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Rainwater Harvesting.ppt

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Rainwater Harvesting.ppt

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Rainwater Harvesting method,Over 70% of our Earth's surface is covered by water
More than 97% of Earth’s water is in the oceans, 2% is in ice and glaciers- (Both are unsuitable for human use because of Salinity (Ocean Water) and location (ice caps and glaciers)
The total amount of water for which all the people, plants and animals on Earth compete is much less than 1% of the total
Rainwater harvesting- Alternative water source- Technology used for collecting and storing rainwater for human use from rooftops, land surfaces
Decentralised system – Installed in houses, Institutions, community

Rainwater Harvesting method,Over 70% of our Earth's surface is covered by water
More than 97% of Earth’s water is in the oceans, 2% is in ice and glaciers- (Both are unsuitable for human use because of Salinity (Ocean Water) and location (ice caps and glaciers)
The total amount of water for which all the people, plants and animals on Earth compete is much less than 1% of the total
Rainwater harvesting- Alternative water source- Technology used for collecting and storing rainwater for human use from rooftops, land surfaces
Decentralised system – Installed in houses, Institutions, community

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Rainwater Harvesting.ppt

  1. 1. 2111 2005 Rainwater harvesting
  2. 2. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Total World Water Supply Location Water Volume (km3) % of Total Water Oceans 1,230,000,000 97.17 Ice caps and glaciers 28,600,000 2.5 Atmosphere 12,700 0.001 Rivers and Streams 1,200 0.0001 Lakes (Fresh water) 123,000 0.009 Groundwater (Shallow to depth of 0.8 km) 4,000,000 0.31 Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences  Over 70% of our Earth's surface is covered by water  More than 97% of Earth’s water is in the oceans, 2% is in ice and glaciers- (Both are unsuitable for human use because of Salinity (Ocean Water) and location (ice caps and glaciers)  The total amount of water for which all the people, plants and animals on Earth compete is much less than 1% of the total
  3. 3. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences 1- Precipitation 2- Infiltration- contributes Ground water sources 3- Transpiration 4- Surface runoff – contributes to surface water sources 5- Evaporation 6 - Condensation The Water Cycle
  4. 4. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Rainwater harvesting- Alternative water source  Technology used for collecting and storing rainwater for human use from rooftops, land surfaces  Decentralised system – Installed in houses, Institutions, community Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  5. 5. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Where rainwater harvesting is particularly attractive ? – Rural area with no surface water sources – Supply from surface and groundwater sources cannot meet the water demand (Urban area) – Groundwater contaminated with Arsenic – Household do not have capacity to pay for centralised water supply system Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  6. 6. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Benefit of Rainwater harvesting Has multiple uses- – Domestic consumption – toilet flushing, sprinkling, – ground water recharge, – reduces urban storm runoff and associate flooding and errosion Low maintenance Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  7. 7. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Component of Rainwater harvesting Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  8. 8. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Typical Domestic Rainwater Harvesting System Source: http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/DTU/rainwaterharvesting/index.html Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  9. 9. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 9 Ground Catchment System Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  10. 10. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 10 Ground Catchment System Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  11. 11. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Typical Domestic Rainwater Harvesting System Source: http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/DTU/rainwaterharvesting/index.html Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  12. 12. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Conveyance Gutters and Downspouts Gutters are installed to capture rainwater running off the eaves of a building. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences Semi-circular gutters of PVC material
  13. 13. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Storage Storage tank, acts to flatten out any fluctuation in rainfall and usage allowing water use to be, to a greater or lesser extent, independent of rainfall. Types – Ferrocement tank - cement-rich mortar reinforced with layers of wire mesh, – Fiberglass Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  14. 14. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Storage Tanks Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences PVC Concrete tanks
  15. 15. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Sizing of storage tank Demand side approach A very simple method is to calculate the largest storage requirement based on the consumption rates and occupancy of the building. – Consumption per capita per day, C – 20 litres – Number of people per household, n – 6 – Longest average dry period – 25 days Storage requirement = C x n x 25 = 3000 litres Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  16. 16. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Quality of rainwater The quality of rainwater is relatively good but it is not free from all impurities. Depends upont type and condition of the catchments and the storage tank Dust from the soil, and droppings of birds and animals could be the source of contamination by the bacteria. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  17. 17. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Method to enhance quality The first run off from the roof should be discarded to prevent entry of impurities from the roof.  In case of difficulties in the rejection of first flow- Clean the roof and gutter at the beginning of the rainy season Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  18. 18. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Method to enhance quality Cleanliness of roof and storage tank is critical in maintaining good quality of rainwater. The storage tank requires cleaning and disinfection when the tank is empty or at least once in a year. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  19. 19. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 19 Source: http://www.rainharvesting.com.au Leaf Eater®/Leaf Beater®/Leaf Catcha®
  20. 20. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no Disinfecting Rainwater Rainwater can be used for drinking, if it is clear, has no or very little taste or smell and is from well maintained system Rainwater may not meet WHO drinking water quality standards, specifically microbiological quality standards, hence some disinfection is recommended. Disinfection can be done by: – boiling the water in before consumption – adding chlorine compounds/bleaching powder in required quantity to the water stored in the tank. – using slow sand filtration – solar disinfection (SODIS) Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  21. 21. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 21 Rainwater Harvesting from Domed Stadium in Japan Source: Zaizen et al. (1999) Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  22. 22. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 22  Rainwater Harvesting and Utilization. An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management: An Introductory Guide for Decision-Makers. IETC-UNEP, Japan.  Rainwater catchment systems for Household Water Supply (1991). Environmental Sanitation Reviews No No 32. ENSIC, Bangkok, Thailand.  UNEP-IETC (1999) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Efficient Water Use in Urban Areas - Innovative Ways of Finding Water for Cities. (8 to 10 June 1999), Kobe, Japan.  Gould, J. and Nissen-Petersen, E. (1999) Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply. IT Publications, London  Hasse, R. (1989) Rainwater Reservoirs- Above Ground Structures for Roof Catchment. GTZ.  NGO Forum and SDC (2001) Rain Water Harvesting System. NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation and SDC, Bangladesh. Bibliography Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  23. 23. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 23  International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/  American Rainwater Catchment Association http://www.arcsa-usa.org/  Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), India http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org  Development Technology Unit, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, UK http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/DTU/rwh/index.html  Chennai Metrowater, India http://www.chennaimetrowater.com/rainwaterfaqs.htm  Rainwater Partnership http://www.rainwaterpartnership.org/ Web Resources on RWH (1) Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
  24. 24. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES www.umb.no 24  Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum http://www.rainwaterharvesting.com  International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance http://www.irha-h2o.org/  Greater Horn of Africa Rainwater Partnership (GHARP) http://www.gharainwater.org/  The Web of Rain http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/rainwater/rain-web.html Web Resources on RWH (2) Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences

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