Published on

Obesity prevention program

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  2. 2. What is considered obese? <ul><li>Obesity is defined an excessive accumulation of body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is present when total body weight is more than 25% fat in boys and more than 32% fat in girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Obesity is defined as a weight for height in excess of 120% of the ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Charts BMI( Body Mass Index) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater than 95% for infants and children on growth charts </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHILDHOOD OBESITY <ul><li>IS A SERIOUS MEDICAL CONDITION THAT AFFECTS INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADOLESCENTS </li></ul><ul><li>OBESITY ON THE INCREASE IN THE USA. </li></ul><ul><li>5%-25% of children and teenagers in US </li></ul><ul><li>VARIES WITH ETHNIC GROUP 5%-7% of Black and white children </li></ul><ul><li>12% of Hispanic boys </li></ul><ul><li>19% of Hispanic girls (Office of Maternal and Child Health, (1989) </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSES OF OBESITY <ul><li>1. FAMILY- genetic predisposition. The risk of becoming obese is greatest among children who have two obese parents. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Low- energy EXPENDITURE. Obesity is greater among children and adolescents who frequently watch TV. Only 1/3 of elementary children have daily physical education, and fewer than 1/5 have extracurricular physical activity programs at schools. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Heredity- Infants born to overweight mothers have been found to be less active and to gain more weight. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Risk Factors <ul><li>Diet- regular consumption of high calorie foods, such as fast foods, vending machine snacks and baked goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Inactivity.- Sedentary kids are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn calorie through physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics- If your child comes from a family of overweight people, the child may be genetically predisposed to put on excess weight, where high- calorie food is always available. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Risk Factors continued <ul><li>Psychological factors. – Some children overeat to cope with problems or deal with emotions, such as stress or boredom. </li></ul><ul><li>Family factors- Parents are responsible for putting healthy foods in the kitchen at home and leaving unhealthy foods in the store. Parents need to control access to unhealthy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Socio- economic factors- Children from low income backgrounds are at greater risk of becoming obese. Poverty and obesity go hand in hand . </li></ul>
  7. 7. When to seek medical advice <ul><li>Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight or obese. Some children have larger than average body frames. </li></ul><ul><li>If as a parent you are worried then talk to your doctor or health care provider. He or she can provide a complete weight assessment, your family’s weight for height history, and where your child lands on the growth charts </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if your child’s weight is in an unhealthy range. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tests and Diagnosis <ul><li>Doctor calculates your child’s body mass index (BMI) </li></ul><ul><li>And determines where it falls on the national BMI- for age growth chart. The BMI indicates if your child is overweight for his or her age and height. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutoff points on these growth charts, established by CDC - BMI for age between 85 th and 94 th percentiles </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight. BMI for age 95 th percentile or above- obesity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diagnosis continued <ul><li>Doctor evaluates your family’s history of obesity and weight related health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Your child’s eating habits and calorie intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Your child’s activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Other health conditions your child may have. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medical Complications <ul><li>Type 2 Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma and respiratory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Liver disease </li></ul><ul><li>Early puberty or menarche </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Skin infections </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social and Emotional Fallout <ul><li>Low self-esteem and bullying. Increased risk of depression </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior and learning problems. Overweight children tend to have more anxiety and poorer social skills than normal- weight children. Stress and anxiety can interfere with learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression.- Social isolation and low self-esteem create overwhelming feelings of hopelessness in some overweight children. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Treatment and Drugs <ul><li>Based on your child’s age and if he or she has other medical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in child’s diet and level of physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment may include medications or weight loss surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Children under age 7 who have no other health concerns, the goal of treatment may be weight maintence rather than weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss is typically recommended for children over age 7 or younger who have related health concerns. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Weight Loss <ul><li>Should be slow and steady, anywhere from 1 pound a week to 1 pound a month, depending on your child’s situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods -1. Child needs to eat healthy diet and increase his or her physical activity. Parents need to be committed to helping your child make healthy diet changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy eating. Parents are the ones who buy food, cook, the food and decide where the food is eaten. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Healthy Eating <ul><li>When buying groceries choose fruits and vegetables over convenience foods high in sugar and fat. Always have healthy snacks available. Never use food as a reward or punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Limit sweetened beverages, including fruit juices. These drinks provide little nutritional value and make your child feel full to eat healthier foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Sit down together for family meals. Discourage eating in front of screen. This leads to fast eating and lowered awareness of how much you're eating. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Healthy Eating continued <ul><li>Limit the number of times you eat out, especially at fast- food restaurants. Many of the menu options are high in fat and calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting or extreme caloric restriction is not advisable for children. Balanced diets with moderate caloric restriction, especially reduced dietary fat, used successfully in treating obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition education </li></ul><ul><li>Diet management with exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior modification, such as self- monitoring </li></ul>
  16. 16. Behavior Modifications <ul><li>Record food intake and physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Slowing the rate of eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the time and place of eating </li></ul><ul><li>Using rewards and incentives for desirable behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem- solving training involved identifying possible weight control problems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Physical activity <ul><li>Limit recreational screen time to fewer than two hours a day. Other sedentary activities also should be limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize activity, not exercise. Doesn’t have to be structured exercise program. Free-play activities are encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Find activities your child likes to do, such as swimming, biking, dancing, cheerleading, and sports. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want an active child, be active yourself. Vary the activities, and get involved with your children. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Medications <ul><li>Drugs that can be used for adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Merida(sibutramine) Approved for adolescents older than 16, makes the body feel fuller more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Xenical (Orlistat) approved for adolescents older than 12 prevents the absorption of fat in the intestines. </li></ul><ul><li>Alli- nonprescription approved by FDA similar to Orlistat but lower in strength. Not approved for children or teenagers under age 18. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Weight loss surgery <ul><li>Safe and effective option for severely obese adolescents who have been unable to lose weight using conventional methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential risks and long-term complications. Long-term effects of weight loss surgery on a child’s future growth and development are unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon in adolescents, but may be considered if child’s weight poses greater health threat than do the risks of surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>No guarantee that your child loses all excess weight. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Coping and Support for Obesity <ul><li>Parents play a crucial role in helping children who are obese. </li></ul><ul><li>Build your child’s self –esteem. Talk to your kids directly, openly, and without being critical or judgmental. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise child’s efforts. Celebrate small incremental changes, but don’t reward with food. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to child about his or her feelings Help child find ways to deal with emotions that don’t involve eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Help your child focus on positive goals </li></ul>
  21. 21. Prevention <ul><li>Schedule yearly well-child visits </li></ul><ul><li>SET A GOOD EXAMPLE- Eat healthy foods and exercise regularly to maintain your weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid food related power struggles with your child. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the positive, such as healthy lifestyle, the benefits of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>BE PATIENT </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prevention cont. <ul><li>Obesity is easier to prevent than treat. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention focuses in large on parent education </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy- Parent education should center on promotion of breastfeeding, recognition of signals of satiety, and delayed introduction of solid foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood, education should include proper nutrition, selection of low-fat snacks, good exercise/activity habits, and monitoring of TV viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Where hereditary factors are involved, parent education should be on building self-esteem. </li></ul>