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- 1. MEANING IN SENTENCE LEVEL <br />Susilo<br />Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia<br />
- 2. UTTERANCE<br />SENTENCE<br />PROPOSITION<br />Important terms<br />
- 3. Any stretch of talk, by one person, before and after which there is a silence on the part of that person; the use by a particular speaker, on a particular occasion, of a piece of language.<br />UTTERANCE<br />
- 4. It is conceived abstractly, a string of words put together by grammatical rules of a language.<br />sentence<br />
- 5. I would like a cup of coffee --- sentence? Yes<br />“Coffee, please?”<br /> sentence? No, Utterance? Yes.<br />Please put it in the kitchen? sentence? yes<br />
- 6. Can one talk of a loud sentence?<br />Can one talk of a slow utterance?<br />
- 7. Harry took out the garbage<br />Harry took the garbage out<br />How many propositions are there?<br />Ho many sentences are there?<br />John gave Mary a book<br />Mary was given a book by John<br />Proposition<br />
- 8. I have an account at the Bank of Scotland<br />We steered the raft to the other bank of the river<br />Fred hit me<br />There is no Fred at this address<br />What does “Fred” refer to in the 1stand 2ndsentence?<br />Reference, expression and sense<br />
- 9. Every expression that has meaning has sense, but not every expression has reference.<br />
- 10. SENTENCE RELATION AND TRUTH(TRUTH CONDITIONAL-SEMANTICS)<br />
- 11. To know the meaning of a sentence is to know under what condition that sentence would be true.<br /> <br />Tarki’s definition of truth:<br /> <br />S is true if and only if P<br /> <br />S = sentence<br />P = the condition which guarantee the truth of S<br /> <br />Assumption:<br />
- 12. Sentence A is synonymous with B means that A has the same meaning as B<br />my brother is a bachelor<br />my brother has never married<br />Synonymous: <br />
- 13. Sentence A entails B means that if A then automatically B<br />the anarchist assassinated the emperor<br />the emperor is died<br />Entailment<br />
- 14. Sentence A contradicts B means that A is inconsistent with B<br />my brother Sebastian has just come from Rome<br />my brother Sebastian has never been to Rome<br />Contradiction<br />
- 15. Sentence B presupposes B means that A is part of the assumed background against which A is said <br />the Mayor of Manchester is a women<br />there is a Mayor of Manchester<br />Presupposition<br />
- 16. Sentence A is a tautology means that A is automatically true by virtue of its own meaning, but informationally empty <br />Ireland is Ireland <br />Tautology<br />
- 17. Modus Ponens<br />p -> q if Smith left work early, then he <br /> is in the pub <br />p Smith left work early<br />--------<br />q Smith is in the pub<br />LOGIC AND TRUTH<br />
- 18. Modus Tollens<br />p -> q If Smith has arrived, then he is in the pub <br />- q Smith is not in the pub<br />--------<br />-p Smith has not arrived<br />
- 19. Hypothetical Syllogism<br />p -> q if Smith is in the pub, then he is drinking beer<br />q -> r if Smith is drinking beer, he is drinking Guinness<br />--------<br />p -> r if Smith is in the pub, then he <br />is drinking Guinness <br />
- 20. Disjunctive Syllogism<br />p v q Smith is in the public bar or he is in the lounge<br />- p Smith is not in the public bar<br />--------<br /> q Smith is in the lounge<br />
- 21. p -p the symbol – for negation<br />---------<br />T F<br />F T<br />p=The house is on fire; -p=the house is not on fire <br />T=True<br />F=False<br />LOGICAL CONNECTIVES<br />
- 22. p q p Λ q the symbol Λ for and<br />----------------<br />T TT<br />T F F<br />F T F<br />F FF<br />p= The house is on fire andq=the fire brigade are on the way <br />
- 23. p q p v q <br />---------------------<br />T TT<br />T F T<br />F T T<br />F FF<br />the symbol v for or(inclusive or) <br />(p = )I’ll see you today or (q=) I’ll see you tomorrow<br />
- 24. p q p ve q<br />----------------------<br />T T F<br />T F T<br />F T T<br />F FF<br />the symbol ve for or (exclusive or) <br />(p=)You will pay the fine or (q= )you will go to jail<br /> <br />
- 25. In Semantics, to understand logic and truth, we should recognize:<br />Truth value -----whether a sentence is being true or false<br />Truth Condition ----the facts that would have to obtain in reality to make a sentence true or false<br />
- 26. Based on what a speaker knows (epistemology), truth can be:<br />a priori truth ---Truth is known before or without experience<br />a posteriori truth---- Truth can only be known on the basis of empirical testing<br />So, there is always a couple of truth:<br />
- 27. Necessary truth ----cannot be denied without forcing a contradiction<br /> Two and two make four<br />Contingent truth -----can be contradicted, depending on the facts<br />Orangutan is extinct <br />Based on what the world is like (metaphysic), truth can be:<br />
- 28. Analytic truth ---truth follows from the meaning relations within the sentence, regardless of any relationship with the world.<br /> My father is my father<br />Synthetic truth --- being true is because of the facts of the world <br /> My father is a sailor<br />Based on semantic orientation (semantics), truth can be:<br />

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