• 1770 and 1850 – Economy Changed• From agricultural to industrial• Not one key invention, but range of technological progresses• Main result = Development of factories• Steam Engines + Iron Industry = Better Transportation• Better transportation = Larger markets
• 1806 - 1859• Brunel built bridges, railways and the worlds biggest ship.• Brunel showed the world what engineers could achieve.• Brunels work meant that people could travel and trade in a new way.
• Life was difficult for people working in factories during the Industrial Revolution.• Long days and demanding physical labor often lasted from before sunrise, until well after sunset.• The industrial revolution made many people rich but for many poor families life was the worst it had been for a long time.
• in London the population grew at a record rate.• Large houses were turned into flats and the landlords were not concerned about the upkeep or the condition of these dwellings.• People lived next to factories!
One family would occupy each floor.The attic and cellar were used tohouse families also. Toilets would beat the end of the street.
‘In one group of 26 streets…the ground was covered with sewage which leakedinto the cellars. A pool, over a metre deep, was found in one cellar under the bed where the family slept.’
Many people could not afford therents being charged and theywere made homeless.This included many children.They were turned out of homeand left to look after themselvesat an early age.Many more ran away because ofill treatment.
‘There are more than thirty thousand naked, filthy, roaminglawless and deserted children, in and around the metropolis .’
• At the end of the 18th century it was not just crime that was increasing but also poverty.• As people moved into the towns and cities, the crime rate increased rapidly.• Middle class people became alarmed at the increase in theft and rioting. Public disturbances occurred quite often throughout the country.
Victorians were worried about therising crime rate.Offences went up from about5,000 per year in 1800 to about20,000 per year in 1840.Sentences for both children, Many prisoners were sentenced to hardwomen and men were strict. labor, including a treadmill that worked on muscle engine powered by walking steadilyThe punishment for stealing food upward. British prisoners spent six hours acould include a sentence of hard day on the treadmill.labor, even for children.
Please answer the questions and share your findings with the class!What do these artifacts tell us about life during the Industrial Revolution?
During the reign ofQueen Victoria, (1837 -1901), the population ofEngland doubled andthe IndustrialRevolution put newpressures on hersociety.This caused an increasein the crime rate andthe problem of where tohouse these criminalsworsened.Transportation ofconvicts to Australiahad been abolished in1868, due to increasingopposition.
There was a need to reform thepolice force of England.Home Secretary Robert Peel (1829)developed what was a crude butpartially effective police force.To stop the activities of criminals,who had in fact taken over wholesuburbs and made them their own.He formed The Metropolitan PoliceForce‟In 1888, during the Jack the Ripperinvestigation the police weresuffering from a severe shortage ofmanpower.
In 1888, London was a divided cityfor many reasons.Just as it is today, the West Endwas the most wealthy area.The East End was much poorer.At a time when Great Britain ranthe biggest empire since theRomans, the people of the EastEnd of London were still living andworking in degrading conditions.
In London there is an East End and a West End. In the West End are those fortunate ones who are sent into the world with a kiss. In the East End are the others. Here live the poor, the shamed, those whom Fate, seeing how shrunken and bent they are as they creep through the gates of life, spat in their face for good measure. Jacob Adler (1855 – 1926)
Prostitution was one of the onlyreliable means through which asingle woman or widow couldmaintain herself.The police estimated that in1888 there were some 1,200prostitutes in Whitechapel in theEast End of London.Not including the women whosupplemented their smallearnings by occasionalprostitution.
In the late Victorian era,London was terrorized by aserial killer known as Jack theRipper.Ripper slaughtered five ormore prostitutes working in theEast End of London.The name originates from aletter written by someone whoclaimed to be the killerpublished at the time of themurders.The killings took place within amile area and involved thedistricts of Whitechapel,Spitalfields, Aldgate, and theCity of London proper.The case still remains unsolved
The murderer and his victimalways faced each other.The Ripper seized the women bytheir throats and strangled them.The Ripper lowered his victims tothe ground.He then cut the throats with aknife from the right side to theleft side of her throat.The Ripper then made his othermutilations.
Dr Thomas CreamHe was an American Doctor who hadbeen arrested for poisoning prostitutesand writing false letters to the police. Hewas hanged in 1892 for murderingprostitutes and his last words were “I amJack”. However, he was in prison inSeptember 1888 when the murdershappened.Severin Klosowski (AKA GeorgeChapman)He was suspected by the police at thetime of the murders. He had poisonedtwo of his wives. He trained as a doctorand worked as a barber nearWhitechapel. He was convicted of poisoningand executed in 1903.
Alexander PedachenkoHe was a Russian doctor who worked in awomen‟s hospital. He went back to Russiaafter the last murder and was then sent toa mental hospital after murdering awoman in St Petersburg.Prince Albert VictorHe was the grandson of Queen Victoria andwas known for hanging around the gaybars in Whitechapel late at night. He was akeen hunter and also suffered from a braindisease. He had secretly married a womanhis family disapproved of and the lastvictim Mary Kelly worked for him for ashort while.
Jill the RipperWelsh-born Lizzie Williams, the wifeof surgeon Sir John Williams(himself a prime suspect for theRipper), killed women because shecould not conceive.
Traditionally, Jack the Ripper isconsidered to have killed fivewomen, all London prostitutes,during 1888:Mary Ann Polly Nichols on August31,Annie Chapman on September 8,Elizabeth Stride and CatherineEddowes on September 30Mary Jane (Marie Jeanette) Kelly onNovember 9
Jack the ripper operated in the East Endfor a number of reasons.How did the living conditions in the EastEnd of London help Jack the Ripper?Use the information from the hand-out,guess how the living conditions helpedJack the Ripper with his gruesome crimes.
While not the first serial killer, Jack theRippers case was the first to create aworldwide media frenzy
Helped to bring about the positivechanges in the East End.Newspaper coverage highlightedproblems of poor sanitation,overcrowded slum housing andextreme poverty.Nearly one million people lived interrible conditions and peopleoutside of the East End werehorrified.Government was in the process ofclearing slum housing, publicityhelped speed up the clearance.
The IndustrialRevolution gave birthto modern football
During the early years of the IndustrialRevolution, life was tough and therewere few opportunities to relax.Farm and factory workers had little freetime.The workdays, even for many childworkers, were long and tiring.Production took priority over play.
Working people were also discouragedfrom gathering in large groups outsidethe workplace.The authorities perceived such groupsas dangerous because they wasted timethat could be used for work.Additionally, they providedopportunities for workers to organizethemselves and challenge the power offactory owners.
Factory Act 1850 – Workers could not workbefore 6 a.m. (7 a.m. in winter) or after 6p.m. on weekdays (7 p.m. in winter);On Saturdays they had to stop work at 2 p.mAwareness that workers were being exploitedGrowing calls for new open spaces andfunding of „healthy‟ leisure pursuitsIt has been suggested that suchdevelopments were a form of social control:to tame the workforce and ensure industrialprogressRecognition that weak and sickly workerscould not be productive
Sports participation was promotedto ensure that workers werephysically able to perform their jobs.There were growing calls for newopen spaces and funding of „healthy‟leisure pursuits.Personal fitness was highlypublicized, and there was anemphasis on gymnastics andoutdoor exercises.
For the wealthy all these activitiesrequired special clothing -- ridinghabits, tailored suits for golf, shorterskirts for tennis; and from the late1860s bathing costumes werefeatured in womens magazines.
To understand the love Brits have for footballwe need to back go back in time!Mob Football – middle ages sport involving aball made from a pig‟s bladder.It was explicitly violent and played betweenvillages, at the time of celebration andfestivity.It was so violent that people living nearbywould barricade their windows duringmatches.Both "teams" tried to force a ball into thecenter square of the enemy village or theymight have played across different parts oftown, again centered at a market place or atown square. Blown up byBetween 1324 and 1667, football was banned air from thein England alone by more than 30 royal and mouth.local laws.
For centuries, football was abloody, no-holds-barredsport that often ended inriots, injuries and evendeaths.in the early 1800s, ashocked Frenchman gasped:If Englishmen call thisplaying, it would be Our reputation for hooliganism begins!impossible to say what theywould call fighting.
It is believed that Britishschools (Eton and Harrow, inparticular) took the gameaway from the "mob" andcivilized it through anorganization of rules andcodes of conduct. Up until the industrial revolution, football and rugby were virtually indistinguishable, because the rules of play were different depending on where you played.
This changed in 1863 with thecreation of The FootballAssociation (The FA).Several football clubs chose towithdraw from the FA becauseof two rules: the use of handsand tripping had been removedfrom charter for the league. FA Cup, is a knockout cup competition inThese clubs formed the Rugby English football and is the oldest association football competition in theFootball Union in 1871, which worldfinally separated associationsof football and rugby
It was the small industrialtowns that had the mostsuccessful clubs.This occurred for one veryimportant reason: Theindustrial revolution occurredhere.Towns such as Manchesterand Liverpool.
For those arriving to the city,their traditional countryactivities were taken away.Migrant workers from all overBritain and Europe flocked tothese industrial cities for work.They had no ties to their newcommunity.In most cases, they didnt knowthe language, had few friends,and had no outlet outside ofwork. Football gave them something they could belong to.
The traditional British kick-off time is 3 p.m.Still considered to be a working class sport:TheWorld Cup (1966) wasnt won on the playingfields of England. It was won on the streets. Sir.Bobby CharltonBy regulating football during the IndustrialRevolution it also created a respect for laws,orders and submission to authority, whetherthese authorities are referees, employers, policeor political leaders.However, „Mob Football‟ violence or hooliganismstill occurs today.The Football Association from Great Britain has aPermanent seat on the IFAB (InternationalFootball Association Board) – which controls therules of Football along with FIFA.