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MontoloStats - Ontology Modeling Statistics

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The presentation of our paper presented at K-Cap 2019 in Marina Del Rey, California ,USA.

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MontoloStats - Ontology Modeling Statistics

  1. 1. MontoloStats Ontology Modeling Statistics Sven Lieber, Ben De Meester, Anastasia Dimou and Ruben Verborgh K-Cap 2019, Marina Del Rey United States Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  2. 2. K-CAP 2001 1st Knowledge Capture Conference Oct 22-23, 2001 Victoria, B.C., Canada “Driven by today's internet culture and knowledge-based industries, the study of knowledge acquisition has a renewed value.” 18 years later: How do we model acquired knowledge nowadays? RDF1.1, OWL, Linked Data, shapes, Ontology Engineering Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  3. 3. Different use cases demand differently modeled ontologies 3 Use case Email Person 1 Birthday 2 Regular ExpressionCompany Existing ontologies ... ... ≠ Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  4. 4. Take home message 4 Whatever is modeled has impact on reuse, do not forget to take different use cases into account Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  5. 5. Ontology Reuse and metadata Restriction type statistics Analysis of LOV and BioPortal statistics Lessons learned and future work/limitations 5 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  6. 6. Discover and assess ontologies based on restriction use 6 Possible ontology reuse candidates (colors = different restriction types) Restriction type use statistics Use case Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  7. 7. Ontology Reuse and metadata Restriction type statistics Analysis of LOV and BioPortal statistics Lessons learned and future work/limitations 7 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  8. 8. Restrictions: types and expressions in Montolo 8 Email Person 1 Birthday 2 Regular ExpressionCompany ≠ Restriction types For example disjointness Exact cardinality Literal pattern ≠ 2 Regular Expression Restriction type expressions Different terms within or across vocabularies, e.g.: owl:disjointWith and owl:AllDisjointClasses Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  9. 9. Computing the statistics - overview 9 LODStats Montolo Stats Modules to detect restriction types Extendible number of ontology repositories Modular creation of restriction use statistics DataCube and PROV annotated statistics LOV Bio Portal 660 ontologies 565 ontologies 31,850 observations 18 restriction types Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  10. 10. Ontology Reuse and metadata Restriction type statistics Analysis of LOV and BioPortal statistics Lessons learned and future work/limitations 10 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  11. 11. How many ontologies use each restriction type? 11 A few often used restriction types and a long tail both in LOV and BioPortal Restriction types Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  12. 12. Negligible number of literal value restrictions 12 Almost no literalRanges restrictions literalPattern not used at all Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  13. 13. Property and cardinality restrictions in the tail 13 Tail mostly consists of property-based and cardinality-based restrictions expressed using OWL terms Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  14. 14. LOV vs BioPortal: qualified cardinalities 14 Qualified cardinalities preferred in BioPortal ontologies Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  15. 15. LOV vs BioPortal: unqualified cardinalities 15 Unqualified cardinalities preferred in LOV ontologies Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  16. 16. Certain restrictions slightly more used in BioPortal 16 BioPortal ontologies use certain restrictions more often Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  17. 17. Domain and range used less in BioPortal 17 More domain/range Restrictions in LOV Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  18. 18. Total numbers indicate more BioPortal concepts 18 Several restriction types used considerably more often Compared to LOV: more concepts in BioPortal and/or some ontologies disturb the results Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  19. 19. Disjoint properties and disjoint classes 19 :Person owl:disjointWith :Car ; owl:disjointWith :Boat ; owl:disjointWith :Company . More concepts/properties declared disjoint using list-based expression _b1: a owl:AllDisjointWith ; owl:members (:Person :Company :Car :Plane) . Single property-based List-based Single property-based expression used in more ontologies Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  20. 20. Exact cardinality expressions 20 :hasWheels owl:minCardinality 4 ; owl:maxCardinality 4 . Ontologies mostly use this expression :hasWheels owl:cardinality 4 . Equal min/max Property-based Barely used 3 times in 2 LOV ontologies Not used in BioPortal ontologies Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  21. 21. Ontology Reuse and metadata Restriction type statistics Analysis of LOV and BioPortal statistics Lessons learned and future work/limitations 21 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  22. 22. Lessons learned: restriction modeling More concrete Ontology Engineering guidelines Implicit restriction use patterns found, but explicit guidelines needed for practical needs in a changing environment 22 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  23. 23. Lessons learned: restriction modeling Investigation in modeling tools required Is the creation of all restriction types supported by modeling tools? Are these tool appealing to do so? 23 Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  24. 24. Raised questions: impact of restriction types Correlation between restriction type use and ontology reuse? 24 How are different restriction types involved in Knowledge Graph quality issues? Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  25. 25. Future work Evaluate to which extent MontoloStats improves the process of ontology reuse. 25 Investigate novel Ontology Engineering activities with respect to the modeling of restrictions. Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  26. 26. Limitations Currently not all possible restriction types and expressions considered 26 Incorporate imported restrictions and statistics regarding number of classes/relationships Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  27. 27. Take home message 27 Whatever is modeled has impact on reuse, do not forget to take different use cases into account Check restrictions stats at by appending your favorite ontology prefix https://w3id.org/montolo/data/montolo-stats/latest/voc/ + prefix Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  28. 28. Sven Lieber PhD researcher semantic intelligence E Sven.Lieber@ugent.be T +32 9 331 49 59 https://sven-lieber.org @SvenLieber Interested in - Ontology Engineering? - Shapes? - Privacy? Come and talk to me! Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo
  29. 29. LODStats Comprehensive and extendible statistics 29 Detector owl:disjointWith Detector owl:AllDisjointClasses :Person owl:disjointWith :Vehicle ; owl:disjointWith :Company . _b1: a owl:AllDisjointWith ; owl:members (:Car :Boat :Plane :Bike) . Restriction type module: disjoint classes Computed measures following DataCube Occurrence measure i++ Occurrence measure (n2-n) / 2 [] a qb:Observation ; mon:restrictionTypeDimension mon:disjointClasses ; mon:detectorVersionDimension mon:owlDisjointWith ; mon:restrictionTypeOccurrence 2 ; Ontology with restrictions .. .. [] a qb:Observation ; mon:restrictionTypeDimension mon:disjointClasses ; mon:detectorVersionDimension mon:owlAllDisjointClasses ; mon:restrictionTypeOccurrence 6 ; Sven Lieber - w3id.org/montolo

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