Presentation Prowess - Design Document

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Presentation Prowess - Design Document

  1. 1. Suzie Rose IT 6710 Design Document April 25, 2010 Presentation Prowess Multiple Intelligences Design Documentation Overview This presentation strives to help educators, trainers, and instructional designers deliver and create content that appeals to a variety of intelligences as outlined by Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. The presentation outlines the specifics of the theory and details each intelligence. The information is discussed from a specific perspective to help keep its goal in mind: Dr. Gardner’s theory guides us to alternatives in teaching. My goal is to inform a large audience, so the presentation is developed with the Ballroom style in mind, as outlined by Andrew Abela in Advanced Presentations by Design (2008, p. 92). It contains colorful, vibrant, and attention-grabbing visuals, and aims to impart knowledge to the viewer without a presenter (Abela, 2008, p.92). This presentation can stand-alone or be integrated into a series of other presentations that are similar in topic. The original presentation that I’ve “made over” contains a strong definition of multiple intelligences. It includes definitions of each intelligence type and lists learning activities that will challenge and improve learning for each type. At the conclusion of each definition, it lists possible career interests for the respective intelligence type. Some existing issues that I plan to improve include the following: • There are no images, only bulleted text and a few charts, throughout the entire presentation. • The slides have too much information on each of them. • The color scheme is distracting from the content. • The presentation does not explain why multiple intelligences matter or how we can use them to improve the quality of learning; it’s an information dump. • It has a poor and inconsistent use of mechanics (to the extent of distraction). http://www.slideboom.com/presentations/132547/Multiple-Intelligence
  2. 2. Audience My primary audience includes instructional designers who are interested in Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. My secondary audience includes anyone who is interested in Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Both audiences likely work in the field of education and are interested in why and how the theory impacts learning. Therefore, the communication preferences of these individuals span all audience personality implications. (See Appendix A, Worksheet A.1a) Personality Type Typical Need How to meet typical needs Examples from the Presentation Introvert Time to reflect on information Provide information in advance Distribution techniques may vary depending on to whom I provide access, but I hope this is done as much as possible. Extrovert Interactive discussion Plan for lots of discussion / Q&A Discussion techniques may vary depending on to whom I provide access, but I hope this is done as much as possible. Sensor The facts and all the details Include all relevant facts and details I’ve woven a story-telling technique throughout facts and definitions in this presentation. Some examples of facts and details can be found in the following areas: Slide 19 describes the point of the presentation (if there are different types of learners, then there are different types of intelligences). Slides 39 and 49 list the different intelligences. Slides 41-48 list examples about how to appeal to varying types of intelligences. This helps educational professionals give students the tools they need to thrive and succeed. Intuitor The big picture Provide an overview up-front The big picture is that not all students are skilled in linguistic or logical-mathematical intelligence. The story that opens the presentation exemplifies this up front, primarily on slide 5. Thinker Principles involved, costs, benefits Identify principles, costs, and benefits The costs are implicitly peppered throughout the presentation. The following statements help audiences see that the cost is abandoning a system that we’re used to and comfortable with. • “A learner who excels in an area is not more intelligent overall than one who struggles.” (slides 32-33) • “Our culture focuses most of its attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence.” (slide 30) • “If there are different types of learners, then there must be different types of intelligences” (slide 34). The benefits presented in this presentation are best explained on slide 60, “Instead of one way to think, teach, dream, and live, we now have at least EIGHT.”
  3. 3. Feeler To whom it is valuable State implication for the audience The implication for the audience is that focusing on all intelligences gives students more advantages as they progress through school (slides 2-10). Slide 60 is likely to appeal to Feelers the most, “Instead of one way to teach, think, dream, and live…we now have at least EIGHT!” Judger Conclusions Present conclusions up-front The conclusion is that we need to find students’ intelligence type and utilize the teachings of Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. This is stated on slide 10. The rest of the presentation walks through the steps on how to get to that conclusion. Perceiver Alternatives List all alternatives considered The statement on slide 30 implies the alternative, which is the traditional methods of teaching, “Our culture focuses most of its attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence.” Learning Objectives • Appeal to multiple intelligences as defined by Howard Gardner to better serve students, appeal to more diverse audiences, and keep learners with varying strengths engaged. • Design, develop, and deliver content in a creative and unrestricted manner to appeal to a variety of intelligences as outlined by Howard Gardner. • Match multiple intelligences as defined by Howard Gardner to effective teaching methods and learner types. • Provide instruction that benefits more diverse audiences. • Engage learners with varying skills and strengths by using teaching methods that are effective for varying multiple intelligences. Problem Our culture focuses most of its attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. Traditional educational methods restrict creativity and don’t reach all learners. Reaching learners is the central core of education. By focusing on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence only, educators impart meaning to a small group of students. This is valuable for the small group, but many other learners are excluded. These learners may not grasp the content well and may fall behind in their studies. In the case of corporate education, learners will be unable to perform the tasks required of them, which results in poor performance and increases the likelihood being released from their position. Not using the theory of Multiple Intelligences alienates a large number of learners.
  4. 4. Solution As John Medina points out in his book Brain Rules, “…the more meaning something has, the more memorable it becomes (2009, p. 111). To increase the memorable qualities of content, instructional designers and educators must expand their horizons and concentrate on methods that will help them reach a larger number of learners (slides 41-48). Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences to find alternative methods to approaching traditional educational situations helps instructional designers and educators fulfill this goal. Ultimately, they need to find what motivates learners so they can teach to all styles, not just dominant styles (slide 36). Evidence To help my audience design, create, and deliver content that appeals to a variety of intelligences as outlined by Howard Gardner, I must define multiple intelligences. I accomplish this on slides 27, 39, and 49. I adapted this information from Gardner’s Frames of Mind. To help my audience appeal to multiple intelligences as defined by Howard Gardner, I must present the benefits of doing so; I must motivate them. My best examples of this are on the following slides where my choice of words is meant to impart a sense of immediacy, energy, and desire. Examples include: • “The beauty of Gardner’s theory…” Slide 37 • “…live life well.” Slide 57 • “…learn well.” Slide 58 • “…to teach, think, dream, and live…” Slide 60 I provide concise anecdotes to provide existing ideas and spark new ones (slides 41-48). I adapted this information from Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. These achieve the following goals: • To help my audience better serve their students • To help them appeal to more diverse audiences • To help them keep learners of varying strengths engaged Anecdotes I present a fictional character who experiences a stifling experience throughout her own education. This spans the entire presentation since this character is the narrator, but the story is most evident in slides 2-25. This serves as a way to reform my evidence and involve my audience (Abela, 2008, p. 65). These anecdotes exemplify the “quest” story plot as identified by Abela (2008, p. 70). I also use short fictional characters to create anecdotes for each learning style. This is meant to help the audience implement techniques that appeal to each type of intelligence.
  5. 5. Format Since the story I use is a quest, it lends itself easily to my goal of creating an emotional response in my audience. Music has an innate ability to create an emotional response, so it helps me convey my message in an effective and significant way. I also hope to evoke an emotional response by showing images of multiple intelligences in action, and the successes of them. I also take this opportunity to express my message through text, sans narration. Text isn’t negative, but the way people use it is. By using text in a creative and engaging manner, I utilize a useful communication medium in a new and interesting way. Sequencing Decision #1 – S.Co.R.E. method The S.Co.R.E. method (Abela, 2008, p. 75-87) lends itself to my topic well and strengthens its organizational structure. My story begins with a situation where a little girl, Jade, is labeled as slow (slides 3-5). The complication arises because her teachers do not know how to appeal to her sense of intelligence; this is because it does not lie within the linguistic or logical-mathematical tradition of learning (slides 5, 7-10). The resolution takes place when Jade decides to become a teacher so other children do not have the negative experience she did (slides 23-26). I present examples of the effectiveness of this resolution on slides 41-48. This follows suit with Carol Vernallis’ stance in Experiencing Music Video that in a narrative video, “…how the hero will vanquish the villain elicit[s] the viewer’s curiosity” (2004, p. 16-17). Vernallis’ statement relates to the Complication and Resolution aspects of Abela’s S.Co.R.E. method. Decision #2 – Open with a story I open the presentation with a story to grab the attention of my reader and to provide a strong foundational context for the information (slides 2-26). As John Medina points out in his book, Brain Rules, “Better attention always equals better learning” (2008, p. 74). The story in this presentation helps create meaningful communication about my topic. Medina also states, “The brain remembers the emotional components of an experience better than any other aspect” (2008, p. 82). The story is emotional and impacting, its purpose is to create a lasting memory. Garr Reynolds supports this theory when he states, “Emotion…is a necessary thing. We’re presenting to human beings after all” (2008, min. 30:08). This also helped me, “…combine words and pictures to create effects that neither could create separately” as advocated by Scott McCloud (2006, p. 4). Decision #3 – Bookends for instructional content I create bookends around the instructional content of the presentation. Slide 39 lists the intelligences present in Gardner’s theory. I then move forward by defining each and providing techniques that appeal to each type of intelligence (slides 41-49). I close the bookend by reinforcing the list of intelligences present in Gardner’s theory on slide 49. This is intended to help audience personality types that want an overview up-front (Abela, 2008, p.21). This also helps me articulate the conclusions I want my audience to adopt so they can understand what this information means (Duarte, 2008, p. 68).
  6. 6. Graphics Decision #1 – Unity Each image in the presentation is relevant and supports and illustrates the content and concept (Abela, 2008, p. 97). I’ve avoided all visual distractions and decorations. When selecting my images, I took care to ensure they all hold a common thread and look like a cohesive family unit when compared to one another (Duarte, 2008, p. 160). Each is a photograph of similar quality as most are from the same source. I also repeat a few images to create a sense of unity between messages presented far from one another. My strongest example of this technique is shown in slides 6&60. Other examples include 5&58, 39&49, and 23&59. Decision #2 – Color transitions The presentation begins in black and white and slowly changes to sepia, and then to color. This is an unspoken signal to the audience that something has changed. The black and white images represent a time of sadness when Jade is struggling in school (slides 2-11). The sepia colored photos are an area of transition as things start to change (slides 12-14). Once she embraces the change and finds things she enjoys, the presentation is then in full color (starting on slide 16). Although I want the color transitions to signify change, I also want to make the movement from slide to slide as seamless as possible (Vernallis, 2004, p. 28). John Medina’s statements also support this decision. When exploring how pictures transfer information, he writes, “We pay lots of attention to color” (2009, p. 237). I chose to leverage this observation by communication through the use of color alone. I use color in text to make a statement as well. I only use colored text in two places, the title slide is meant to give an air of personalization, and the red text on slide 4 is meant to show the negative and overwhelming impact of the point. By using this technique sparingly, I create a greater overall impact of the meaning through color. Decision #3 – Reinforce the main message of each slide I chose a stark white background to juxtapose the large vivid pictures and provide the audience with visual breathing room (Duarte, 2008, p. 106). This contrast helps give the images more impact and places them at center stage so the audience can identify the main points quickly (Duarte, 2008, p. 94). I also chose the large sizes of images to both represent the Ballroom style of presentation, and to ensure that my page layout reinforces the main message of the slide (Abela, 2008, p. 108). For example, when I introduce Jade, the main focal point of the slide is her image. The placement of her image and hand guides the audience’s eyes to the text (slides 2-3).
  7. 7. Text Decision #1 – Using her own words After considering the type of relationship I want my presentation to have with my audience (Duarte, 2008, p. 14) I decided my character should tell the story through her own words. I want to create a connection to Jade so the audience feels like they really know who she is; this helps me involve people in my presentation (Abela, 2008, p. 64). Decision #2 – Minimal text Other than the Example portion of Abela’s S.Co.R.E. method, I use text minimally (Abela, 2008, p. 112). This technique produces a visually rich and professional presentation. As Duarte points out, presentations are a “glance media.” Therefore I use minimal text to impart my message in approximately 3 seconds (Duarte, 2008, p. 140). Slides 2-4, 7, 11, and 16-18 are my strongest examples. Decision #3 – Empowering language To communicate effectively and engage my audience’s emotions (Abela, 2008, p. 63), I chose language that imparts a sense of empowerment and motivation. The sense of importance this language implies helps show how the content will make their lives better (Duarte, 2008, p. 15). My best examples of this are during the conclusion where my choice of words is meant to impart a sense of immediacy, energy, and desire. Examples include: • “…live life well.” Slide 57 • “…learn well.” Slide 58 • “…to teach, think, dream, and live…” Slide 60
  8. 8. Layout Decision #1 – Consistency I address placement and consistency issues in all decisions; each slide reinforces the main message (Abela, 2008, p. 137). I chose large and impacting images (slides 4, 7, 14, 16-19, 50, 58) to remain in alignment with a Ballroom style presentation as defined by Abela (2008, p.112-113). My visual consistency increases the clarity of the presentation and therefore increases how well my information is conveyed (Duarte, 2008, p. 88). Decision #2 – Simplicity of design Where relevant, each slide exemplifies contrast (slides 4, 23, 49, 59, and slides with only text), flow (slides 2-3, 4, 8, 11, 53, 60), hierarchy, unity, proximity (slides 27, 39, 49), and white space (all slides with text only: 15, 20-22, 24, 28-29, 34-36, 51, 54-56) as defined by Duarte (2008, p. 92). Each slide also exemplifies simplicity of design and complexity of detail (slides 2-4, 7, 11, 16-17, 26, 58) (Abela, 2008, p. 138). Decision #3 – Visual flow I placed objects on the slide (graphics and text) to create an ease of movement for the eye (slides 2-4, 7-9, 11, 16-18, 26, 30, 33, 53). It matches the natural flow of our eye so the audience knows in which order to process the information (Duarte, 2008, p. 92). I placed each object to help guide a viewer’s eye across the slide; this helps roadmap their experience (Abela, 2008, pp. 134). I paid special attention to the images of people to ensure they are always facing the slide/text (Duarte, 2008, p. 97). My strongest examples are on slides 5, 9, 25-26, 39, 42, 45). There is an exception to this rule; on slide 11, Jade is looking off the slide. This was done intentionally to tell that audience that she is lost and is searching outside of her normal confines for a solution. Measurement It would be possible to assess a curriculum developed by an educator, trainer, or instructional designer before they view this presentation and after. I could then compare the techniques used from both sets of data and see if the participants have increased use of techniques that appeal to a more diverse group of intelligences.
  9. 9. Peer Review Results Peer One: A-Ming Peer Two: Kay 1. In what ways is the sequencing successful or unsuccessful? What can I improve? Peer One: I think it is quite successful. You are telling people a story from child to adult. By using this story to teach people, I can feel what you want to say to others from first few pages. I think this is very helpful for young. Peer Two: I think your overall sequencing is successful - the first three slides make a very powerful opening and the story unfolds in a logical way. The why->what->how->review-> order of instruction worked well for me. I really don't have any suggestions to improve your sequence. Changes Made: None 2. Is it instructional rather than only informational? What can I add to ensure my instructional message is clear and that all instructional aspects are included? Peer One: I think at beginning, it is informational, but in the middle it became instructional. You clearly tell people about Dr. Gardner said. Although I don’t know him, you convinced me when I saw “Dr.” Peer Two: I agree with A-Ming. It starts out informational and becomes instructional later on. That in itself is not a problem because the story at the beginning is engaging. However, I felt that you are making your audience wait a little too long to find out what the presentation is really about. You risk losing some of your audience (mind those Intuitors!) by not making the point clear closer to the beginning (although you may successfully counteract that with the suspenseful music and beautiful pictures). Changes Made: Based on the information from Peer Two, I added mention of the theory on slide 10. Before this change, I did not mention the theory until slide 25. 3. Are the graphics, text, and layout successful? What can I do to improve it? Peer One: I think your photos are so great. I am totally attracted with those pictures, especially at the beginning. I want to use "fall in love with the photos", but I don't know is it proper...hahaha. When I saw the fifth photos, I got one word in my mind and that is “amazing.” Peer Two: I thought the graphics, text and layout were all lovely. A couple of things: on slides 23 and 24 you reverse the direction she's facing which would be completely fine and unremarkable, except that the model has that prominent birthmark on her upper lip making it obvious that you flipped the photo. It's one of those things that matters so little, you may not want to do anything about it. I like the effect of her looking one direction and then the other, and that's more important that a small detail that I only noticed the second time around. On slides 35 and 36 you use the same photo and keep the text layout the same, but place it on opposite sides of the slide. I think that would be more successful if there were more symmetry - change the direction of the text, and/or use a different photo in which she
  10. 10. leans in the other direction (I think it would be harder to get away with flipping this photo without your audience noticing). Bouncing the picture from side to side gives those two slides a kind of screensaver effect. Changes Made: I did not make the change suggested by Peer Two. She is correct in the fact that the birth mark is obvious, and it’s obvious I flipped the picture. But in keeping the image un-flipped, Jade would no longer be looking in towards the slide. The example cited by Peer Two about slides 35 and 36 is successful because Jade is facing the camera. 4. What are your thoughts about my use of font? Peer One: I love your font, which corresponds to your graphics, even though sometimes it will be a little bit difficult for me to read. I don’t think there will be problems for others. I think sometimes you can use different colors on your font just like slide 3. Another thing is that I feel that red may be a little bit too shiny on black-and-white photos. Peer Two: The font works well. It's a casual, handwritten style that reinforces the personal story that the narrator is sharing with us. Changes Made: I agree with Peer One that it’s difficult to read. I don’t think the actual letters are difficult to read, but the punctuation is. However, I elected to keep it because it reinforces that the story is a personal tale being told by someone. I did however add a title slide that uses a structured font, and I used a structured font for the Media Credit slide. Hopefully this will create a juxtaposition and alert the audience that the story is inside a presentation and is not standing on it’s own. And it allowed me to add my name to the presentation ;-) I also chose to keep the red font. I only use colored text in two places, the title slide is meant to give an air of personalization, and the red text on slide 4 is meant to show the negative and overwhelming impact of the point. I feel that using other colors or more colors will take away from this choice. 5. In general, what can I do to ensure it’s worthy of submission to the Slideshare “World’s Best Presentation” competition? Peer One: I think you did a very good job, but I think it’s a little bit too long for me. Congratulation. I like you presentation a lot. Peer Two: My number one suggestion for making this the world's best presentation would be to introduce the topic of multiple intelligences earlier in the story. It will keep your audience from tuning out or wondering where the story is going. Changes Made: I slightly agree with Peer One. The presentation is 7 minutes which is only slightly longer than the Pecha Kucha method. I shoes to keep it the same length to prevent moving through images too quickly. I made the change suggested by Peer Two.
  11. 11. Bibliography Abela, A. (2008). Advanced Presentations by Design: Creating Great Presentations. San Francisco: Pffeiffer. About Derek. (2008). Retrieved March 29, 2010 from Derek Paravicini: http://www.sonustech.com/paravicini/. Alonzo Clemons. (2009). Retrieved March 29, 2010 from Artsales.com: http://www.artsales.com/ artists/alonzo_clemons/index.html. Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved March 29, 2010 from Dr. Thomas Armstrong: http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm. Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Brualdi, A. C. (1996). Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. Retrieved March 29, 2010 from Eric Digests: http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/multiple.htm. Duarte, N. (2008). Slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc. Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind. [Electronic version]. New York: Basic. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. [Electronic version]. New York: Basic. Medina, J. (2009). Brain Rules. Pear Press. Reynolds, G. (2008, March 28). Retrieved April 25, 2010. Authors@google: Garr Reynolds. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZ2vtQCESpk. Smith, M. K. (2008). Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education. Retrieved March 29, 2010 from The Encyclopedia of Informal Education: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/ gardner.htm. Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008) 'Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences', the encyclopedia of informal education, http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm. Stock Xchng. (2010). Retrieved March 29, 2010 from Search : http://sxc.hu/. SUMIT Compass Points Practices. (2000). Retrieved February 20, 2010 from Project SUMIT: http://pzweb.harvard.edu/research/sumit.htm. Vernallis, C. (2004). Experiencing Music Video: Aesthetics and Cultural Context. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  12. 12. Appendix A Abela Worksheets Worksheet A.1a. Audience Personality Type Audience Personality Type My primary audience includes instructional designers who are new to, or interested in, Dr. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. This audience is likely interested in why and how the theory impacts learning. Unknown / Varies My secondary audience includes anyone who is interested in Dr. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. This audience is likely in the field of education and is interested in why and how the theory impacts learning. Unknown / Varies Worksheet A.1b. Audience Personality Implications Instructional Presentation Implications • Provide all or part of the presentation in advance • Plan for lots of discussion and Q&A • Include all relevant facts and details in the presentation or appendix • Provide an overview up-front • Identify principles, costs, and benefits • State implication for the audience • Present Conclusions up-front • List all alternatives considered Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences has improved the world of education by increasing SATs scores, parental participation, and discipline. It impacts educators, trainers, instructional designers, parents, and students. These roles are vast and broad; therefore, my audience must be broad and all- inclusive. I must appeal to all personality implications as defined by Andrew Abela.
  13. 13. Worksheet A.2. From-To Think-Do Matrix From To Think Linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences are the primary determinates of success and are the only areas that require attention and measurement. Appealing to multiple intelligences as defined by Howard Gardner will better serve students, appeal to larger audiences, and is more likely to keep learners engaged. Focusing on other types of intelligences broadens the educational spectrum and enables more student types to learn in ways that appeal to their learning styles. Do Strictly adhere to templates and existing standards regardless of content or subject matter Design, create, and implement creative training materials that appeal to a variety (over 4) of Gardner’s multiple intelligences. Do Teach with an end goal of passing departmental or governmental structures and tests. Teach with an end goal of keeping students who have a variety of learning types engaged. This increases the likelihood of retention and true learning. Do Create training material or teach with training material that appeals to the common learning styles of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles. Design, create, and implement creative training materials that appeal to a variety (over 4) of Gardner’s multiple intelligences.
  14. 14. Worksheet A.3. Audience Problem Our culture focuses most of its attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. Traditional educational methods restrict creativity and don’t reach all learners. Reaching learners is the central core of education. By focusing on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence, educators impart meaning to a small group of students. This is valuable for the small group, but many other learners are excluded. These learners may not grasp the content well and may fall behind in their studies. In the case of corporate education, learners will be unable to perform the tasks required of them, which results in poor performance and increases the likelihood being released from their position. Not using the theory of Multiple Intelligences alienates a large number of learners. Worksheet A.4. Spectrum of Solution Contributions This presentation will provide a foundation and framework for guiding anyone in the field of education. It will focus their attention to their audience, which will give them direction and a goal to accomplish. Although this only solves part of the problem, it will assist in providing direction to anyone who is new to the field of education or who is interested in learning about more complex fundamentals of education, thus providing a foundation for future professional development.
  15. 15. Worksheet A.5. Solution Evaluation Although this presentation appeals to a variety of audiences, for the purpose of identifying solution evaluation, I’ve narrowed the focus of this section to my primary audience of instructional designers. Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Evaluation Criteria Appeal to Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Appeal to VARK (visual, auditory kinesthetic, and read/write) Appeal to auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning styles Evaluate Courses Participants Create By appealing to more learning styles, we’re able to engage more participants. This engagement will increase retention and therefore test scores. This option appeals to a minimum of 8 learning styles. This option appeals to 4 learning styles. This option appeals to 3 learning styles. Analyze Training Material The training material should include techniques that appeal to more than 4 learning styles. The training material should include techniques that appeal to 4 learning styles. The training material should include techniques that appeal to 3 learning styles. Quality Assurance Scores As levels of retention increase, so do quality assurance scores. This option promises to be 3 times more effective than Option 2, and 4 times more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be only slightly more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be 3 times less effective than Option 2, and 4 times less effective than Option 3. Customer Service Complaints As levels of retention increase, customer service complaints decrease. This option promises to be 3 times more effective than Option 2, and 4 times more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be only slightly more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be 3 times less effective than Option 2, and 4 times less effective than Option 3. Employee Retention As levels of retention increase, so does job satisfaction and employee retention. This option promises to be 3 times more effective than Option 2, and 4 times more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be only slightly more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be 3 times less effective than Option 2, and 4 times less effective than Option 3. Customer Retention As levels of retention increase, so does customer service and retention. This option promises to be 3 times more effective than Option 2, and 4 times more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be only slightly more effective than Option 3. This option promises to be 3 times less effective than Option 2, and 4 times less effective than Option 3. Revenue The compilation of these evaluation criteria results in increased revenue.
  16. 16. Worksheet A.6. List of Evidence • Gardner’s Theory Multiple Intelligences o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences o http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm o Armstrong, Thomas. 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Many Intelligences, New York: Plume, 1993. o Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic,1983. o http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm • Case Studies o Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993. o Gardner, Howard. Responsibility at Work. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2007. o http://escholarship.bc.edu/dissertations/AAI3103223/ o http://c2workshop.typepad.com/weblog/2009/11/multiple-intelligences--- looking-within-ourselves.html o http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Theory_of_multiple_intelligenc es http://www.sonustech.com/paravicini/index.html http://artsales.com/ARTists/Alonzo_Clemons/Prodigious_Savant_Sy ndrome.htm • Classroom examples that use Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences successfully o http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC27/Campbell.htm o http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-immersion-enota-how-to o Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994. • Commentary from Instructional Design Scholars o Schaler, Jeffrey A. Ph.D. Howard Gardner Under Fire. New York: Open Court, 2006. o http://www.scribd.com/doc/10055903/Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences
  17. 17. Worksheet A.7 Stakeholder Analysis For the purpose of identifying stakeholder analysis, I’ve narrowed the focus of this section to my primary audience of instructional designers in a corporate atmosphere. Who will be impacted by the success or failure of this instructional product? Group A Instructional Designers (My Audience) Group B Trainers Group C Participants (My Audience’s Audience) What is their role in the success or failure of this instructional product? Implement Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences in training material Deliver the training material created by Group A Receive training material from Group B How will they be impacted if the instructional product is a success (i.e., learners achieve learning objectives)? The following will increase: • Performance • Job satisfaction • Self confidence Their roles will be easier because they will be supported by stronger training material Their training experience will be more interesting and engaging. They will retain more information which makes their interactions with customers smooth and easy How will they be impacted if the instructional product is a failure (i.e., learners do not achieve learning objectives)? They will remain in a state of fear, uncertainty, and job dissatisfaction No change (no improvement) They will not be fully engaged in the training, they will be bored and retain less information. With less knowledge, their interactions with customers will be more difficult

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