Planning and Climate Change “ ..climate change represents a potentially catastrophic threat but it is within out control t...
Climate change? <ul><li>Consequence of man or naturally occurring phenomenon?   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Gore v Nigel Laws...
Sustainable Development “ a better quality of life for everyone, now and for future generations ” <ul><li>Sustainable deve...
Climate change – current action? <ul><li>Government has published the Planning and Climate Change Supplement to PPS1 (“the...
Legal basis for the Supplement <ul><li>Stand alone national policy document and which is a material planning consideration...
Climate Change Supplement  Its aim is to set out  “ how planning should contribute to reducing emissions and stabilising c...
Supplement – How are the aims achieved? <ul><li>By setting ‘Key Planning Objectives’ which include requiring new developme...
Achieving the Key Planning Objectives - the RSS <ul><li>Climate change should be a key and integrating theme of the RSS  <...
The South East Plan (our RSS) “ The Plan is a key tool to help achieve more sustainable development, protect the environme...
Achieving the Key Planning Objectives – the LDDs <ul><li>LPAs should consider how their Core Strategy could further the po...
(1) Renewable and low-carbon energy generation <ul><ul><li>LPAs should provide a framework that promotes and encourages re...
(2) Selecting land for development <ul><li>Lists criteria LPAs should consider in selecting land for different types / int...
(2) Development land (continued) <ul><li>Supplement does recognise that rural development (such as affordable housing and ...
(3) Provision of decentralised energy <ul><ul><li>LPAs need to understand the local feasibility and potential for renewabl...
(4) Sustainable Buildings   <ul><li>LPAs must engage ‘ constructively and imaginatively to encourage the delivery of susta...
Handling Planning Applications <ul><li>LPAs should adhere to the following principles in determining planning applications...
Planning Applications (continued) <ul><li>LPAs need to ensure development consistent with the Supplement and avoid placing...
Planning Applications – environmental performance <ul><li>Developers will need to design environmental performance into th...
Environmental performance criteria include; <ul><li>Compliance with adopted DPD on decentralised energy supply and sustain...
Environmental performance   <ul><li>LPAs are also required to consider the likely impact of the proposed development on; <...
Planning applications – conditions & S106s <ul><li>Conditions shouldn’t be used to cover standards required to be met thro...
Likely issues <ul><li>Requirement to provide information on environmental performance, Key Planning Objectives (and RSS / ...
Likely issues (continued) <ul><li>Siting of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will there be any sites which meet the m...
Conclusions <ul><li>Regional / Local planning authorities and individual applications cannot ignore the Government’s clima...
Final thoughts <ul><li>Exponential increase in CO 2  due to melting permafrost - i t is muted that only 100 months to save...
Further guidance <ul><li>PPS1 supplements ‘Planning and Climate Change’ and ‘Eco-towns’; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.com...
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Henry Gordon Lennox

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Henry Gordon Lennox

  1. 1. Planning and Climate Change “ ..climate change represents a potentially catastrophic threat but it is within out control to address it – and address it we must.”
  2. 2. Climate change? <ul><li>Consequence of man or naturally occurring phenomenon? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Gore v Nigel Lawson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impetus lies with those who believe it is the human race. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning already has the concept of “sustainable development”, but it is recognised that more drastic steps required! </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently Governments are responding with legislative and policy initiatives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol and in UK the Climate Change Act 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copenhagen Treaty? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sustainable Development “ a better quality of life for everyone, now and for future generations ” <ul><li>Sustainable development enshrined in PPS1 (Jan 2005) which says it is “the core principle underpinning planning” </li></ul><ul><li>Aims; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social progress which recognises the needs of everyone; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effective protection of the environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the prudent use of natural resources; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate change has, to date, been just one aspect of sustainable development . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Climate change – current action? <ul><li>Government has published the Planning and Climate Change Supplement to PPS1 (“the Supplement”) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tackling climate change is a key Government priority for the planning system” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Addressing climate change is therefore the Government’s principal concern for sustainable development” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sets out the role climate change considerations have in determining planning applications and development control decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting to note that the Government view climate change as the greatest long-term challenge facing the world today </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Legal basis for the Supplement <ul><li>Stand alone national policy document and which is a material planning consideration now </li></ul><ul><li>However underpinned by Planning Act 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires policies to be included in RSS / LDD to secure development contributes to mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It specifically states that it takes precedence where there is any inconsistency / difference between it and the other PPSs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Climate Change Supplement Its aim is to set out “ how planning should contribute to reducing emissions and stabilising climate change and take into account the unavoidable consequences ” <ul><li>Emphasises that climate change considerations are relevant at all stages of the planning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>so from formulation of spatial strategies (RSS / LDD) to the making of decisions on individual applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It contains clear recognition of planning’s role in tackling climate change through emissions reductions ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Regulations being tightened to get new homes to be ‘zero carbon’ by 2016 (all non-domestic buildings by 2018) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement sets out how regional / local planning authorities can best support this </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Supplement – How are the aims achieved? <ul><li>By setting ‘Key Planning Objectives’ which include requiring new development to; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver the Government’s Climate Change Programme and energy policies, and in so doing contribute to global sustainability; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure the highest viable resource and energy efficiency and reduction in emissions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimise vulnerability, and provide resilience to, climate change; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve and enhance biodiversity, recognising that the distribution of habitats and species will be affected by climate change; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect the development needs and interests of communities and enable them to contribute effectively to tackling climate change; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to the concerns of businesses and encourage competitiveness and technological innovation in mitigating and adapting to climate change. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Achieving the Key Planning Objectives - the RSS <ul><li>Climate change should be a key and integrating theme of the RSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in conjunction with economic, social and environmental concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSSs should ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus substantial new development to locations accessible other than by private car and where energy can be gained from de-centralised energy supply systems or where there is potential for this to be realised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure opportunities for supply of renewable and low-carbon sources of energy are maximised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set targets for renewable energy generation (PPS22) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage practices that result in carbon sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take account of water resource availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid locating development in areas vulnerable to effect of climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. flooding! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The South East Plan (our RSS) “ The Plan is a key tool to help achieve more sustainable development, protect the environment and combat climate change ” <ul><ul><li>Core Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ xiv. new development will be delivered in a manner which mitigates the effects of, and adapts to, climate change” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cutting policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy CC1 – Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy CC2 – Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy CC3 – Resource Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy CC4 – Sustainable Design and Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy CC8 – Green Infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Achieving the Key Planning Objectives – the LDDs <ul><li>LPAs should consider how their Core Strategy could further the policies of the RSS and the Key Planning Objectives of the Supplement. </li></ul><ul><li>Four major elements that the Supplement covers - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Renewable and low-carbon energy generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Selecting land for development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Provision of decentralised energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) Local requirements for sustainable buildings </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. (1) Renewable and low-carbon energy generation <ul><ul><li>LPAs should provide a framework that promotes and encourages renewable / low-carbon energy generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies should be designed to promote and not restrict renewable and low-carbon energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In particular LPAs should not require energy development to; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate need for renewable energy nor question the justification for a development’s siting in a particular place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ensure local approach to protecting landscape / townscape is consistent with PPS22 and does not preclude supply of renewable energy save in the most exceptional circumstance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify areas for renewable / low-carbon energy sources – but not stifle innovative ideas by refusing if outside those areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expect a proportion of energy supply to be from decentralised and renewable / low-carbon energy sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. (2) Selecting land for development <ul><li>Lists criteria LPAs should consider in selecting land for different types / intensity of development – priority given to sites performing well ; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for decentralised or renewable / low-carbon energy to supply development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential / realistic choice of access other than by private car and opportunity to service the site in a sustainable way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity of existing / potential infrastructure to service area / site in a way consistent with cutting carbon dioxide emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to build and sustain socially cohesive communities having regard to the local impact of climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of development on biodiversity and its ability to adapt to likely changes in the climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution from open space and green infrastructure to urban cooling, SUDS and conserving / enhancing biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known physical and environmental constraints on development such as sea level rises, flood risk and stability having assessed risk as a result of likely change due to climate change </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. (2) Development land (continued) <ul><li>Supplement does recognise that rural development (such as affordable housing and employment opportunities) to meet the needs of local people may not be readily accessible other than by the private car. </li></ul><ul><li>That exception aside – the criteria are relevant to the location of all development </li></ul>
  14. 14. (3) Provision of decentralised energy <ul><ul><li>LPAs need to understand the local feasibility and potential for renewable / low-carbon technologies (inc. microgeneration) to supply new development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While ensuring that they are consistent with housing and economic objectives LPAs should; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set a properly tested target percentage of energy for new development that should come from decentralised and renewable / low-carbon energy sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where there is a greater opportunity for use than the target percentage bring forward development of an area / site to secure it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In bringing forward targets – set out type and size of development to which target will be applied </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. (4) Sustainable Buildings <ul><li>LPAs must engage ‘ constructively and imaginatively to encourage the delivery of sustainable buildings ” </li></ul><ul><li>Policies should support innovation and investment in sustainable buildings and should not , unless there are exceptional reasons, deter novel or cutting-edge developments </li></ul><ul><li>LPAs can; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set a prescribed level (currently the Code for Sustainable Homes) of building sustainability in advance of national standard where justified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. where development may be otherwise unacceptable, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clear opportunity to use decentralised and renewable energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Handling Planning Applications <ul><li>LPAs should adhere to the following principles in determining planning applications; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>controls under planning, building regulations and other environmental legislation should complement and not duplicate each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information sought from applicant to be proportionate to scale of proposed development and its impact on, and vulnerability to, climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>standalone assessments should not be required where information made available through Design and Access statements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement is a material consideration which will supersede DPDs until they are updated to reflect it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Planning Applications (continued) <ul><li>LPAs need to ensure development consistent with the Supplement and avoid placing requirements on applicants which are inconsistent with it </li></ul><ul><li>Where proposals are inconsistent with the Key Planning Objectives then proposals should be amended to make them acceptable - if can’t amend the LPA has to look at whether or not permission should be refused </li></ul><ul><li>Any proposal which will contribute to the delivery of the Key Planning Objectives should “ expect expeditious and sympathetic handling ’ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Planning Applications – environmental performance <ul><li>Developers will need to design environmental performance into their proposals; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LPAs should set out in their DPD / SPDs or in application checklists what information and justification they require in order to deal with particular applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design & Access statements should demonstrate how the proposed development will contribute to and comply with the Key Planning Objectives (as well as RSS / LDD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When considering environmental performance LPAs should take particular account of and expect new development to satisfy particular criteria </li></ul>
  19. 19. Environmental performance criteria include; <ul><li>Compliance with adopted DPD on decentralised energy supply and sustainable buildings – unless not feasible or viable to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Take account of landform, layout, building orientation, massing and landscaping to minimise energy consumption (including maximising cooling and avoiding solar gain in the summer); and overall so as to minimise carbon dioxide emissions when the development is taken as a whole including density and mix of development and whether it supports opportunities for decentralised and renewable / low-carbon energy supply </li></ul><ul><li>Give priority to SUDS including water harvesting / recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Create and secure opportunities for sustainable transport </li></ul>
  20. 20. Environmental performance <ul><li>LPAs are also required to consider the likely impact of the proposed development on; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing, or other proposed, development, and its renewable or low-carbon energy supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing, or proposed, sources of renewable or low-carbon energy supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The vulnerability to climate change of existing or proposed development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Where proposals would prejudice renewable or low-carbon energy supplies or lead to vulnerability, then LPAs need to consider whether scheme can be amended – if not then have to consider whether to refuse! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Planning applications – conditions & S106s <ul><li>Conditions shouldn’t be used to cover standards required to be met through tightening Building Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>To be used to secure the provision and long-term management and maintenance of those aspects of a development required to ensure compliance with the policies of the Supplement. </li></ul><ul><li>PAS Guidance; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests that for larger developments, with a long delivery programme, where scheme viability may change over the life of the development, then it may be appropriate to attach a condition to an outline permission which will allow for reconsideration of viability at a later stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derogating from the grant? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Likely issues <ul><li>Requirement to provide information on environmental performance, Key Planning Objectives (and RSS / LDD climate change policies) when applying for permission; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must be proportionate and should be in D&A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>larger developments probably through ES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable and low-carbon energy generation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reduced degree of assessment for providing energy facilities / generation at expense of landscape / townscape? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complying with the targets / percentages proposed when building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no national standard set yet but will probably be Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>zero carbon by 2016 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not to impact upon provision of housing targets – conflict? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Likely issues (continued) <ul><li>Siting of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will there be any sites which meet the majority of identified critieria? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Determining applications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if show high proportion of decentralised or renewable / low-carbon energy to help meet the percentage target, then site / area likely to be favoured – unjust / practical? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refusal if not meeting Key Planning Objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to permissions on climate change grounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on robustness of targets / percentages set? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Regional / Local planning authorities and individual applications cannot ignore the Government’s climate change agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability as was (the green roof, shower and cycle racks) will no longer do </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities and applicants will be under increasing pressure to demonstrate that the spatial strategies, policies and individual developments make a positive contribution to reducing carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>If this is to be achieved, it will require innovation by the developers and support of the LPAs </li></ul>
  25. 25. Final thoughts <ul><li>Exponential increase in CO 2 due to melting permafrost - i t is muted that only 100 months to save planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare this to the 40 years allowed to reach 80% reduction in baseline of 1990 and 2016 / 2018 to go zero carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the “long-term view” and reliance on planning going to actually make the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>What will developers be doing going forward?; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting their developments through now before policies become too restrictive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively incorporating sustainability measures, to comply with the Key Planning Objectives / environmental performance criteria, into any / all schemes </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Further guidance <ul><li>PPS1 supplements ‘Planning and Climate Change’ and ‘Eco-towns’; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/planning/planningpolicyguidance/planningpolicystatements/planningpolicystatements/ppsclimatechange/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/ppsecotowns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice guide on the climate change Supplement policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Homes and Community Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.hcaacademy.co.uk/planning-and-climate-change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Planning Advisory Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.pas.gov.uk/pas/core/page.do?pageId=94314 </li></ul></ul></ul>

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