc Practisereading the corrected dialogue. Recordyour voice to compareyour production of the target sound with the recording.Stressin phrasalverbsir;: a EXAMPLE f Sit dor,r,n.Listen and repeat.I Hessitting dolrm.2 Heslying down.3 Hesstanding up.4 Hesturning round.5 Hesshouting out.6 Hesrunning around.4 Turn it down.5 Work it out.b Match these oictures with the correct sentencesin 4a.d Match these pictures with the correct sentencesin 4c.SpellingLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatyou noticed about how to spell the sound /aul.a),.| e)e)a(( (:B;.r C EXAMPLE 2 Get it out.Listen and repeat.I Put it dornm.2 Take it out.3 Throw it out.
  76. 76. 66lleurphone- Are you going to go to the boat sh- Mmm ... dont know ... Maybe Ill go with Bert.- Does Bert have a boat?-No.-oh.1 Targetsound/eu/Bs4aa First practise the sound /sr/ (seepage 43).Then practise the sound /u/(seepage36).Listen and Join the two sounds:/slsrsru/.Bs4cc Listen and repeat the target sound /au/.The second oart of the sound is shorter.3: ---:: -_::---u z-:-fern phoneItsa greenfern. ltsa greenphone.Bert boatThatsmyBert. wokeI workearly. I wokeearly.flirt floatHelikesflirting. HelikesfloatingMinimalpairwordsBssaa Listenandrepeatthewords.essub Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword write Ifor lc^l(soundI) or 2 forleul (sound2).E)(AMPLEPair1: 2,I,I,2,7#mSoundI Sound2ls^l laulburn boneItsa largeburn. ltsa largebone.
  77. 77. UNIT19 laal ohone 67- 3 Pairsentences--- c Listen to the minimal pair sentences. d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for lcrl (sound l) or 2 for leul(sound2).e SentencestressListen to the minimal pair sentencesagain and notice the strong stresson the pair words.EXAMPLE oooO/oooO Its a green fern.i Its a green phone.Notice how all the other words in the sentence are said more quiddyandquietly. Underline the sentence stressin the sentences(on page 66).-al pairsBiaw JoeItsmy jaw ltsmy Joe.ball bowlCivemetheball. pairwords- a Listen and repeat the words..: b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word vwite Ifor lcll (sound l) or 2 for laul (sound 2).HGMPLE Pair1: 2,2, I,L,2-al pairsentencesrac Listen to the minimal pair sentences.-qt,d Listen to five of the sentencesand write I for /crl (sound I) or 2 for leul(sound2).ffirqn"6ller&:,-!Ejj@wI*-lftt/ I --t-f}-iie/tS,t/, ltl lfSoundIl;, IcaughtCinoscaught.noughtItsa nought.boughtWehada boughtpicnic.Sound2leulcoatCinoscoat.noteItsa note.boatWe hada boatpicnic.
  78. 78. ffi ur.rrrt9 /eu/phoneBssae SentencestressListento the minimal pair sentencesagainand underline the sentencestress(onpage67).EXAMPLEGinoscaught., 860 f Tick the words a),b) or c) that you hearin the sentences.I a)fern I b) phone I2a)or I b)oh I3a)ball I b)bowl I4a)burn I b)bone tr5a)walk I b)work tr c)woke f5 Dialogueu Eitrt practisethe targetsound laulinwords from the dialogue.Readthewordsaloudor visit thewebsiteto practise.oh go no know Ioe sno/ throw coat woke nose closeddont Iones only window over going snowball jokingOctober helloser b Listento the dialogue,paylngattention to the targetsound.Snowin October(JoeJonesis sleeping,but Joonno woke up a few minutes ogo.)JoANNA:JoelJoelJOEIHello,wakeup,Joe!toE: (groons)Oh!Whatis it,Joanna?JOANNA:Lookout of the window.JoE: No.My eyesareclosed,andlm goingto goto sleepagain.JOANNA:Oh!Dontgoto sleep,Joe.Lookat the snow!JoE: Snow?ButitsonlyOctober.I knowtheresno snowJOANNA:Comeoverto the window,Joe.JoE: Yourejoking,Joanna,Theresno snow.JOANNA:OK.lllput my coaton andgo out andmakea snowballandthrowit atyournose,JoeJones!c Practisereading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare yourproduction of the target sound with the recording.
  79. 79. UNITl9 iaoi phone 69I RhymingNotice that laal may sound different when followed by the letterl.a Listen and repeat.old hole bowl cold hold stole sold told goldIn the list above five words rhyme vlr.thold, and two words rhyme withhole.Nhich words are they?EXAMPLE gold rhyrnes withold.b Rhyming crosswordThe clues are words which rhyme with the answer but do not have thesame meaning.CluesAcross:I only2 dont3 know-1 Joe5 billowSpellingDown:I slow2 Iohn3 snow4no5 helloLook back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write whatr-ounoticed about how to spell the sound /eu/.
  80. 80. 70I rlel vear- Theresa beein your beer.- I cartthear.- I said htrtJsto you, my dt ar.- Chters,dtar! Ive beenht aring that joke abouta beein my btt-rfor nearly sixty-threey(rars.t TargetsoundirolRriraa First practise the sound /r/ (seepage 7).Then practise the sound /e/(seepage 48). Listen and repeat.Irii.]lb Join the two sounds: /tIta/.rr,,,.c Listen and repeat the target sound /lel.2 MinimalpairsJ-SoundI Sound2t:,,IirE ealThatEstoobig. Thatearstoobig.beeItsa smallbee.teaThisteatastessalty.beerItsa smallbeer.tearThisteartastessalty.Pea PrelItsanoldpea. ltsanoldpier.bead beardHe hasa blackbead. He hasa blackbeard.Minimalpairwordsrp.l,a Listenandrepeatthewords.n,i4r,b Youwill hearfivewordsfrom eachminimal pair.Foreachword,write lfor lill (soundl) or 2 for lrcl(sound2).EXAMPLEPair1: 2,l,1,2,2