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Crop planning for sustainable vegetable production 2016 Pam Dawling

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A step-by-step approach to closing the planning circle, so that you can produce crops when you want them and in the right quantities, so you can sell them where and when you need to and support yourself with a rewarding livelihood while replenishing the soil. Never repeat the same mistake two years running!

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Crop planning for sustainable vegetable production 2016 Pam Dawling

  1. 1. Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production Closing the planning circle: produce crops when you want them and in the right quantities; sell them where and when you need to and support yourself with a rewarding livelihood while replenishing the soil. ©Pam Dawling, 2016 Author of Sustainable Market Farming SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming
  2. 2. What’s in This Presentation • Why make detailed plans? • How to plan? Helpful tools • Step by step planning. 12 steps 1. How much money 2. Which markets to sell at 3. Which crops to grow 4. Harvest schedule 5. How much to plant 6. Field Planting schedule 7. Seedling/Transplant schedule 8. Maps 9. Packing more in 10. Adjust and tweak 11. Plan B 12. Next Year’s Better Plan • Lots of Resources
  3. 3. Why Plan? On-farm Rewards ҉Plan in the winter, farm in the growing season! ҉Make the most productive use of your land. ҉Pace yourself, enjoy your life! ҉Reduce stress and confusion ҉Become a better farmer - keep good records, make good plans. ҉Invest in your future - Planning gets easier each year – just tweak last year’s plan.
  4. 4. Market Rewards for Planning ҉ Earn a living! ҉ Enjoy the satisfaction of full CSA bags, groaning tables every week! ҉ Enjoy your great reputation providing what customers want. ҉ Enjoy having information at your fingertips - when broccoli will start, or cucumbers end. ҉ Achieve balance each week: some leafy crop, something brightly colored, something bulky and filling, something new, something highly flavored. ҉ Use your full market season, all your opportunities.
  5. 5. How to Plan? Helpful tools • Be clear about your goals (before choosing tools). • Design a system you like, so you’ll use it. • Do you prefer clipboards, computers, or photos? • There are Web-based Tools, Spreadsheets, Worksheets and Notebooks • Build in the ability to adapt the plan if conditions change.
  6. 6. Web-based Planning AgSquared online planning software: www.agsquared.com includes a free trial. • If you already have your plans on spreadsheets, you can import them into AgSquared – you don’t have to start over. • “Smart scheduling” Once you’ve got your information in there, you can adjust a date or row length and the changes will automatically be made to the other relevant spreadsheets. • Space for record-keeping is vast - you can include comments on the weather, pests, soil observations etc which might be helpful later.
  7. 7. How AgSquared works
  8. 8. COG-Pro is a record keeping software made for Certified Organic Farms. The planning tools include prompts for info needed for certification. It uses a simple tabbed notebook visual and generates reports for the certification process.
  9. 9. Spreadsheets • Make your own, or copy others – see Resources at end • During the year we follow printed sheets - don’t often need the computer. • The program does the calculations. • Quickly sort out selected parts of the information and rearrange it
  10. 10. Spreadsheets from Johnny’s Johnny’s Selected Seeds has spreadsheet based tools available at http://www.johnnyseeds.com/t-InteractiveTools.aspx
  11. 11. Crop Planning for Vegetable Gardens There are also smaller scale on-line planners: • Gardenplanner.southernexposure.com • Gardenplanner.motherearthnews.com There is also an app:  Gardenplanpro.com
  12. 12. Worksheets • Cindy Conner explains worksheets in her book Grow a Sustainable Diet. • She also sells a DVD/CD set Develop a Sustainable Vegetable Garden Plan. Aimed primarily at homesteaders, the steps help you figure how many seeds and plants you need, when to plant and where, and when to expect a harvest. • Mark Cain www.drippingspringsgarden.com and Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, are other good sources for ideas on worksheets.
  13. 13. Planning is Circular, Just Like Farming 1. How much money do you need to earn? 2. Which markets to sell at 3. Which crops to grow 4. How much of what to harvest when: Harvest Schedule 5. How much to grow to achieve your harvest goals 6. Calculate sowing dates to meet harvest dates: Field Planting Schedule7. When to sow for transplants: Seedlings Schedule 8. Where to plant each sowing of each crop: Maps 9. Packing more in: succession plantings, intercropping, relay planting, double cropping 10. Adjust to make your best possible plan 11. What to do if something goes wrong: Plan B 12. Record results for next year’s Better Plan
  14. 14. Step 1. How much Money do you Need to Earn? • What are your living expenses? • What are your farm expenses? • What do you want to save for old age, rainy days, raising children, college funds. . . • The Federal Minimum Wage is $7.25/hour (Jan 2014), going up to $10.10. Just saying. . . • Do you have other sources of income?
  15. 15. Setting Prices The Iowa State University publication Determining Prices for CSA Share Boxes compares pricing based on either • what customers will pay, • what other growers are selling the crop for • what it costs to produce. It includes a chart of share value of 24 crops based on grocery prices and the quantity included. Step 1
  16. 16. Enterprise Budgets Vern Grubinger in Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market explains how to make an enterprise budget for each crop. These calculations compare one crop with another, while not delving into overhead costs.  In your Crop Journal, record the amount of work done on each crop each day: o Bed prep, cultivating o Planting, mulching, staking.  Record at each harvest o weight or count of each crop, o time spent harvesting and cleaning it; o money raised from each crop each week.  At the end of the season, add up the total time for each crop o Divide the income for that crop by the time spent on it, and o divide the income for that crop by the area, or number of beds.  Aim for $400/100’ bed per season. The range could be $109-1065. Step 1
  17. 17. Step 2 Which Markets will you Sell at? New growers are often advised to start with a farmers’ market rather than a CSA the first year, as you can sell a more erratic supply of crops at market. On the other hand, if you have experience from working on another farm, a commitment to careful planning, and you need that upfront beginning-of - season cash, you may decide to start a CSA right away. If you have an off-farm job to tide you over, it may be practical to leave the financial questions for a year, and build on that experience.
  18. 18. Which Crops are Most Profitable? Some crops offer more money per area, some are more profitable in terms of time put in. Clifton Slade at Virginia State University in his 43560 Project aims to show how to earn $43,560 from one acre ($1 per square foot), four times the return of a typical large-scale commercial vegetable production. He recommends choosing crops which produce one vegetable head or stalk, or 1 pound of produce, per square foot, using 5’ x 300’ raised beds. Leafy crops feature prominently. Morris Heading Collards, Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 3
  19. 19. Which Crops are Most Profitable? Richard Wiswall Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook Outdoor kale can produce $2463 from 1/10 acre, and of the crops he compared, only parsley and basil earned more. Field tomatoes came in at $1872, and several vegetables (bush beans, sweet corn, peas) made a loss. Vates kale. Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 3
  20. 20. Which Crops Take Most Attention? Steve Solomon in Gardening When it Counts provides tables of vegetable crops by the level of care they require. His Difficult list includes Bulb onions, leeks, Chinese cabbage, asparagus, celery and celeriac, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, early cabbage and cantaloupe. Onion bed. Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 3
  21. 21. Consider Flowers as well as Vegetables Mark Cain of Dripping Springs Garden, Arkansas:  50% of their growing area in cut flowers and 50% in vegetables.  The cut flowers bring in 75% of the income. Photo Tom Freeman, Twin Oaks Flowers Step 3
  22. 22. Step 3 Reasons to Grow some Crops that Don’t Make the Highest Income  provide a good crop rotation for your farm,  provide diversity (customers will only buy so much parsley and basil).  provide for different times of year, even for the whole year.  Kohlrabi. Photo McCune Porter
  23. 23. Step 4 How Much to Harvest  The average person eats 160-200 pounds of fresh vegetables per year (USDA)  the average CSA share feeds 2 or 3 people,  an annual share will need to include about 500 pounds of 40- 50 different vegetables, distributed, say, once a week for 8 months and once a month for 4 months.  Many CSAs have a shorter season than this – your call. Photo Bridget Aleshire
  24. 24. Step 4 Your Harvest Schedule • Decide which crops you want to harvest when, how often and over what length of time, including quantities. • For a CSA, make a Share Schedule, telling sharers what to expect when. • Multiply that up, add a margin for culls and failures, and list how much of each crop to have ready for harvest each week.
  25. 25. Resources for Quantity Calculations • The Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems at UC Santa Cruz: – Crop Plan for a Hundred-Member CSA, with planting requirements for 36 crops • Jean-Paul Courtens of Roxbury Farm, Kinderhook, New York: – On his website, you’ll find the 100 Member CSA Plan, including a Weekly Share Plan, Greenhouse Schedule, and Field Planting and Seeding Schedule (with charts of possible crop yields). Step 4
  26. 26. Step 5 How Much to Grow to Achieve Your Harvest Goals Take likely yields and add a margin for culls and failures (10%?). The table I provide in Sustainable Market Farming lists 48 crops, with likely yield, quantity required for 100 CSA shares, and length of row needed to grow this amount.
  27. 27. More Resources on Yields • Some seed companies have tables of likely yields in their catalogs. • Elizabeth Henderson and Robyn Van En Sharing the Harvest. • John Jeavons How to Grow More Vegetables has charts: – Pounds Consumed per Year by the Average Person in the US – Average US Yield in Pounds per 100 Square Feet. – These are particularly useful to small-scale growers, and can be multiplied up by others. Spring brassicas at Twin Oaks. Photo McCune Porter Step 5
  28. 28. Step 6 Harvest Dates Sowing Dates When to sow to meet the harvest dates?  Find the number of days to maturity (from the catalog).  Is that number from seeding to harvest or transplant to harvest?  Work back from each target harvest date, subtracting days to maturity, to give the planting date.  Days to maturity in catalogs are generally for spring planting once conditions have warmed to the usual range for that crop. ‒ If you are starting very early, add about 14 days - seedlings grow slower when cold. ‒ In summer crops mature sooner than in spring. ‒ When growing late into the fall, add about 14 days for the slowdown.
  29. 29. Days to Maturity • “Days to Maturity” usually means “Days to First Harvest” which may not be the same as “Days to Full Harvest”. • With carrots it doesn’t matter exactly what size they are, but an unripe eggplant is just no good. • With CSAs, you can distribute eggplant to some sharers one week, and others the next, although keeping track involves more work. • If it’s important to have a plentiful harvest when you do start, add another 7-14 days. Carrot photo Kathryn Simmons Step 6
  30. 30. Decide whether to Sow or Transplant Photo Kathryn Simmons  Choose high-yielding varieties suited to your climate, budget, certification and market  Buy seeds or starts? Is what you want available as plants? Do you need Organic? Is the price worthwhile? Money vs labor.  Do you have the equipment to grow transplants? Step 6
  31. 31. Direct Seeding Pros and Cons Photo Kathryn Simmons • Pros – Less work than transplanting – Less money compared to buying starts – No need for a greenhouse and equipment – Better drought tolerance – roots grow without damage – Some crops don’t transplant easily – Some crops have millions of plants! (Carrots) • Cons – Uses more seed – Uses more time thinning – Occupies the land longer – Maybe harder to get started in cold (or hot) conditions Step 6
  32. 32. Getting the Best from Direct Sowing  Good soil conditions lead to even germination: tilth (size of particles), moisture  Decide by soil temperature, not calendar. New Seed Starter’s Handbook.  Correct depth and sowing density  Good seed contact with soil: tamp lightly  Good tools: EarthWay, precision seeders, hoes, jab planters for large seeds, tractor seed drills. • Photo Bridget Aleshire Step 6
  33. 33. Transplanting Pros and Cons Pros • Start earlier than outside, get earlier harvests • Start seed in more ideal conditions in greenhouse, better germination, more fun! • Easier to care for new seedlings in a greenhouse • Protected plants grow quicker • Select sturdiest plants, compost the rest • More flexibility if weather turns bad. Plants still grow! • Fit more crops into the season • Use time windows for quick cover crops • Save on seed costs Cons • Extra time caring for the starts • Transplant shock can delay harvest • More attention needed to watering new plants Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 6
  34. 34. Getting the Best from Transplanting  Roots need space. Open flats, plug trays, soil blocks, bare root plants.  Transplant shock is less for plants with good root systems - harvest starts sooner.  Good seed compost  Use a soil thermometer, not a calendar, to decide when to plant out tender plants. Don’t rush them!  Measure and mark the correct spacing: tractor equipment, rolling dibbles, row marker rake, measuring sticks and triangles, span of finger and thumb.  Ideal conditions for transplanting are mild windless afternoons and evenings just before (or during!) light steady rain.  Transplanting late in the day gives the plant a chance to recover during the cooler night hours - the rate of water loss is slower.  Shadecloth or rowcover can be used to reduce the drying effects of wind and sun. Step 6
  35. 35. Transplant Age and Size Vegetable Notes Ideal Age at Transplanting Cucumbers, melons, squash 2 true leaves max (maybe less) 3–4 weeks Watermelons (older is OK) 3–4 weeks Sweet Corn 3–4 weeks Tomatoes age is less important 4–8 weeks Lettuce 4–7 weeks Brassicas 5 true leaves is ideal 6–8 weeks spring/ 3–4 weeks summer Peppers & eggplant 4 or 5 true leaves, not flowering 6–8 weeks Onions (spring sown) & leeks 10–12 weeks Celery 10–12 weeks Step 6
  36. 36. Field Planting Schedule Draw up your list of outdoor planting dates, along with varieties, row feet, spacing, notes and space to write down what you actually do. Step 6
  37. 37. Step 7 When to Sow for Transplants  If the crop is to be transplanted and the catalog doesn’t include the time to grow the transplant, add that. See Sustainable Market Farming  Use your own experience or the catalog information, or somewhere in between  In future years you will have your own records to customize your calculations  Extract the dates to sow for transplants, and make your Seedlings Schedule Seedlings in Twin Oaks Greenhouse Photo Kathryn Simmons
  38. 38. Seedlings Schedule Step 7 Pepper transplants. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  39. 39. Step 8 Maps  Where in the fields to plant each sowing of each crop ?  Start filling your map with your major crops remembering crop rotation and cover cropping considerations. Note the spaces for squeezing in other crops
  40. 40. Crop Spacing Yield is related to plant density.  Area per plant is the important bit, not particular row spacing.  There is a balance point at which the plant density provides the maximum total yield. At that density some plants will be too small to use. That’s taken into account when calculating yield.  Crop size (do customers want big carrots or small carrots?)  Disease control (humidity and molds)  Preferred layout (beds with equidistant plants, or rows).  Ease of cultivation (tractor equipment, hoes, horses) and irrigation  For large plants such as okra or eggplant, it makes more sense to plant a single row in a bed and have the plants close together in that row, in a “hedge.” Photo of Morris Heading Collards by Kathryn Simmons Step 8
  41. 41. Optimal Crop Spacing for Various Goals Crop Row spacing In-row spacing Notes Beets 7" (18 cm) 4" (10 cm) For early harvest 12" (30 cm) 1" (2.5 cm) For max total yield (small). 2" (5 cm) for bigger beets Beans, fava 18" (45 cm) 4.5" (11 cm) For tall varieties. Beans, green 18" (45 cm) 2" (5 cm) 12" (30cm) × 3" (7.5 cm) gives the same area/plant Broccoli (Calabrese) 12" (30cm) 6" (15 cm) For equal amounts of heads and side shoots Cabbage 14" (35 cm) 14" (35 cm) For small heads 18" (45 cm) 18" (45 cm) For large heads Carrots 6" (15 cm) 4" (10 cm) For early crops, limiting competition 6" (15 cm) 1.5" (4 cm) For maincrop, medium size roots Celery 11" (28 cm) 11" (28 cm) For high yields and mutual blanching Cucumber (pickling) 20" (51 cm) 3" (8 cm) Leeks 12" (30 cm) 6" (15 cm) Max yield of hilled up leeks, average size Lettuce 9" (23 cm) 8" (20 cm) Early crops under cover 12" (30 cm) 12" (30 cm) Head lettuce 5" (13 cm) 1" (2.5 cm) Baby lettuce mix Onions 12" (30 cm) 1.5" (4 cm) For medium size bulbs 12" (30 cm) 0.5" (1 cm) For boiling, pickling, kebabs Parsnips 12" (30 cm) 6" (15 cm) For high yields of large roots 7.5" (19 cm) 3" (8 cm) For smaller roots Peas, shelling 18" (46 cm) 4.5" (11.5 cm) Can sow in double or triple bands, 4.5" (11.5 cm) apart Potatoes 30" (76 cm) 9-16" (23–41 cm) Depends on size of seed pieces; small pieces closer Sweet Corn 30-36" (76–90 cm) 8" (20 cm) Closer than 8" (20 cm) the plants shade each other. Tomatoes, bush types 19" (48 cm) 19" (48 cm) For early crops Watermelon 66" (168 cm) 12–24" (30–60 cm) For small varieties. 5–10 ft2 (0.5–1 m2) each 66" (168 cm) 30–84" (76–215 cm) For large varieties. 13–40 ft2 (1.2–3.7 m2) each Step 8
  42. 42. Step 9 Packing More in: Intercropping, Relay Planting and Double Cropping • Promptly clearing short term crops like beans or cucumbers helps with pest and disease control and opens up the space for double-cropping or for more cover crops to replenish the soil • Fast growing crops like lettuce, radishes and greens can be planted between or alongside slower-growing crops to generate more income and diversity • We grow peas with spinach, peanuts with lettuce, okra with cabbage Tyee spinach in a relay with snap peas. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  43. 43. Season Extension in Every Season Advantages and disadvantages in time and money  Growing earlier crops in spring: o Choose fast-maturing hardy varieties o Warm microclimates o Transplants o Rowcovers, low tunnels, Quick Hoops, high tunnels (= hoophouses)  Extending the growth of cool-weather crops into summer: o Learn how to germinate seeds in hot weather o Shadecloth o ProtekNet to keep bugs off o Intercropping allows a new crop to establish in the shade of the old one  Extending the survival of frost-tender crops beyond the first fall frosts o Rowcover o Minimizing frost damage  Growing cold-hardy winter vegetables Step 9 For details, see my slide show Cold-Hardy Winter Vegetables on SlideShare.net
  44. 44. Step 9 Packing More in Find Space for Succession Crops: • Beans, edamame, cucumbers, melons , squash, sweet corn can be produced through the frost-free period, if you sow several times. • Beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, collards, kale, spinach can be grown in spring and again in the fall in the Southeast. • Lettuce can be grown year-round • Lettuce, spinach, turnips, radishes, scallions, tatsoi and some other Asian greens can be sown in succession in the winter hoophouse
  45. 45. Step 9 Packing More in Succession Crops Planning Chart • We list the spare spaces in the plots (in order of availability) • and the crops we hope to plant (in date order) • Then we pencil in arrows, fitting the succession crops into the spaces available.
  46. 46. Succession Crop Scheduling • Plan sowing dates for even, continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers, sweet corn; year round lettuce and winter hoophouse greens. • Length of time from sowing to harvest varies according to temperature (and day length in some cases). • Planting squash once a month will not provide an even supply. • Keep records and use information from other growers in your area to fine-tune planting dates. Photo Credit: Kathryn Simmons. For all the details, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on SlideShare.net Step 9
  47. 47. Several Approaches to Succession Crop Planning – which suits you? 1. Rough plan: “every two weeks” 2. “No paperwork” methods 3. Sow several varieties on the same day 4. Plan a sequence of sowings to provide an even supply, using graphs 5. Use Accumulated Growing Degree Days data Squash drawing by Jessie Doyle Step 9
  48. 48. Rough Plan: Every 2 weeks for beans and corn, Every 3 weeks for squash and cucumbers and edamame Every 4 weeks for carrots 2 or 3 plantings of muskmelons (cantaloupes) at least a month apart. CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons. Step 9
  49. 49. “No Paperwork” Methods • Sow another planting of sweet corn when the previous one is 1”–2" tall • Sow more lettuce when the previous sowing germinates • Sow more beans when the young plants start to straighten up from their hooked stage Step 9
  50. 50. Sow Several Varieties on One Day Use varieties with different days-to-maturity sown on the same day. We do this with broccoli, lettuce, sweet corn. Step 9
  51. 51. Make a Graph - 6 Steps 1. Gather Sowing and Harvest Start Dates for each planting of each crop. 2. Make a graph for each crop: sowing date along the horizontal (x) axis and harvest start date along the vertical (y) axis. Mark in all your data. 3. Mark the first possible sowing date and find the harvest start date for that. 4. Decide the last worthwhile harvest start date, mark that. 5. Then divide the harvest period into a whole number of segments, according to how often you want a new patch. 6. Figure the sowing dates needed to match your chosen harvest start dates For details of this method see Succession Planting on SlideShare.net Step 9
  52. 52. Step 9
  53. 53. Year Round Lettuce Part 1 Photo Credits Kathryn Simmons The short version is that we sow • twice in January, • twice in February, • every 10 days in March, • every 9 days in April, • every 8 days in May, • every 6-7 days in June and July, Step 9
  54. 54. Year Round Lettuce Part 2 Photo Credits Kathryn Simmons • every 5 days in early August, • moving to every 3 days in late August, • every other day until Sept 21. • After that we ease back to every 3 days until the end of September. Those last plants could feed us right through the winter. Step 9
  55. 55. Winter Succession Crops in the Hoophouse To provide continuous supplies of salad and cooking greens, as well as radishes and small turnips, we plan successions of winter hoophouse crops. For details, see my slideshow Hoophouse in Fall and Winter on SlideShare.net Step 9
  56. 56. Step 10 Look at the Overview - Tweak to Make Your Best Possible Plan • Can’t fit everything in? Drop crops or change your plant quantities? • Always keep your highest priorities in mind – best markets, signature crops, personal needs. • Use all available space for food crops or cover crops • Check timings of seedlings – do you have enough germinating capacity? • Is it physically possible to do all the transplanting you plan in the time allotted? • Simplify planting dates, eg squash and cucumbers on the same days. Photo credit Kathryn Simmons
  57. 57. Step 11 What to Do if Something Goes Wrong: Plan B Have a brainstorm list to help deal with disasters:  Do immediate damage control to stop the problem getting worse  Ask for help from sharers, neighbors, kids,  Salvage anything you can and process it in some way to sell later.  Plant some quick-growing crops to substitute for crop failures  Buy from other local growers to tide you over  Team up with other growers, share a market booth, save on the rent  Write down what went wrong and why, so you don’t have the same problem next year Senposai can be harvested 40 days from sowing. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  58. 58. Step 12 Record Results for Next Year’s Better Plan: • Make recording easy to do • Have a daily practice of writing down what was done that day • Allow time for that, without losing much of your lunch break • Delegate to reliable people • During the main growing season, we don’t do a lot of paperwork. We record planting dates and harvest start and finish dates. • At the beginning of the winter, have a Crop Review Meeting, discuss and write up what worked and what didn’t, to learn from the experience and do better next year. • Adjust dates to halfway between last year’s plan and whatever actually happened - gradually zero in on the likely date without wild pendulum swings based on variable weather.
  59. 59. Resources - General  ATTRA attra.ncat.org Market Farming: A Start-up Guide, Plugs and Transplant Production for Organic Systems, Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for a Continuous Harvest, Intercropping Principles and Production Practices (mostly field crops, but the same principles apply to vegetable crops), Season Extension Techniques for Market Farmers, and many other great publications.  SARE sare.org -A searchable database of research findings. Available to download: Using Cover Crops Profitably and Crop Rotations on Organic Farms, A Planning Manual  extension.org/organic_production http://www. eOrganic.info. The organic agriculture community with eXtension. Publications, webinars, videos, trainings and support. An expanding, accessible source of reliable information.  Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu Click Farmer Resources. Debbie Roos keeps this site up to the minute. Includes Farm Planning and Recordkeeping  Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, www.imok.ufl.edu/programs/vegetable-hort/research-extension-ozores/veg-transplant/ (Information on age of transplants, container size, biological control for pests, diseases, hardening off, plant size, planting depth and temperature. )
  60. 60. Resources - Slideshows  Many of my presentations are available at www.Slideshare.net . Search for Pam Dawling. You’ll find  Cold-hardy Winter Vegetables  Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production  Crop Rotations  Fall and Winter Hoophouses  Fall Vegetable Production  Intensive vegetable Production on a Small Scale  Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests  Spring and Summer Hoophouses  Mark Cain Planning for Your CSA: www.Slideshare.net (search for Crop Planning)  Farm Planning for a Full Market Season Tom Peterson, Appalachian Farmers Market Association and Appalachian Sustainable Development http://vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/tom-peterson- farm-planning-for-a-full-market-season.pdf  Cultural Practices And Cultivar Selections for Commercial Vegetable Growers. Brad Burgefurd, Wide scope. www.slideshare.net/guest6e1a8d60/vegetable-cultural-practices-and-variety-selection  Planning the Planting of Cover Crops and Cash Crops, Daniel Parson SSAWG 2012 www.slideshare.net/parsonproduce/southern-sawg  Cover Crop Innovation by Joel B Gruver www.Slideshare.net  Cover crops for vegetable cropping systems, Joel Gruver, www.slideshare.net/jbgruver/cover-crops-for-vegetable-crops  Finding the best fit: cover crops in organic farming systems. Joel Gruver. Some overlap with previous slideshow. www.slideshare.net/jbgruver/cover-crops-decatur
  61. 61. Resources - Books  The Market Gardener, Jean-Martin Fortier, New Society Publishers  The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J K A Bleasdale, P J Salter et al.  Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Maynard and Hochmuth  The New Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel, Rodale Books  The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, Richard Wiswall, Chelsea Green  Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, Vern Grubinger,  The New Organic Grower, Eliot Coleman, Chelsea Green  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm a free e- book for online subscribers to Growing for Market magazine  Sharing the Harvest, Elizabeth Henderson and Robyn Van En  Gardening When it Counts, Steve Solomon  Grow a Sustainable Diet: Planning and Growing to Feed Ourselves and the Earth, Cindy Conner, New Society Publishers, (worksheet based). DVD/CD set Develop a Sustainable Vegetable Garden Plan  Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault (Canadian Organic Growers www.cog.ca)  Nature and Properties of Soils, fourteenth edition, Nyle Brady and Ray Weil  Garden Insects of North America, Whitney Cranshaw  Managing Weeds on your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies. Charles Mohler and Antonio DiTommaso. SARE. In prep.(not yet published)  SARE Crop Rotations on Organic Farms, A Planning Manual, Charles Mohler and Sue Ellen Johnson, editors.
  62. 62. Resources - Planning  The Twin Oaks Harvest Calendar by Starting Date and by Crop are available as pdfs on my website sustainablemarketfarming.com/2013/11/07/growing-for-market-articles-2/  AgSquared online planning software: agsquared.com  COG-Pro record-keeping software for Certified Organic Farms: cog-pro.com  Free open-source database crop planning software code.google.com/p/cropplanning.  Mother Earth News interactive Vegetable Garden Planner, free for 30 days: motherearthnews.com/garden-planner.  Target Harvest Date Calculator: (Excel spreadsheet) johnnyseeds.com/t- InteractiveTools.aspx  Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu click Farmer Resources, Farm Planning and Recordkeeping to download Joel Gruver’s spreadsheets. Debbie Roos keeps this site up to the minute.  Mark Cain www.drippingspringsgarden.com under the CSA tab, you can download their Harvest Schedule. Notebook-based system.
  63. 63. Resources – Detailed Planning  Tables of likely crop yields johnnyseeds.com/assets/information/vegetablecharts.pdf.  gardensofeden.org/04%20Crop%20Yield%20Verification.htm two charts, one of organic crops from The Owner-Built Homestead by Ken & Barbara Kern, one from California.  Determining Prices for CSA Share Boxes Iowa State U extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/pdf/c5-19.pdf  New England Vegetable Management Guide Crop Budgets http://nevegetable.org/cultural-practices/crop-budgets  Clif Slade’s 43560 Project: Virginia Association for Biological Farming newsletter vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/clif-slade-43560-demo-project.pdf.  USDA annual vegetable consumption www.usda.gov/factbook/chapter2.pdf  John Jeavons How to Grow More Vegetables has charts: Pounds Consumed per Year by the Average Person in the US and Average US Yield in Pounds per 100 Square Feet.  The Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems at the UC Santa Cruz Crop Plan for a Hundred-Member CSA, for a range of 36 crops in its Unit 4.5 CSA Crop Planning: casfs.ucsc.edu/education/instructional-resources/downloadable-pdf-files2 or directly at 63.249.122.224/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/4.5_CSA_crop_plan.pdf  Jean-Paul Courtens , Roxbury Farm www.roxburyfarm.com. Information for Farmers tab, 100 Member CSA Plan, including a Weekly Share Plan, Greenhouse Schedule, and Field Planting and Seeding Schedule (with charts of possible crop yields). Courtens is also willing to send you their 1,100-member schedule.
  64. 64. Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production Closing the planning circle: produce crops when you want them and in the right quantities; sell them where and when you need to and support yourself with a rewarding livelihood while replenishing the soil. ©Pam Dawling, 2016 Author of Sustainable Market Farming SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming

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