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Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi and Ng, Theam Foo, Track 5

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Energy Consumption in student hostels of University Sains Malaysia: energy audit and energy efficiency awareness

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Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi and Ng, Theam Foo, Track 5

  1. 1. Energy consumption in student hostels of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) : Energy audit and energy efficiency awareness Kamarulazizi Ibrahim; Theam Foo Ng ; Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad Shabudin; Mohd Sayuti Hassan; Marlinah Muslim Centre for Global Sustainability Studies Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang
  2. 2. Introduction and background Methodology Result and discussion Way Forward Conclusion Outline
  3. 3. • Consumption of domestic electricity worldwide is growing. • Daily consumption in USM main campus > US$ 4882.99 ! • The total population of USM residents is 29,389 consists of all students and staff. • Area of USM (main campus) is 416.6 hectare. This research assist to: understand more about the level of energy consumption. understand the awareness level of student on energy conservation. .Introduction and background
  4. 4. Methodology Mix-quantitative Detailed lamp audit Total energy consumption Energy consumption for lighting Preliminary audits
  5. 5. Saujana (S) Tekun (T) Restu (R) Indah Kembara (IK) Aman Damai (AD) Bakti Permai (BP) Fajar Harapan (FH) Cahaya Gemilang (CG) Study Location
  6. 6. 1.Total energy consumption of each hostel buildings Facility and Utility Data Analysis - 7 months utility bills ( January - July 2015) - Rate of monthly energy consumption (kWh) = Rate of monthly energy consumption (US$) / 0.055* * Electrical tariff for university is US$0.055/kWh based on TNB (National Grid) Electricity Tariff C2.
  7. 7. 2. Energy consumption for lighting in each hostel and the level of student engagement in sustainable energy consumption practices Field questionnaires - 173 respondents ( student population) - Using Close-Ended Question (Yes/ No) Walk through survey - evaluate electrical use of each hostel - determined occupancy estimates based on room numbers, types and quantity of lamp used in each hostel room, lamp usage in voltages and also electricity wastage - Energy used in a hostel per day 1 - Total energy used in USM hostels daily 1Assumptions Each student in hostel room uses only one long and short fluorescent tubes except for the hostels Fajar Harapan, Restu, Saujana and Tekun where each student shares one long fluorescent tube. Due to this sharing, a weightage of 0.5 was assigned during the calculation of the energy usage for a fair comparison. All rooms in the hostels are fully occupied by students. Power that consumed by long and short fluorescent tubes are 36W and 18W, respectively.
  8. 8. Results & Discussion
  9. 9. Figure 1 Energy consumption of USM hostels from January to July 2015 •Four hostels (R, S, T and BP) > other hostels (IK, AD, FH and CG) •3 categories FACTORS: natural (e.g. occupant number, elevator usage, lifestyle (e.g. usage of prohibited electronic appliances, usage habits of the residents) hostel rules enforcement (poor imposition of penalty). 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 Jan Feb March April May June July Month Aman Damai Bakti Permai Cahaya Gemilang Fajar Harapan Indah Kembara Restu Saujana Tekun Energy consumption (RM) Total energy consumption in each hostel buildings
  10. 10. 274 334 321 194 817 1033 796 722 321 645 686 903 1792 1033 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Aman Damai Bakti Permai Cahaya Gemilang Fajar Harapan Indah Kembara Restu Saujana Tekun Numberofresidents Male Female Figure 2 Total numbers of residents in USM hostels • T highest - use of elevators. - supplied to residential buildings - supplied to non-residential buildings( foyer, flyover & guard house). • FH was not equipped with energy consuming facilities like elevator.
  11. 11. Figure 3 Average energy consumption rates in each hostel in a month 1. Tekun (T) - US$7966.50 5. Indah Kembara (IK) - US$3135.82 2. Saujana (S) - US$5843.31 6. Aman Damai (AD) - US$2757.80 3. Bakti Permai (BP) - US$5831.07 7. Cahaya Gemilang (CG) - US$2143.05 4. Restu (R) - US$5470.11 8. Fajar Harapan (FH) - US$1471.77 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 Energy consumption
  12. 12. Hostel Total number of residents kWh AD 1168 441.2 BP 839 422.71 T 2066 557.45 R 2066 575.29 S 1864 394.23 IK 916 382.85 FH 600 144.62 CG 1119 396.40 Total energy consumption 3314.75 Table 1 Total daily energy consumption of each hostel
  13. 13. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Electricity consumption (RM) Figure 4 Electricity consumption rate of each resident in each hostel in a month 1. BP : US$5.52 2. T : US$3.86 3. IK : US$3.56 4. CG : US$3.34 5. S : US$3.26 6. R : US$3.18 7. AD : US$2.58 8. FH : US$2.28
  14. 14. Hostel Number of respondents Restu 21 Saujana 20 Tekun 21 Indah Kembara 23 Aman Damai 30 Fajar Harapan 16 Bakti Permai 21 Cahaya Gemilang 21 Total 173 Table 2 Distribution of respondents according to hostels Figure 5 :Total number of 173 respondents participated Energy consumption for lighting in each hostel and level of student engagement in sustainable energy consumption practices
  15. 15. Duration of lights usage (hours) Number of respondents 1-4 24 4-8 84 8-12 39 12 and above 26 Total 173 Table 3 Duration of lights usageNumber of respondents Figure 6 Number of respondents switching off light when leaving room & switching on light in daytime
  16. 16. Duration (hours) Number of respondents AD BP T R S IK FH CG 1-4 7 2 4 4 3 0 5 0 4-8 11 5 7 7 15 14 5 18 8-12 9 3 7 5 2 7 4 3 12 and above 3 11 3 5 0 2 2 0 Table 4 Duration of lights switched on at each hostel Number of respondents Figure 7 Awareness on the Earth Hour campaign among respondents Awareness Figure 8 Number of respondents participated in the Earth Hour campaign among 152 respondents who were aware of it
  17. 17. Way forward Earth Hour LED Motion Sensor Light Light Emitting Diode (LED) As Replacement for Fluorescent Lamp Electricity Wastage
  18. 18. Conclusion Most of the energy expenditures and consumptions on hostel campuses in higher education occur within buildings for heating, cooling and lighting. the level of student engagement in sustainable energy consumption practices was still moderate. The students’ behaviour can have significant impacts on energy conservation and energy efficiency.
  19. 19. Kamarulazizi Ibrahim, PhD Centre for Global Sustainability Studies Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia E-mail: kamarul@usm.my Thank you & Terima kasih 

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