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Jessica Fanzo


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Jessica Fanzo

  1. 1. The Links between Farming Systems and Human Nutrition: Valuation of externalities Workshop Session I, Theme 3: Public Health Jess Fanzo, PhD Columbia University, New York Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development
  2. 2. Overweight and Obesity Patterns <10% 10-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% >51% Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean North Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean South Pacific Ocean South Atlantic Ocean POPKIN The World is Fat (Penguin, Dec 2008)
  3. 3. Chronic Undernutrition: Stunting Unrealized Issue UNICEF 2013
  4. 4. Known Known: Food Security and Human Development Africa HDR 2012
  5. 5. Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture: The Known Unknowns National economic growth Food prices National nutrition outcomes Nutrition knowledge Household assets and livelihoods Food production Food expenditure Income (agricultural and non-agricultural) Non-food expenditure Food consumption Nutrient intake Health care expenditure Health status Mother’s nutrition outcomes Caring capacity & practices Female employment / resources Child nutrition outcomes Female energy expenditure
  6. 6. Impact of Agriculture-Led Growth on Underweight is Modest at Best World Bank 2013
  7. 7. Solutions to Support the Integration of Public Health and Food Systems How can we harness current innovations, knowledge and evidence to improve nutrition security? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bundling interventions Building capacity at the community level Using technology as a delivery channel Utilizing social networks for dissemination Rethinking the consumer
  8. 8. Rethinking the Consumer • • • • • Equity, equity, equity: political commitment Women as key consumers Consumer demand is changing Flipping value chains Cost of diets and re-thinking luxury foods
  9. 9. The Cost of a Nutritious Diet De Pee and Bloem 2010
  10. 10. Additional Research • Understanding Impact of Agriculture on Nutrition: Many unknowns on how to address nutrition that is equitable and affordable • Quantifying Costs and Benefits: Need to cost interventions and understand the benefits and tradeoffs of nutrition sensitive value chains • Identify ways of maximising benefits while minimising costs: Not well understood. Less cost to provide a pill?
  11. 11. Affordability dimension Additional Research Needed: Affordability or knowledge and behavior? Do NOT have economic access to nutritious diet Have economic access to nutritious diet In need of transfer & possibly more Not applicable Mainly act on education & behaviours, marketing & regulation No need for food support Do NOT have adequate diet Have adequate diet Food consumption dimension 1
  12. 12. Need more on Policy: Better Equitable, Access to Diversity Not poor Vegetables Staple Less poor Moderate poor Very poor Very, very poor Staple Eggs Vegetables Staple Meat Eggs Vegetables Staple Staple Vegetables Milk Meat Eggs Snack foods – high fat & sugar ‘empty calories’
  13. 13. Where Can Policy Intervene?