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Sustainable Communities SA - presentation by Professor Peter Newman

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Sustainable Communities SA public meeting 18 April 2012 at Burnside Community Centre. Professor Peter Newman from Curtin University spoke about sustainability in communities with a focus on transport and reducing car dependence.

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  • I attended this talk last week and think it is good to hear that the use of cars is going down and that worldwide:) The theory why that might be the case is that young people do not need a car to connect or have a sense of freedom. It is easier to plug in one's devices and be interconnected:) The other reason for a worldwide trend of decline in car use and ownership is related to the fast roll out of Metro systems in Asian and Indian cities.For example, Shanghai developed the largest metro net in just a decade. People realised that they are better off on the light rail than stuck in a car on a highway which has eight lanes:)
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Sustainable Communities SA - presentation by Professor Peter Newman

  1. 1. Sustainability: What it can mean for people and communities? By Peter Newman Professor of Sustainability Curtin University
  2. 2. The Sustainability StoryMid 90’s to 2000’s Environmental Ecological Protection and Economics ImprovementEconomicDevelopment Sustainability Community “Sense of Health Place” Social Development
  3. 3. Sustainability in cities: reducing footprint whilst increasing liveability…
  4. 4. My niche… ‘Oil vulnerability’ and ‘car dependence’….….born out of the pain of the 1970’s oil crises
  5. 5. The Hubbert Peak Sci Amer 1971
  6. 6. The Polycentric City. Walkable, green, smart centres linked by quality transit….
  7. 7. Community activist journey began in Fremantle in 1979… ‘the last train to Freo’
  8. 8. Corruption revealed
  9. 9. 100,000signatureson petition
  10. 10. We won! Supplementary policies on traffic demandmanagement, parking restrictions, congestion taxes…. canall help, but will be reduced to marginal exercises unlessthe structure of the city is addressed in terms of therelative speed of traffic compared to sustainable transportmodes.
  11. 11. Then won three more times…7 mill pass/yr to 57 mill/yr in 15 years
  12. 12. 1992 - Northern Suburbs RailwayNow equal to 8 lanes of traffic….
  13. 13. Year Route Km1982 42km1983 63km1993 92km2004 96km2005 100km2006 172kmTotal 172km 54 kms within freeway median
  14. 14. Opening of new Southern Railway 90% approval ratings and already paid off.Carrying 65,000 per day cf 14,000 on buses. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  15. 15. Meanwhile the academic….Fuel Use Decreases as Density Increases
  16. 16. National and global model…$17 mill per km…. higher numbers from Travel Smart suburbs!
  17. 17. iANNUALRAILBOARDINGS(000s: TrainandTram) 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998Y 1999 EAR 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Perth Adelaide
  18. 18. Next phase light rail…• Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  19. 19. The next phase in Perth…. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  20. 20. Perth: 21st Century City Focus on the 13 big development projectsin Perth and show how they can be:• Leading demonstrations of low carbon, renewable, green development• Dense, mixed use centres made viable through light rail• Financed by a new private-public mechanism that captures the value inherent in green, transit oriented development….Committee for Perth report.
  21. 21. INFRASTRUCTURE AUSTRALIA Nation Building package – 55% urban rail….historic!
  22. 22. Adelaide’s electrification and Seafordextension like Perth’s northern and southern rail lines
  23. 23. Why rail must continue to be the priority….
  24. 24. Peak oil has happened….
  25. 25. Climate policy: Oils tipping point has passed  Nature  481,433–435 26 January 2012
  26. 26. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  27. 27. Peak oil happened in 2008 in the economy… $140 per bl
  28. 28. September 15th 2008
  29. 29. Impact on cities?• Some US suburbs collapsed in GFC
  30. 30. Global oil production has not risen for 5 years…• Inexorable rise in oil price of 5% per year.• Dramatic rise in 2008 revealing vulnerabilities of car dependent cities.• Car use beginning to decline…
  31. 31. Car use growth trends in developed cities from 1960 to 2005 using Global Cities Database. 45 4 1 .8 P e r c e n t a g e a v e r a g e in c r e a s e in c a r V K T p e r c a p ita 40 35 30 2 5 .7 25 2 2 .9 20 15 10 5 .1 5 0 1 9 6 0 -1 9 7 0 1 9 7 0 -1 9 8 0 1 9 8 0 -1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 -2 0 0 5
  32. 32. Passenger-kilometres by private car and light trucks, 1990 – 2009, index (1990 = 100) 160 150 Germany 140 Australia 130 France 120 United Kingdom United 110 States Japan 100 90 Oil price shock and start of crisis 80 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  33. 33. Peak Car Use - US cities...• 7 years of decline• $80 a barrel in 2004• Cities coming back in…
  34. 34. 19 76 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1519 -7 7 7719 -7 8 7819 -7 9 7919 -8 0 801 9 -8 1 Hobart 81 Sydney Adelaide Brisbane19 -8 2 8219 - 8 3 8319 - 8 4 8419 - 8 5 8519 - 8 6 Perth Darwin 86 Canberra19 - 8 7 Melbourne 8719 -8 8 8819 -8 9 000 Kms per capita by car, commercial vehicle and motorcycle 8919 -9 0 9019 -9 1 9119 -9 2 9219 -9 3 9319 - 9 4 9419 - 9 5 9519 - 9 6 9619 - 9 7 9719 - 9 8 Per Capita Private Travel by City 9819 -9 9 9920 -0 0 0020 -0 1 0120 -0 2 0220 -0 3 0320 -0 4 0420 -0 5 052 0 -0 6 062 0 -0 7 Source: BTRE (2011): Australian Infrastructure Statistics Yearbook 072 0 -0 8 08 -0 9
  35. 35. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 per1976-771977-78 Kms 1.2 Capita1978-791979-801980-811981-821982-831983-841984-851985-861986-871987-881988-891989-901990-911991-921992-93 Source: BTRE (2011): Australian Infrastructure Statistics Yearbook1993-941994-951995-961996-971997-981998-991999-002000-012001-02 Per Capita Public Transport Travel by City2002-032003-042004-052005-062006-072007-082008-09 e Perth Hobart Darwin Sydney Adelaide Brisbane Canberra Melbourn
  36. 36. Annual vehicle miles per driver by age, USA, 1995, 2001, 2009
  37. 37. ‘Cars are so yesterday: young and rich leave guzzlers behind’ From 2001 to 2009, the average annual number of vehicle-miles travelled by young people (16 to 34 year olds) decreased from 10,300 miles to 7900 miles per capita – a drop“From 2001 to 2009, young of 23 per cent.people (16- to 34-year-olds)who lived in households withannual incomes of over$70,000 increased their use ofpublic transit by 100 per cent,biking by 122 per cent, andwalking by 37 percent.”
  38. 38. Shanghai 1990 and 2010ck to edit Master text stylesecond level• Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  39. 39. 1990’s - Flirting with the American model…
  40. 40. Rapidly filled…So what can be done?
  41. 41. Shanghai Metro…12 lines, 273 stations, 420km covering 80% of metro area… Built mostly since 2000; carries 8 million per dayk to edit Master text stylesecond levelThird level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  42. 42. Global growth now in rail and first signs of declines in car use…• 82 Chinese cities building metros and high speed rail between cities• 14 Indian cities building metros• Middle east cities building rail for first time
  43. 43. Economic wavesThe next era of innovation….the Green Economy Green Economy
  44. 44. Green economy symbol, Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul, buried under freeway• Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  45. 45. ⑥ ー 1   Cheonggyecheon Area after Restoration(http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor2000/chungaehome/en/seoul/2sub.htm/) • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  46. 46. History of innovation and energy…. .Next era of city building is REDUCED CARBON – green economy. Renewable Oil s & Gas Coal Woo d Water
  47. 47. History of innovation and cities…. Transport shapesEach era changes the city form. Cities keep the best of that era and move on. Next era of city building …. CAR S ELECTRIC and ELECT TRUCK u Renewable RIC PLANE p Gas TRAIN e Vehicles & r NMT TRAM STEA h M i TRAI g N h SHIP/ w WALK a y
  48. 48. So what can communities do?Communities hold all the cards….10people focused on an issue cantransform a city.
  49. 49. The Sustainability StorySectoral Dimensions Market Community -goods & -values & services visions Government -regulations & infrastructure
  50. 50. At home?• Get out of that car, at least ensure only one car.• Can save $750,000 over a lifetime by using one less car.
  51. 51. Vauban FrieburgEco-village with car- free housing.
  52. 52. Vauban freedom...
  53. 53. ChristieWalk Eco-Village,Adelaide.Strawbaleapartments incentral city;grey water topermaculturegardens; PV;no parking.
  54. 54. Will we get out of cars if given a bit of help?
  55. 55. TravelSmart from 1990’s….
  56. 56. Travel Smart
  57. 57. Walking School Bus
  58. 58. Walk/bike useincreases productivity in workplace by 6%
  59. 59. Consistent reductions in car use ofaround 15% - with 27% increase inmuscle-powered transport... Createsculture of alternative transport. Whole new profession created of TravelSmart Officers
  60. 60. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level Tim Darby and • Third level Shani Graham – Fourth level » Fifth level The Hulbert Street Story
  61. 61. k to edit Master text stylesecond levelThird level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  62. 62. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  63. 63. Imagine the Possibilities Transformation of a city…Photo Series: UrbanAdvantage

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