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AIDS/HIV Awareness through Maps and Mashups


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This assignment was created for the class LIBR 220 : Maps, GIS, and Map Librarianship, Fall Semester 2008, taught by Dr. Susan Aber at San José State University, School of Library and Information Management

The information discussed here highlight how visual information (map and cartogram displays) is helpful in making the public aware of health issues, specifically in AIDS / HIV.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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AIDS/HIV Awareness through Maps and Mashups

  1. 1. Mapping HIV/AIDS Awareness AIDS Quilt, UnAIDS. N. Lieber by Susie Quinn SJSU SLIS – LIBR220: Maps, GIS, and Map Librarianship December 6, 2008
  2. 2. Welcome <ul><li>This assignment was created for the class LIBR 220 : Maps, GIS, and Map Librarianship, which was taught Fall Semester 2008 by Dr. Susan Aber at San José State University, School of Library and Information Management </li></ul><ul><li>The information discussed here highlights how visual data and information, specifically map and cartogram displays, are helpful in making the public aware of health issues such as HIV/AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions, statistics, and map resources follow. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Definitions <ul><li>HIV/AIDS refers to… </li></ul><ul><li>“ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or a set of symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk….AIDS is now a pandemic” (AIDS, 2008, </li></ul>
  4. 4. 20 th World AIDS Day December 1, 2008 <ul><li>This is a day of both commemoration and promise for the many millions of people around the world who are affected by HIV/AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a day to remember those we have lost and to acknowledge all the men and women around the world that have dedicated their lives in working to fight this pandemic. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Definitions & Statistics <ul><li>A pandemic is an epidemic – when something exceeds the expected – that spreads through global </li></ul><ul><li>According to AIDS Pandemic (2008, pandemic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS/HIV was first recognized in 1981 and has led to more than 25 million deaths, which makes this disease the most destructive in human recorded history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiretroviral treatment exists and education for prevention strategies expands, yet in 2007 33.2 million people are estimated who live with the disease and 2.5 million people are estimated to be newly infected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan African countries are the worst-affected region having an estimated 68% of the global total of people living with AIDS/HIV. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dr. Kevin Fenton, the director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has a notable blog and commented on World Aids Day </li></ul><ul><li>He emphasized that the impact of AIDS is universal but HIV testing is key to prevention, treatment, and care. </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, 1 in 5 are unaware of their HIV status and …”people who do not know are responsible for transmitting most of the more than 56,000 new HIV infections which occur each year” (Fenton, 12/01/08, </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, minority communities are infected at many times higher rates than others. In the absence of a cure, Dr. Fenton committed tools, policies, testing, and know-how to link care and treatment to all and end this epidemic. </li></ul>People Make a Difference
  7. 7. <ul><li>Some people estimate that more than 90% of HIV-infected people live in the developing worlds and many are unaware that they are even infected. </li></ul><ul><li>When looking at HIV statistics, realize that even though a person tests positive for HIV, they may present no symptoms related to AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>If HIV positive people do not take any antiretroviral treatment, the amount of time is unknown before any signs of immune system break down will be recognized. </li></ul>Thoughts to reflect upon...
  8. 8. <ul><li>Without the onset of AIDS, statistics are likely to indicate the HIV positive population is healthy because years may pass before the effects of the disease take place – the unpublished statistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people project that over the next decade, another 40 million will contract the AIDS virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics and projections are an important component of education, and communication is both written and spoken- however, a universal media for breaking down language barriers are maps, cartograms, and mashups. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics tell a story but many of us live, think, and reflect visually and electronically… </li></ul>Thoughts to reflect upon…
  9. 9. Electronic Communication <ul><li> is an electronic communication tool that utilizes a number of formats in AIDS education including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other virtual worlds and… </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Visual Communication <ul><li>Maps are… </li></ul><ul><li>“ a graphic representation or scale model of spatial concepts. It is a means for conveying geographic information. Maps are a universal medium for communication, easily understood and appreciated by most people, regardless of language or culture. Incorporated in a map is the understanding that it is a ‘snapshot’ of an idea, a single picture, a selection of concepts from a constantly changing database of geographic information (Merriam 1996)” (J.S. Aber, 2008, h_map/h_map.htm). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Political Map <ul><li>This is a political map of Swaziland, a Sub Sahara African nation. It displays cities, roads, district boundaries, and surrounding countries all to scale. This is only one example of a map. </li></ul><ul><li>Map taken from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Communication <ul><li>Maps are… </li></ul><ul><li>“ a symbolised image of geographic reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative efforts of its author’s execution of choices, and is designed for use when spatial relationships are of primary relevance” (International Cartographic Association, 1995, TheAssociation/Mission). </li></ul><ul><li>A map that communicates a single subject or theme is termed a thematic map; a political map is thematic as well as a map of the prevalence of people with HIV… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Thematic Map <ul><li>This is an example of a </li></ul><ul><li>thematic map. It shows </li></ul><ul><li>the estimated prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>of HIV among young </li></ul><ul><li>adults (15-49) in </li></ul><ul><li>Africa at the end </li></ul><ul><li>of 2005. The data was </li></ul><ul><li>based on a UNAIDS global </li></ul><ul><li>report. </li></ul><ul><li>Map taken from commons.wikimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>org/wiki/File:Map-of-HIV-Prevalance- </li></ul><ul><li>in-Africa.png </li></ul>
  14. 14. Visual Communication <ul><li>Cartograms are… </li></ul><ul><li>“ a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area. The geometry or space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable. There are two main types of cartograms: area and distance cartograms” (Cartogram, 2008, </li></ul><ul><li>The following two cartograms serve as examples. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cartograms <ul><li>This Worldmapper cartogram shows global land area with a palette of colors representing different countries </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cartograms <ul><li>This Worldmapper cartogram shows global land area resized with thematic mapping of poor health, the proportion of years lived beyond the WHO health-adjusted life expectancy. Another way of saying it is the years of unhealthy life lived worldwide – </li></ul>
  17. 17. Visual Communication <ul><li>Cartograms are… </li></ul><ul><li>a type of map known as density-equalising or what Gastner & Newman (2004) also called equal area cartograms. Their cartograms re-sizes the global land masses according to which variable is mapped. It is a way to isolate one variable and provide a different world view ( </li></ul><ul><li>The following 3 slides demonstrate a traditional map and 2 cartograms of similar themes. The power of cartogram displays should be obvious. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Visual Communication – Traditional Map <ul><li>Estimated prevalence of HIV among young adults (15-49) per country </li></ul><ul><li>at the end of 2005 - based on UNAIDS global report and taken from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  19. 19. Visual Communication - Cartograms <ul><li>This Worldmapper cartogram shows global land area with thematic mapping of the proportion of all people aged 15-49 with HIV worldwide - 2003, 29,929,909 million, </li></ul>
  20. 20. Visual Communication - Cartograms <ul><li>This Worldmapper cartogram shows global land area with the same palette of colors but mapping deaths due to HIV infections that progressed to AIDS – 2002, 2,929,909 million, </li></ul>
  21. 21. Basic Definitions <ul><li>A third type of map used in conveying AIDS/HIV information is interactive and up-to-date. </li></ul><ul><li>Mashups are… </li></ul><ul><li>“ a web application that combines data from more than one source into a single integrated tool. The term Mashup implies easy, fast integration, frequently done by access to open APIs and data sources to produce results data owners had no idea could be produced. An example is the use of cartographic data from Google Maps to add location information to real-estate data, thereby creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source” (Mashup, 2008, Mashup_(web_application_hybrid)). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Visual Communication - Mashups <ul><li>Introducing Mashups,, and examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>, HIV testing sites in the Washington, DC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> , map locations of HIV+ bloggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>, CHAVI or the locations of the Centers of HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology Member and Clinical sites.  </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>, is a Global Disease Alert HealthMap that is best displayed using Mozilla Firefox. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a map showing all the latest outbreaks in the past 30 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the Disease drop down box, choose HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>, International AIDS Candlelight Memorial World Map of Coordinators (by Google + ZeeMaps) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Visual Communication - Mashups
  24. 24. <ul><li>, University Coalitions for Global Health Resource Group is “a national collaboration among health-focused organizations with a university presence. UCGH aims to bridge and support global health-related efforts taking place at a growing number of universities across the U.S.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>, with a mashup marking 606 Health Resource locations hosted by the Global Health Council. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>, World Sites Atlas has a map HIV/AIDS statistics in each country and the country’s ranking compared to the rest of the world. </li></ul>Visual Communication - Mashups
  25. 25. Visual Communications - Mashups <ul><li>, Kaiser State Health Facts is a project created by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, www.kff.organd the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a massive collection of maps statistics that provides free, up-to-date health data for all 50 states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon choosing the HIV/AIDS category, one can find information and maps on new and cumulative AIDS cases; AIDS case rates; persons living with AIDS; AIDS deaths; HIV infections; HIV testing statistics and policies, and additional AIDS-related state policies; Ryan White and HIV prevention funding; AIDS Drug Assistance Programs including budget, client, and expenditure data; and more. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. A World of AIDS <ul><li> is a website companion to the PBS Frontline program: World of AIDS (May 30, 2006). Data retrieved for their maps came from UNAIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>, see a maps and statistics for the HIV-positive population living in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 27. Organizations Make a Difference <ul><li>UNAIDS - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to “help prevent new HIV infections, care for people living with HIV, and soften the impact of the epidemic. “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically located in Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint venture of the United Nations family and the world against AIDS - combining efforts and resources of… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP,UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Maps display statistics <ul><li>“ Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS as of end 1998 ” </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic 1998 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. Maps illustrate statistical reports <ul><li>“ People with HIV/AIDS, 2000 and New HIV infections, 2000 ” </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic 2001 </li></ul>
  30. 30. UNAIDS <ul><li>, 2008 Global Report </li></ul><ul><li>, AIDS epidemic update: December 2005” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maps and regional summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estimates of the epidemic’s scope and human toll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new trends in the epidemic’s evolution and features a special section on HIV prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special section on HIV Prevention  </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The global view of HIV infection <ul><li>A global view of HIV infection </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 32. AIDS Educational Outreach and Maps <ul><li>A Global Perspective on AIDS – </li></ul><ul><li>NR 505 K-12 Project </li></ul><ul><li>aids/web_docs/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>project designed for students in grades 10-12 enrolled in the Geography class at the Poudre School District, Fort Collins, Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>topics explored during the project - Medical Geography, Epidemiology, and Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>students utilized geographic information systems (GIS) mapping tools to analyze data related to AIDS and other global health issues </li></ul><ul><li>spatial techniques used to measure “global health” and additional facts regarding AIDS epidemic, population dynamics, and mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>project presented opportunity to educate young people on maps and health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSESS risks for HIV or other sexually transmitted </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>AIDS / HIV is an a horrible pandemic that has touched our entire universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of us live, think, and reflect visually and electronically. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic communication tools are effective media for people and organizations to provide and exchange up-to-date data and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Maps, cartograms, and mashups serve as effective visual communication tools to raise awareness and educate globally. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries serve to connect information to people - visit a nearby map library facility – in person or online – to learn more about AIDS/HIV, maps and map resources. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Reference & Resources <ul><li>Aber, J.S. (2008). Brief history of maps and cartography. WWW URL: Retrieved 12/6/08. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS in Africa. AIDS in Africa epidemic map. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Body Health Resource Foundation. (2008) Assess your risks for HIV. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell, Gr. 2008. Map of epiderm. Wikipedia. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>CSU and Rocky Mountain High School (2000). A global perspective on AIDS – NR 505 K-12 Project . WWW URL: 00proj/aids/web_docs/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Fenton, K. (2008). World’s AIDS day statement. WWW URL: Retrieved 12/6/08. </li></ul>
  35. 35. References & Resources <ul><li>Gastner, M. T. and Newman M. E. J. (2004). “Diffusion-based Method For Producing Density Equalizing Maps” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 7499-7504. [Online] </li></ul><ul><li>International Cartographic Association, 1995, index.php/TheAssociation/Mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Lieber, N. (2008). “AIDS Quilt”. 2008 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Retrieved December 13, 2008, from KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/GlobalReport/2008/ </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, M. & Workmapper Team. (2008). HIV prevalence. </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, M. & Workmapper Team. (2008). Cartogram: Land area. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, M. & Workmapper Team. (2008). Cartogram: Unhealthy life. WWW URL: </li></ul>
  36. 36. References & Resources <ul><li>Newman, M. & Workmapper Team. (2008). Cartogram: HIV Deaths. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Public Broadcasting System (2006). PBS Frontline program: World of AIDS. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS (2008). 2008 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. WWW URL:, 2008 Global Report </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS (2005). AIDS epidemic update: December 2005. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS (2008). Wallchart: A global view of HIV infection. WWW URL: </li></ul>
  37. 37. References & Resources <ul><li>UNAIDS (1999) UNAIDS Report. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS (1999) UNAIDS Report. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Waweru, L. 2008. Map o f HIV prevalence in Africa. Wikipedia. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia. (2008). AIDS Pandemic. WWW URL: </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia (2008). AIDS. WWW URL: Retrieved December 12, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia (2008). Cartogram. WWW URL: Retrieved December 12, 2008. </li></ul>